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REGULATION  2.— This  is  a  Reference,  and  not 
a  Circulating  Library,  and  no  Book,  Paper  or  other  prop- 
erty thereof  shall  be  taken  from  the  Masonic  Rooms. 



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S:  it  aRMLMT  aTMMMT. 

186  7. 


Index  to  Volume  II. 


AeaeU         ......... 

▲ddrtM  of  6«a  B.  Bnsworth,  W.  M.  of  AaUw  Lodge,  No.  91 
Addreu  <A  M.  E.  Michael  Shoemaker,  0.  H.  P.     . 
AJlegtanoe,  Tme  to  fte         . 
Amerlean  Adoptive  Rite  ...... 

A  Moral  ...... 

Anoleot  and  Aoeepted  Rite      . 

A  New  Qoallfieatlon  ...... 

AppttoKDtfl,  Releetod       ....... 

Aahlar  Ijodge,  OonatUotlon  and  Cooaeorafeion  of 

AaUar  (The)  — Paet,  Preeeot.  and  Future    .  .  .  . 

Attack  and  Befenite  ....... 

A  Wooiao*«  Thoafchte  on  Maaonry     .  .  .  .  . 

BiJlot,  Secrecy  of  the 
Banquet  at  Hartford 
Bigotry  in  Maaonry 
Brown,  Bro.  Ohapel  W. 

80,  102 


.     522 


OaJdwell,  James  D.  .  .  .  .  . 

California,  Masonry  in  ....  . 

Canada,  Independent  Grand  Lodge  of 

Canada,  Independent  Grand  Lodge  of,  and  Grand  I»lg<p 

Canada^  Proceedings  of  New  Grand  Lodge  of 

Canadian  Provisoes,  Masonry  in   .  . 

Candidates,  Proficiency  cA         .  .  .  ^ 

Candidates,  Ballottng  for  In  Chapters 

CarieUNi,  Death  of  Bro.  Israel* 

Case,  Letter  fh>m  Bro.  Lewis        .... 

Oaswall,  Bro.  D 

Centennial  Oelehration  at  Providence,  &.  L      . 
Ctapman,  Bra  H.  Clay  (Ofaitnary)    . 
chapter,  PaninsiMWf  N'o.  16  .... 

Chapter  of  Michigan,  Proceedings  nA  the  Grand  . 

of  Distrlft 

140,  186 
of  Columbia       75 


Ihdsx  to  Volums  II. 

Ohstfald,  Our  Late  Bn.  CO. 

Oh1o«so  UnlTsnlty)  Lajlag  the  Fo«ndatl(m  Stoie  of 

Oollega,  HMonie  Female  ...... 

OongreflB,  UniTpnal  MmodIc  ..... 

Conneetiont,  Orand  Chapter  of  ....  . 

Cook,  Death  of  Bro.  J.  V 

Correepondeiioe,  Iowa   ....... 

Ciu(om«  aod  I^geDds.— Bxtraot  traax  Bevalations  of  a  Square 


408,  488.  4» 



Death— The  Allegory 

Dedieation  of  Lodges     . 

Degrees,  The  SymhoUo 

Detroit,  Offloers  of  MmodIc  Bodies  in 

Dtonysiaa  Mysteries  . 

Does,  Piinishmeot  for  NoD-payment  of 

Dotlea,  Masonic 

42,  88,  186,  180,  181,  226,  872»  864,  411,  467 




Bdltortal  Correspondenee 

Editor's  Table 

Bncampmeat,  Oeoeral  Grand  . 

Bncoorsge  Those  who  Labor 

England,  Grand  Lodge  of         .  .  . 

England,  Grand  Lodge  of,  and  Craft  In  Canada 

England,  Grand  T^odge  of—  Power  of  G.  M. 

Ensworth,  Address  of  Geo.  B.       .  . 

Expelled      ...... 

Expulsions,  Pablishing  Kotloes  of 

.  28,  80,  206.  246,  801,  408,  440,  406,  618 
4a,  00,  187,  182,  228,  27S,  820,  800.  412,  468,  606,  668 





88,  868,  468,  602,  662 


Feast,  The  Annual  .... 

Franklin  Statue,  Insagufation  of  . 


Freemasonry  and  the  .Archbishop  of  Dublin 

Freemasonry,  MltohelPe  History  of    . 

.  810 

110,  160,  200 



.  183 

General  Grand  Bodies     ..... 

General  Grand  Encampment  .... 

General  Grand  Chapter,  Proceedings  of 

General  Grand  High  Priest,  Authority  of 

Geographical  Jnriedlctiou  of  Lodges 

Grand  Gounoil  of  Royal  and  Select  Masons  of  Ohio 

Grand  Lodge.  Requirements  of  .  .  . 

Grand  Lodge  of  TllinoU      ..... 

Gnnd  Ixidge  of  Illinois,  Extract  from  Oration  by  Bro 
Grand  Lodge  of  Michigan  ..... 

Grand  Lodge  of  MassachusettM  .  .  .  .  , 

Grand  Lodge  of  New  York  —  Articles  of  Union  Rejected.  Ox. 
Chrand  Lodge  of  Ohio     ....... 

Grand  Master  —  His  Power  ..... 

Chave,  The  ......... 

Guard  the  Entrance  ....... 


A.  Johnson, 


116,  280 

.  386 

.  173 

.  648 
221,  267 

.  308 

.  316 

.  270 

IVDBX    TO  V0I.UMK    II. 


IfeUta  In  tlM  Lodge  — UMtofTolMeeo  .411 

Butfbrd,  llMontc  Banqvei  at 64 

HmM,  Bra  John  T. 466 

HooM  not  Bnllt  with  Huid« 461 

IIUools,  Or»nd  Lodge  of            ...          . 

■                   • 

.     316 

Impoeten         ...           ... 



Inauguration  of  the  Ftanklin  Statute 

•                    • 

lie.  166.  900 

Indiana,  Grand  Ijodge          .... 

•                    ■ 


Initiation.  Diiquallfieationa  for           ... 

•                   • 


Initiation  of  the  King  of  the  Sandwioh  Islands 

•                    • 


Initiation,  Otjeotion  to 

•                   • 

.     646 

Iowa  Correepondence           .... 

•                   • 


Iowa,  Grand  Lodge  of    . 

.     666 


Jnriedlction.  FenaL  of  Lodsee  .... 



Kane,  Arctic  Expedition  of  Bro. 

,                    « 

.    m 

Kane,  Death  of  Dr.  ..... 


•                      •                      •                      WV0 

Kane,  Monument  to  Dr. 

•                    ■ 


Kane,  Our  Bro.           ..... 

,                    . 

■                ■                •                vvw 

Kntghte  Templan,  fiiitory  of  the  Order  of 



Knights  Templars  in  PennsylTania 

•                    • 



Leoturers,  Itinerant         ..... 

,                   _ 

.      124 

Ibee,  The  late  Bro.  B.  Smith 


Liberty  of  Security  as  Uasonioally  understood 

•                   • 



Lodges,  Dedication  of          ...          . 

■                    • 


Lodges,  Master  of- Who  eligible 

•                    » 


Lodges,  Jurisdiction  ..... 

•                   • 

.   8»,  880 

Lottery,  Masonic    ...... 

»                    • 

07,  180 


Maine,  Grand  Kncampment  of            .           .           . 

•                    • 

.      176 

Maine,  Grand  Lodge  of       . 



"     .     "     . 

•                        •                        •                        *^W> 



•                   ■ 

.    80,  UO,  236,  310.  364 

Masons,  Distinguished     ..... 

•                   ■ 

.     101 

Masons,  Death  of  Distinguished— Dr.  Kane  and  A. 

P.  Pflster 


Masonry  in  Turkey          ..... 

,                      . 

.     166 

Masons  in  Turkey      ..... 

■                       « 


Masonic  Duties 

■                      4 

.     104 

Maaonie  History 

•                      • 


Masonic  Hobbies   ...... 

•                      • 


Masonic  Trials 



Masonry,  Antiquity  of    . 

.                      « 


Masonry  and  Politics           .... 

,                      , 


Masonry,  Defense  of       ....          . 

•                      ■ 

.      120 

Masonry— Does  it  Shield  the  Guilty? 

•                      • 



IlTDKX    TO  VOLUlfB    II 

lfMoiii7—H«r  IDvfltrloat  Ifuam 

IfMonry  In  OalHbml* 

Idaonry  In  Qrest  Britain 

ICaflonry  in  Midhlgui 

IfMonry  in  Sootb  OaroUn* 

ICMonry— Ita  BeneflU 

Maaoarj^lU  PrcMperity 

Mttonry,  Origin  of    . 

ICnaonry,  Prinolpln  of    .     .    . 

ICMonry— What  la  It  doing  fbr  IntaUaotnal 

Mason  under  Charges— Hla  Rights 

Ifassachosetts  Grand  Lodge 

Monro,  M.  W.  Oea  0.     ■ 

Progress f 

Ptige  9n 


.   an 

at,  77,  Its,  SIB 






If  arrow  Rseafke— Oonrtesfea  to  a  Broi  In  a  Fordirn  Land 
New  York,  Dlffloultlea  in         ....  . 

Kew  York,  Orand  Chapter  ei       .  .  .  . 

New  York,  Proposed  Union  In  ...  . 

Noble,  Death  of  Oharlea  B.  .  .  . 


4ii,  4<a 

OAoers  of  Lodge 
Ohio,  Orand  Lodge  of 

M,  UA,  M4«  506 


PennsylTanla,  Orand  Lodge  of 

Pennsylvania,  Knights  Templars  In 

Peninsular  Chapter,  No.  16^  of  R. 


Porn,  Grand  Orient  of    . 

Petition,  Presentation  of 

PAster,  Death  of  A.  P.   . 

Pillars,  The  two  Brasen 

Pomr : 

A  Flight    .... 

Alone    .... 

Alone         .... 



Funeral  of  Old  Mister  Orey 

Hope  .62 

Infancy  and  Growth  of  Masonle 

Sofonoe  .76 

Kind  Words  .  .  .  84S 

Lamentation  for  Hiram  147 

Masonic  Ode  ...  467 

Principles  of  Masonry    . 

Proficiency  of  Candidates    . 

Progress  of  Life    .... 

Proposed  Union  in  New  York 

Proscription  .... 

Pythagoras        .... 

A.  Maaoni 





Memories  of  Home    . 

Mortal  Flowers 


Sad  Hours  . 

Sorrow  and  Consolation 

Thanks  to  the  Deity 

The  Beggar  Girl 

The  Bed  Cross  Knights 

The  Grave  in  the  Wildwood 

The  Trial    . 

True  Frlendu   . 


















Rejected  Applicants  . 

BevelatiooB  of  a  Square,  Bjctraots  from 




VOL.Tr.    DETROIT,  SEPTEMBER,  1856,        KO.I. 

Tbe  most  exalted  tbeme  tliat  oao  engaga  our  attentioii,  is  the  con- 
dition of  homan  nature. 

"The  noblest  atndj  of  mtukind  is  mui" — 
a  Htad;  tbat  lias  taxed  the  intelleota  of  philosophers  for  thoasands  of 
;ean,  and  jet  presents  a  vast  field  for  reaearoh,  which  is  oneTplored. 
It  is  a  lamentable  foot,  the  oaiises  of  vhioh  we  need  not  disouss,  that 
in  every  country  and  every  state  of  society  thtoagbont  the  world,  an 
immense  amount  of  crime  and  miseiy  exists.  The  seeds  of  sin  are 
daily  sown  and  are  constantly  springing  np  and  bringing  forth  fhiits 
of  sorrow  and  angaish.  Man  wars  against  his  brother-man,  and  the 
indiridnal  is  too  often  gaided  by  his  own  selfish  interests,  however 
great  may  be  the  injastice  done  to  others.  Snch  is  the  oondltion  of 
human  nature  after  centuries  of  progress  and  improvement 

It  is  now  establidied  by  experience  beyond  dispnte,  that  manUnd 
cannot  advance  in  oiviliiation,  in  intelligence  and  goodness  to  any 
considerable  degree  without  the  ud  of  some  Und  of  government. 
1 — vot~  n.  NO.  I. 

^  THE    ASHLAR. 

Hence,  for  the  accomplisbment  of  almost  all  purposes,  men  in  civilized' 
countries  combine  and  form  societies.  In  our  own  land,  they  are 
numerous.  They  concentrate  action  and  cause  the  views  of  the  ma- 
jority to  control  and  regulate  the  conduct  of  individuals  who  might 
otherwise  exert  little  influence  for  good.  Governments  and  societies 
are  necessary  helps  to  improve  man;  they  are  necessary  helps  to 
make  him  more  intelligent  and  morally  better.  As  their  true  object 
is  to  combine  his  efforts  for  the  promotion  of  worthy  aims,  and  to  pre- 
vent his  interests  clashing  with  those  of  his  neighbor,  there  has  arisen 
the  maxim,  *^  that  government  is  best  which  governs  least" — which 
restrains  the  individual  as  far  only  as  is  necessary  for  the  public  good. 
We  need  not  say  that  this  is  generally  advocated  by  the  citizens  of 
our  Republic. 

Of  all  human  establishments  intended  to  promote  the  welfare  and 
happiness  of  our  race,  the  institution  of  Masonry  stands  pre-eminent. 
Considering  the  end  for  which  it  is  designed,  it  is  more  faultless  than 
any  other  organization.  One  great  evidence  of  this  is  its  existence 
to-day,  after  having  been  subjected  to  every  vicissitude  which  time 
and  opposition  could  create.  Age  is  cited  to  prove  the  purity  of 
political  governments  and  ecclesiastical  societies ;  with  what  propriety 
and  force,  then,  may  it  be  adduced  in  favor  of  our  Order  1  Indivi- 
duals differ  as  to  its  origin ;  while  some  gaze  through  the  long  vista 
of  ages  and  trace  its  history  beyond  the  temple  of  Solomon,  each 
one  can  behold  it  extending  back  for  centuries  till  it  gradually  dis- 
appears, as  it  were,  in  the  mist  of  time.  It  is  generally  admitted  that 
Masonry  has  come  down  to  us  from  remote  ages,  having  withstood 
every  opposition  and  persecution  from  that  of  popes  and  princes  to 
that  of  an  indignant  people  in  this  land  of  liberty — ^having  "  survived 
the  lapse  of  time,  the  ruthless  hand  of  ignorance  and  the  devastations 
of  war."  More  conclusive  evidence  could  not  be  adduced  to  refute 
the  arguments  of  our  opponents.  But  we  have  not  said  all— our  In* 
stitution  does  not  found  her  claims  on  a  negative  character.  Masonry 
has  not  merdy  out-lived  the  most  powerful  dynasties  and  the  most 
distinguished  nations  of  the  earth ;  she  has  not  merely  survived  the 
most  stupendous  works  of  art,  reared  by  the  utmost  exertions  of  human 
genius  and  intended  to  endure  for  ages  yet  to  come ;  she  has  done 
far  piore ; — she  has  left  her  foot  prints  bright  and  enduring  on  many 
ages ;  she  has  left  behind  her  a  glorious  history,  whose  every  page  is 
emblazoned  with  deeds  of  charity  and  brotherly  love ;  she  has  followed 
in  the  bloody  path  of  unrelenting  war,  and  like  a  good  angel  adminis- 
tered comfort  and  consolation  to  the  widow  and  orphan;  she  has 


"dwelt  alike  in  the  palaces  of  royalty  and  the  hnts  of  poverty,  alleriat- 
ing  the  distresses  of  their  inmates  and  teaching  them  prinoiples  of 
the  purest  morality ;  she  has  gone  heyond  the  sphere  of  refinement 
and  plenty,  and,  like  the  pioneer  with  the  bible  in  one  hand  and  the 
olive  branch  in  the  other,  she  has  been  the  first  to  plant  her  foot 
among  the  rude  and  barbarous,  irradiating  the  darkness  of  ignorance 
and  bigotry,  and  scattering  in  her  path--«s  it  were  brilliant  a&d 
priceless  gems-^the  thousand  virtues  whieh  ennoble  and  purify  nuuk 
Such  is  the  ohfiracter  of  our  time-honored  society  in  the  fifty-seventh 
year  of  the  nineteenth  century.  In  comparison  with  it,  all  other  in* 
stitutions  are  short-lived  and  fleeting ;  it  alone  stands  a  relic  of  the 
J  past,  possessing  the  vi{;^or  and  freshness  of  youth  and  adapted  to  all  times 
and  every  people.  Its  good  work  is  not  finished,  and  will  not  be  till 
the  predicted  millennium  shall  arrive,  or  time  shall  be  no  more.  As 
long  as  the  human  race  exists  and  is  subject  to  the  influences  of  its 
present  impulses  and  passions,  so  long  will  Masonry  continue  to  shed 
her  rays  of  peace  and  comfort  among  mankind* 

Leaving  the  individual,  as  a  general  rule,  free  to  adopt  such  politi- 
cal, theological  or  sociu  views  as  he  may  deem  best,  Masonry  im- 
presses upon  his  mind  those  great  truths  which  find  a  ready  response 
in  the  hearts  of  all  good  persons.  Bringing  together  under  such 
influences  **men  of  every  country,  sect  and  opinion,"  it  causes 
them  to  mingle  as  brothers.  What  other  institution  presents  such  a 
spectacle  er  such  results  1  Not  one.  It  cannot  fail  to  be  obvious  to 
the  most  cursory  observer,  whose  mind  is  free  from  bias,  that  Mason- 
ry has  done,  and  is  doing,  much  to  preserve  peace  among  nations,  to 
subduo  passions,  and  insure  tranquility  among  men  of  the  same  country 
and  community:  Such  an  influence,  she  exerts  without  interfering 
with  the  duty  which  any  member  owes  to  his  God,  his  country,  his 
neighbor,  his  family  or  himself.  In  this  respect,  then,  we  claim  that 
she  has  conferred  priceless  blessings  on  our  race,  which  should  entitle 
her  to  everlasting  praise. 

We  have  not  space,  nor  is  it  necessary,  to  dwell  upon  the  silent 
and  unseen  influences  which  our  Institution  constantly  exercises  for 
the  benefit  of  mankind.  On  those  who  enter  her  portals,  she  throws 
a  brilliant  and  life-giving  light.  On  their  minds,  she  forcibly  im- 
presses the  great  moral  truths  which  seldom  fail  to  guide  their  steps. 
It  is  folly  to  claim  that  the  mere  fact  of  passing  through  the  forms 
and  ceremonies  of  our  Order,  makes  a  man  morally  a  Mason.  This  we 
do  not  claim ;  we  do  however  believe  and  assert,  that  but  few  who  be- 
long to  the  Institution  and  visit  Lodge  meetings,  are  not  thereby  made 

4  THE    ASHLAB. 

better  than  they  otherwise  would  be.  As  indiyiduals  differ  in  worth 
among  the  profane,  so  do  they  among  the  initiated.  The  Institution 
numbers  among  its  members  some  who  are  far  from  being  its  orna- 
ments. By  suoh,  it  is  wrong  to  judge  Masonry.  They  may  be  im- 
proved, and  generally  are,  by  their  connection  with  the  Order.  Do 
you  condemn  a  religious  sect  or  a  church,  merely  because  some  of  its 
members  are  not,  in  your  estimation,  worthy  persons,  and  do  not  live 
up  to  the  principles  which  they  profess  ?  The  truth  is, "  human  nature  is 
nature;"  it  can  be  improved,  but  seldom,  if  eyer, perfeetecL  The  in- 
culcation of  the  principles  of  our  Institution,  which  Wikshington  de- 
clared to  be  "  founded  in  the  immutable  laws  of  truth  and  justice,'' 
tends  to  guide  the  best  men  into  paths  of  righteousness  and  peace, 
and  to  correct  the  errors  and  foibles  of  those  who  are  prone  to  go 
astray.  As  a  moral  teacher  and  a  school  of  science,  Freemasonry 
deserves  the  gratitude  and  reverence  of  its  devotees. 

Of  the  social  benefits  conferred  by  our  society,  its  influence  in 
allaying  discord,  in  stifling  and  eradicating  bad  passions,  in  causing 
men  to  meet  on  a  common  platform  in  the  bonds  of  friendship  and 
brotherly  love — none  but  its  members  can  have  more  than  a  faint 
idea.  Its  power  in  this  respect  has  always  been  underrated  by  the 
uninitiated.  The  Institution  levels  all  distinctions  between  man  and 
man.  "  Freemasonry,"  says  another,  '*  regards  no  man  for  his  worldly 
wealth  or  riches.  It  is,  therefore,  the  internal,  and  not  the  external, 
qualifications  which  we  cherish  and  admire.  The  hand  that  grasps  a 
spade,  and  the  hand  that  wields  a  sceptre,  are  equally  entitled  to  our 
friendly  grip.  No  matter  whether  an  African  or  an  Indian  sun  may 
have  burned  upon  him ;  no  matter  in  what  disastrous  battle  his  liber- 
ties may  have  been  cloven  down ;  no  matter  if,  like  Lasarus,  he  has 
lain  at  the  rich  man's  gate  and  the  dogs  have  licked  his  sores — the 
moment  he  enters  a  Lodge  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  the  dis- 
tinctions of  wealth,  of  rank,  of  power  flee  before  him,  and  he  finds 
himself  among  friends  and  Brothers,  ready  to  assist,  defend  and  pro- 
tect him." 

Do  you  ask  for  instances  of  the  practical  benefits  of  Masoniy? 
Turn  over  the  records  of  the  past — trace  the  history  of  nations, to  its 
origin ;  do  you  find  thrilling  accounts  of  virtuous  actions,  of  heroic 
deeds  that  make  you  prouder  of  your  manhood  %  There  you  find  the 
evidences  which  you  seek. 

It  is  by  an  universal  language  spoken  and  understood  by  Brethren 
of  every  dialect,  that  Masonry  often  confers  lasting  benefits.  An 
iUustration  of  this  fact  may  be  found  in  the  following  account  given 

THB    ASHLAB.  5 

by  lamUionB,  of  the  means  of  oommnnioation  praetibed  unong  the 
disciples  of  Pythagoras : 

One  of  the  Fraternity,  travelling  on  foot,  lost  his  way  in  a  desert, 
and  arrivmg,  exhausted  with  fatigae,  at  an  inn,  he  fell  seriously  in- 
disposed. When  at  the  point  of  death,  nnable  to  recompense  the 
care  and  kindness  with  which  he  had  been  treated,  he  traced  some 
aymbolical  marks,  with  a  trembling  hand,  on  a  tablet,  which  he  di- 
rected to  be  exposed  to  view  on  the  public  road.  A  long  time  after, 
chance  brought  to  these  remote  places,  a  disciple  of  Pythagoras,  who, 
informed  by  the  enigmatical  characters  he  saw  before  him,  of  the 
misfortunes  of  the  first  traveller,  stopped — ^paid  the  innkeeper  the 
expenses  he  had  been  at,  with  interest,  and  then  continued  his  journey. 

We  need  not  seek  far  in  modem  times  for  illustrious  examples  of 
fidelity  to  Masonic  obligations,  which  has  "  converted  the  up-lifted 
tomahawk's  sanguinary  blow  into  a  fraternal  embrace,'*  which  has 
*^  unnerved  the  warrior's  arm  on  the  shores  of  our  inland  seas,"  and 
caused  the  bloody  and  hardened  pirate  to  pause  in  his  work  of  human 
butchery,  and  spare  the  life  of  his  fellow-man.  Tecumseh,  in  the 
midst  of  the  horrors  of  the  bloody  battle,  when  his  wild  and  untame- 
able  nature  is  excited  apparently  beyond  control,  reads  the  mystic 
language,  and  at  the  risk  of  personal  injury,  stays  the  blow  directed 
at  a  fallen  enemy  whom  he  recognizes  as  a  Brother.  The  savage 
Brandt,  amid  his  wild  and  ferocious  tribe,  with  the  fierceness  and 
deep-seated  hate  peculiar  to  the  Indian  character,  heaps  upon  the 
pile,  the  fagots  which  are  to  consign  to  an  ignominious  death  the 
brave  and  noble-hearted  McKinstry  who  fought  the  battles  of  our 
country's  revolution.  There  stands  the  victim — ^a  man  of  athletic 
frame— bound  hand  and  foot — helpless  as  a  child — amid  the  yelk  of 
the  infioEriated  savages.  The  pile  is  completed — ^the  torch  is  to  be 
applied — one  instant  more,  and  no  power  can  save.  As  the  last — the 
only — ^hope,  the  mystic  appeal  is  given.  What  magic  does  it  possess? 
The  warrior  Brandt  is  converted  into  an  angel  of  peace,  and,  at  the 
risk  of  his  own  life,  he  rescues  his  Brother.  More  striking  and  im- 
pressive is  the  preservation  of  Capt.  Harris  when  captured  by  the 
pirates.  From  an  American  port,  puts  forth  a  neat  and  comely  brig 
for  foreign  lands.  Favorable  breeses  waft  her  over  the  ocean,  and 
she  nears  her  destined  haven.  Who  can  foresee  when  the  pleasures 
of  hope  are  to  be  blighted  ?  At  nightfall,  the  blithsome  crew  behold 
in  the  distance  the  dread  harbinger  <>f  ill — a  low,  black  hulk.  Ef- 
forts are  made  to  escape,  but  they  are  made  in  vain — the  brig  and 
her  hardy  seamen  are  the  prize  of  the  pirate  Gibbs  and  his  hardened 
and  demoralized  band.    To  prevent  the  communication  of  any  intel- 

6  THE    ASHLAR. 

ligenoe,  the  desperadoes  at  once  decide  that  their  innocent  prison* 
ers  shall  die.  "  Dead  men  tell  no  tales.*^  There  is  no  delay — the 
horrid  work  of  death  commences.  Calmly  and  coolly  Cajjt.  Harris 
sees  his  faithful  men  led  forth — one  after  another — and  foully  mur- 
dered in  cold  hlood,  till  his  heart  sickens.  Kecollections  of  home 
— of  a  loving  and  beloved  wife— of  precious  children — crowd  upon 
him,  and  an  unutterable  anguish  fills  his  soul.  Is  there  no  means  of 
escape — no  hope  ?  Alas  !  none.  His  turn  has  come — he  obeys  the 
awful  mandate  and  steps  forward  amid  the  blood  and  gore  of  his 
murdered  companions,  with  a  feeling  of  despair.  One  moment 
more,  and  the  instrument  of  death  will  do  its  work.  In  that  trying 
instant,  the  thought  of  the  mystic  appeal  comes  over  his  mind  like 
a  ray  of  hope — 'tis  given — and  not  in  vain.  The  hard-hearted, 
soul-calloused  Gibbs  reads  the  language — ^he  pauses — his  manhood 
returns — the  work  of  death  is  stayed — and  his  Brother  is  soon  set  at 
liberty,  and  on  his  way  to  his  family  to  live  many  years  in  peace  and 
happiness.  It  is  but  a  few  months  since  he  died  within  the  limits  of 
Michigan,  where  he  had  resided  since  eighteen  hundred  thirty. 

Such  are  but  a  few  of  the  instances  which  can  be  cited,  illustrating 
the  practical  usefulness  of  Masonry.  Cases  less  striking  occur  al- 
most every  day.  Are  life  and  liberty  valuable  to  you  ?  None  can 
tell  how  often,  and  under  what  circumstances,  you  may  be  able  to 
preserve  them  by  the  aid  of  our  ancient  art 

To  those  within  its  pale,  the  benefits  conferred  by  our  ancient  and 
time-honored  Institution  are  apparent.  Their  record,  stretching  back 
to  remote  times,  adorns  the  pages  of  history,  and,  with  a  knowledge 
of  our  principles,  should  be  sufficient  to  convince  the  most  skeptical 
of  the  value  and  usefulness  of  Masonry.  To-day,  our  Order,  which 
has  been  the  means  of  alleviating  the  distresses  of  mankind  and 
promoting  their  happiness  from  time  immemorial,  flourishes  beneath 
the  smiles  of  popular  favor.  Brethren,  what  a  sacred  trust  have  you 
to  guard  !  Are  you  faithful  to  that  trust  7  Do  you  regard  it  as  a 
priceless  legacy,  and  are  your  best  endeavors  made  to  transmit  it  un- 
impared  to  those  who  shall  come  after  you  ?  If  her  members  are 
true  to  their  professions  and  obligation,  Masonry  can  suffer  no  ma- 
terial check ;  her  course,  as  in  the  past,  will  in  the  future,  be  on- 
ward and  upward,  till  all  disinterested  lovers  of  religion  and  virtue 
shall  look  upon  her  and  bless  her — aye,  shall  salute  her  in  the  words 
of  the  poet: 


Hail  to  the  OnSt,  at  wlioee  ierere  oomiuttuU 
The  gentle  arts  in  glad  obedience  stand ; 
Hail  sacred  Masonrj  I  of  source  divine. 
Unerring  sovereign  of  the  unerring  line ; 
"Whose  plurab  of  truth,  with  never-failing  sway. 
Makes  the  joined  hearts  of  STmoietry  ohdj ; 
Whose  magic  stroke  bids  fell  confusion  cease. 
And  to  the  finished  orders  gives  a  place  ; 
Who  calls  vast  structures  from  the  wumb  of  earth. 
And  gives  imperial  cities  glorious  birth. 
To  works  of  art,  her  merit  not  confined. 
She  regulates  the  morals*  squares  the  mind ; 
Corrects  with  care  the  sallies  of  the  soul. 
And  points  the  tide  of  passions  where  to  roll. 


A  oorrespondent  thas  writes  of  the  condition  of  the  Masonic  Order 
in  the  State  of  California  to  the  Mirror  Sf  Keystone : 

Auburn,  May  18th,  1866. 

My  Dear  Brother: — ^The  Grand  Lodge  of  California  held  its 
sixth  annual  oommunioation  in  the  city  of  Sacramento.  It  commenced 
its  session  on  the  6th  of  May  and  adjonmed  on  the  13th.  Upward 
of  fifty  subordinate  Lodges  were  represented.  The  utmost  harmony 
and  good  feeling  prevailed,  although  there  were  several  subjects  be- 
fore  the  Grand  Lodge  calculated  to  create  sectional  feelings,  among 
which  was  the  Question  of  the  permanent  location  of  the  Grand  Lodge, 
which  was  deciaed  in  favor  of  Sacramento  City.  I  am  unable  to  give 
you  a  synopsis  of  the  proceedings,  but  will  forward  you  printed  copies 
at  the  earliest  moment  The  address  of  the  Grand  Master  and  re- 
port of  the  Committee  on  Foreign  Correspondence  being  printed,  I 
forward  copies  of  those  by  the  present  mail  The  growth  of  Free- 
masonry in  this  golden  country  is  really  astonishing,  and  the  people 
of  the  Atlantic  States  would  hardly  credit  that  the  Institution  is  more 
safely  guarded  here  than  it  is  in  most  other  places,  yet  such  is  the  fact 

The  man  who  passes  the  outer  gate  of  the  Temple,  must  be  of  good 
report^  of  unblemished  character,  and  as  the  people  never  do  anything 
by  halves,  the  character  of  applicants  is  fully  sifted,  and  not  until  the 
committee  are  fairly  satisfied,  will  they  report  The  Craft,  too,  are 
generally  well  acquainted  with  Masonic  history  and  jurisprudence,  as 
they  are  mostly  well  read  Masons;  indeed,  in  this  particular  they 
would  put  to  the  blush  many  of  the  prominent  members  of  the  Fra- 
ternity in  the  older  States.  The  Masons  in  any  of  the  small  towns 
where  there  is  a  Lodge,  are  better  informed  on  Masonic  subjects 
than  the  great  bodies  of  the  Empire  City  or  the  city  of  Brotherly 
Love.  This  is  a  country  of  enquiry,  the  mind  is  active,  and  it  will 
have  food  to  satisfy  its  cravings. 

I  enclose  you  a  list  of  the  officers  of  the  Grand  Lodge  who  were 
elected  on  the  fourth  day  of  the  session. 

Your  devoted  brother  Mosbs  HnnoiAii; 

8  THE    ASHLAB. 


From  the  drear,  the  misty  darkneaiy 

Of  the  night  in  irhich  I  etand. 
Listening  to  the  pattering  raindrops, 

Making  mnsic  thromgh  the  land, — 

Gomes  a  voice,  whose  myBtie  meaning 

Strikes  my  heart  with  awe  and  pain; 
For  I  know  the  light  that  glimmen 

On  mj  path  sh^  fade  again. 

Nature  hath  her  songs  of  warning, 

Which  the  saddened^eart  must  hear; 
Eindlj  singing  of  the  shadow. 

Ere  the  uiadow  draweth  near! 

Wise  are  they  who  take  the  warning, 

Nerving  up  their  souls  to  bear 
All  the  sorrow,  all  the  anguish. 

Stooping  never  to  despair! 

Faster,  fiister  fall  the  raindrops; 

Not  a  star  is  seen  above; 
And  the  great  night  seems  to  shudder. 

Like  a  neart.shut  out  from  level 

Seel  the  stifling  mists  are  gathering, 

Qhostlier,  ghastlier  than  before;  r 

And  the  wind  moans  like  a  lazar. 

Spumed  and  cursed  from  door  to  doorl 

But  I  know  the  dreary  darkness 

Soon  will  blossom  into  day;  ' 

Crowned  shall  be  the  mists  with  splendor; 

Kissed  the  night's  white  tears  away. 

Then  the  day  sha^stsnd  in  glory, 

Smiling  from  the  orient  huls; 
On  his  face  such  radiant  beauty 

As  a  tranquil  spirit  fills. 

Now  I  list  in  vain — ^the  voice  is 

Dead,  that  smote  my  spirit  so. 
And  the  sunny  tides  of  gladness 

Flood  me  with  their  golden  flow  I 

I  have  read  aright  the  shadow, 

And  the  voice  not  heard  in  vain. 
And  I  trust  the  light  will  glimmer 

Somei^here  on  my  path  again! 

FraDklin  was  an  observing  and  sensible  man,  and  his  eon- 

olusions  were  seldom  incorrect.  He  said :  "  A  newspaper  and  a  Bible 
in  every  house,  a  good  school  in  everv  district,  all  stnaied  and  appre- 
ciated as  they  merit,  are  the  principal  support  of  virtne,  morality  and 
civil  liberty." 


t)n  the  moral  obaraoter  ef  Masonry  Tolumea  might  be  written  with- 
out ezhauating  the  snbjeci  Thia  aspect  of  our  Institation  is  too 
often  slighted,  while  its  work  andyt^rupn^^Moe  monopolise  attentioii 
and  research.  On  the  mbd  of  every  member  who  is  at  all  fitted  for 
the  position  whibh  he  has  gained,  the  prineiples  and  preoepts  of  the 
Order  exert  an  inflaenoe  potent  for  good.  This  power  may  not  for  a 
time  be  openly  manifested,  or  so  exerted  as  to  be  peroeived  by  the 
tsasnal  obsenrer ;  but  ^evidences  are  manifested  sooner  or  later  that  it 
is  alive  and  active. 

The  religious  and  moral  prineiples  inculcated  by  our  Institutiou 
«re  pure  and  lofty ;  they  are  acknowledged  by  all  good  men,  whoso 
minds  are  unbiassed,  to  be  onexoeptionable.  Their  inestimable  value 
the  intelligent  and  thoughtful  cannot  fail  to  remark  on  his  initiation. 
Brotherly  love,  relief  and  truth ;  temperance,  fortitude,  prudence  and 
justice;  "to  regard  the  whole  human  race  as  one  family,  who,  as 
oreated  by  one  almighty  parent,  are  to  aid,  support  and  protect  each 
other ;"  '^  to  relieve  the  distressed,  to  soothe  the  unhappy,  to  com* 
passionate  their  miseries  and  restore  peace  to  their  troubled  minds ;" 
to  restrain  our  passions  and  circumscribe  our  desires — are  these  com- 
mendable virtues?    They  are  what  Masonry  inculcates. 

Is  it  right  to  do  good  unto  all ;  to  assist  the  needy ;  to  deal  justly 
with  every  man ;  to  observe  our  duty  to  God  in  never  mentioning 
His  name  but  with  that  reverential  awe  which  is  due  from  a  creature 
to  his  creator ;  to  dry  the  tears  of  the  widow  and  the  orphans  ?  They 
are  what  Masonry  inculcates;  and  inculcating  such  virtues,  it  says 
to  the  candidate  on  his  initiation:  "In  the  State  you  are  to  be  a 
quiet  and  peaceable  citisen,  true  to  your  government  and  just  to  your 
oountry;  you  are  not  to  countenance  disloyalty  or  rebellion,  but 
patiently  submit  to  legal  authority,  and  conform  with  cheerfulness  to 
the  government  of  the  oountry  in  which  you  live." 

The  great  virtue  encouraged  and  enjomed  by  Masonry,  although 
often  extolled  in  eloquent  language,  can  never  be  mentioned  without 
interest  and  instruction.  From  the  earliest  ages  it  has  been  held  in 
high  estimation.  Even  the  ancients  who  did  not  enjoy  the  blessed 
light  that  has  beamed  on  us,  revered  charity  above  other  virtues. 
''They  used  to  depict  it,"  says  Hutchinson,  "in  the  character  of  a 
goddesSy  seated  in  an  ivoiy  chair,  with  a  golden  tire  upon  her  head, 
set  with  precious  stones.  Her  vesture,  like  the  light  of  Heaven,  re- 
presented universal  benevolence;  her  throne  was  unpolluted  ssd  m- 

2 — ^VOL.  IL  NO.  I. 

10  THE    ASHLAS. 

spotted  by  passionB  and  prejudices ;  and  the  gems  of  her  fillet  repre- 
sented  the  inestimable  blessings  which  flowed  variously  from  her 
bounty."  The  ancients  ''also  represented  the  charities,  otherwise 
ealled  the  graces,  under  three  personages.  One  of  these  was  pointed 
with  her  back  toward  us  and  her  face  forward,  as  proceeding  from  us; 
and  the  other  two  with  their  faces  toward  us,  to  denote  that  for  one 
benefit  done,  we  should  receive  double  thanks.  They  were  painted 
naked,  to  intimate  that  good  offices  should  be  done  without  dissem- 
bling and  hypocrising ;  they  were  represented  young,  to  signify  that 
the  remembrance  of  benefits  should  never  wax  old ;  and  also  laugh- 
ing, to  tell  us  that  we  should  do  good  to  others  with  cheerfulness  and 
alacrity ;  they  were  represented  linked  together,  arm  in  arm,  to  in- 
struct us  that  one  kindness  should  prompt  another,  so  that  the  knot 
and  band  of  love  should  be  indissoluble.  The  poets  tell  us  that  they 
used  to  wash  themselves  in  the  fountain  AddaliuSj  because  benefits, 
gifts  and  good  turns  ought  to  be  sincere  and  pure,  and  not  base  and 

This  virtue,  so  highly  esteemed  by  the  ancients,  superior  knowledge 
has  taught  us,  is  the  chief  characteristic  of  a  good  man  and  covereth 
a  multitude  of  sins.  The  bible  inculcates  it  in  the  strongest  terms 
as  essential  to  our  well-being  and  happiness.  Masonry  teaches  us  to 
exercise  it  in  all  our  dealings  with  our  fellows,  in  all  our  relations  in 
life ;  it  teaches  us  to  be  charitable  toward  the  destitute  and  suffering, 
charitable  in  our  thoughts  and  opinions,  in  our  judgment  of  others. 
What  peace,  what  joy,  what  prosperity  does  the  practice  of  this  virtue 
confer  1  It  subdues  strife ;  it  checks  bad  passions ;  it  makes  the  in- 
digent comfortable;  it  drys  the  tears  of  the  widow;  it  educates  the 
orphan;  it  sows  everywhere  (unseen  often  by  mortal  eyes)  seeds 
which  spring  up,  blossom  and  bloom  and  bring  forth  the  choicest 
blessings.  It  is  greater  than  faith,  it  is  greater  than  hope ;  for  ^  our 
£aith  may  be  lost  in  sight,  hope  ends  in  fruition,  but  charity  extends 
beyond  the  grave  through  the  boundless  realms  of  eternity."  The 
Brother  who  fails  to  regard  and  exercise  this  virtue,  so  far  violates 
one  of  the  strongest  injunctions  of  Masonry;  beneath  the  mantle 
which  ho  refuses  to  throw  over  the  faults  and  foibles  of  others,  he 
will,  at  no  distant  day,  desire  to  hide  his  own  short-comings  and  im- 

The  duties  enjoined  by  our  Institution  in  the  practice  of  charity, 
deserve  particular  attention.  Almost  every  day,  Brethren  who  live 
in  large  cities  or  thickly  populated  towns,  are  called  upon  to  relieve 
the  wa&ts  of  distressed  travellers ;  almost  every  day,  there  is  an  op- 

THE    ASHLAR.  11 

pottimity  for  each  of  ns  to  appropriate  a  portion  of  his  worldly  po0- 
sessions  for  the  benefit  of  the  needy,  or  to  administer  oonsolation  to 
the  afflicted ;  and  constantly  is  it  necessary  for  ns  to  exercise  for- 
bearance in  onr  actions,  thoughts  and  sayings.  It  is  not  sufficient 
for  ns  te  pay  our  Lodge  dues,  and  give  a  pittance  of  gold  or  silver 
when  the  subscription  paper  is  placed  before  ns  ]  that  is  the  very 
minimum  of  our  duty — ^that  almost  any  man,  were  he  ever  so  sordid 
and  worldly  minded,  would  do.  The  true  Mason  does  not  confine  his 
gifts  of  gold,  of  consolation,  of  advice  to  the  Brethren ;  he  does  not 
confine  them  to  any  particular  time  or  place;  they  are  scattered 
around  him  in  his  daily  walks,  wherever  he  sees  a  fellow-being  in 
want,  whenever  he  sees  that  his  efforts  can  relieve  a  sufferer  or  confer 
a  benefit.  He  knows  little  of  onr  Institution  who  thinks  it  limits  or 
restricts  a  man's  charities  or  sympathies;  and  he  only  comprehends 
its  design  who  realizes  that  ckarities  are  as  boundless  as  the  universe, 
and  its  cardinal  principles  require  us  to  deal  justly  with  every  man 
and  do  good  unto  all. 

To  faithfully  perform  the  duty  referred  to,  requires  careful  obser- 
vation and  sound  judgment  Impostors  are  so  numerous,  and  so 
many  unnecessary  calls  are  made  upon  us,  that  we  are  often  placed 
in  delicate  positions.  There  is  but  one  rule  to  adopt;  whenever 
solicited  by  strangers  professing  to  be  Masons,  to  render  them  assist- 
ance, examine  them  by  the  one  unerring  standard.  If  they  are  dear- 
ly not  true  metal,  let  tham  pass  on  with  the  dross  of  the  world,  with 
such  advice  as  under  the  circumstances  may  be  deemed  expedient ;  in 
all  other  instances  the  nature  and  attending  incidents  of  each  case 
should  determine  your  action.  Masonry  seldom  specifies  what  in- 
stances of  suffering  or  want  demand  our  help ;  it  can  do  nothing 
more  than  inculcate  the  great  virtue  of  charity,  leaving  each  member 
to  regulate  his  conduct  as  he  may  deem  best  to  promote  the  desired 
object.  He  is  therefore  amenable  in  almost  all  cases  only  to  his  God 
and  his  conscience  for  a  violation  of  the  duty  under  consideration. 
How  many  of  us.  Brethren,  can  say,  we  have  been  faithful  in  this 
respect?    Let  each  answer  to  himsel£ 

Our  English  Brethren  relate  that  a  vessel  was  wrecked  in 
the  Persian  Gulf  and  the  crew  about  to  be  plundered,  when  the  cap- 
tain gave  Masonic  signs  which  were  recognized  by  an  Arab  chieftain 
and  they  were  protected  in  consequence.  They  were  clothed,  fed 
conducted  to  Muscat  and  set  free.  ' 

12  THE    ASHLAR. 

From  the  Masomc  Review. 

Thifl  ancient  festival-daj  was  celebrated  this  year  more  generally 
and  with  more  animation,  than  for  many  years  past.  At  many  pro^ 
minent  points  there  were  processions,  orations,  music,  with  banners, 
&c. ;  and  the  Craft  seemed  to  enter  into  the  spirit  of  these  festal 
scenes  with  a  zeal  and  enthusiasm  unequalled  in  past  days.  It  would 
require  yolumes  to  giye  the  detaOs  of  all  these  celebrations,  and  we 
can  only  make  note  of  a  few  of  the  many  interesting  ones  that  hare 
come  to  our  knowledge. 

Our  intended  visit  to  Minnesota,  which  was  prevented  by  unfore- 
seen events,  compelled  us  to  decline  the  many  invitations  received  to* 
participate  with  our  Brethren  in  some  one  of  these  demonstrations. 
We  reached  home  in  time,  however,  to  share  with  our  Brethren  in 
Oumminsville  and  vicinity  in  a  pleasant  *^  Pic-Nic"  on  that  day.  We 
shall  not  attempt  to  describe  what  took  place  there.  The  Graft  and 
their  families  were  gathered  in  a  beautiful  grove,  each  with  baskets 
full  of  good  things  to  eat,  and  their  hearts  full  of  kind  feelings,  and 
every  face  radiant  with  pleasure.  Thus  was  the  day  spent  in  one  of 
the  most  beautiful  groves  we  ever  saw,  and  by  as  happy  a  company 
of  men,  women  and  children  as  ever  kept  holiday  in  the  country.  It 
was  a  new  way  of  celebratmg  St.  John's  Bay,  and  came  in  admirably 
by  way  of  variety.  From  the  expressions  we  have  heard,  we  should 
not  be  surprised,  if  a  much  more  general  Pic-Nic  should  occur  on  the 
same  ground  next  year. 

At  Springfield,  Gkrmantown,  Ashtabula,  Logan,  New  Lexington, 
and  many  other  points  in  Ohio,  there  were  regular  old  fashioned 
Masonic  celebrations,  but  the  Brethren  have  not  reported  th^  par- 
ticulars to  us.  At  New  Lexington,  we  have  incidentally  learned, 
there  was  an  immense  gathering  of  the  people  as  well  as  of  the  Craft, 
Our  old  friend  and  P.  G.  Master,  W.  B.  Thrall,  delivered  one  of  hiB 
best  orations,  and 

"  All  went  merry  as  a  marriage  bell." 

At  Maysville,  Ky.,  the  Craftsmen  were  out  in  force,  and  made  sud» 
a  display  as  had  never  been  seen  in  that  city  before.  The  oration, 
too,  is  said  to  have  been  one  of  the  most  eloquent  ones  ever  delivered 
in  the  State,  and  we  regret  we  are  not  able  to  give  the  name  of  the 

At  Clinton,  Miss.,  the  day  was  appropriately  observed.  A  vast 
crowd  attended,  and  listened  to  an  address  which  made  its  mark  upon 
the  minds  and  hearts  of  the  multitude^. 

THE    ASHLAK.  13 

Ai  Chicago  there  waa  sach  a  gathering  as  probably  lUinoia  had 
never  Been  before.  A  gentleman  from  that  city  informed  ns,  thero 
were  three  thousand  Craftsmen  in  procession  1  The  new  and  beaatiful 
Masonic  Hall,  the  most  chaste  and  elegant  one  in  the  whole  North 
West,  was  dedicated  in  ample  form.  We  shall  famish  a  fine  engrav- 
ing of  this  model  Hall,  among  many  others,  in  our  next  volume. 
From  the  accoonta  that  have  reached  us,  it  was  the  greatest  Masonic 
demonstration  ever  made  in  the  North-West. 

Indiana  was  not  behind  any  of  its  sister  States  in  the  observance 
of  the  24th.  At  various  places  the  Craft  assembled  to  celebrate  the 
day.  At  Williamsport  they  had  a  delightful  time,  and  the  sealoua 
Masons  of  the  Wabash  valley  were  out  in  their  strength,  to  mark 
their  regard  for  the  memory  of  one  of  the  patron  saints  of  the  Order. 

But  probably  the  greatest  demonstration  made  in  Indiana  on  that 
day,  was  at  New  Albany.  The  Brethren  of  that  beautiful  and  grow- 
ing city  generally  perform  whatever  they  undertake  ''  with  a  will," 
and  it  is  not  to  be  wondered  at,  therefore,  that  8t  John's  Bay  waa 
celebrated  there  as  it  had  hardly  ever  been  before  in  Indiana. 

We  cannot  forbear  to  mark  the  outlines  of  the  procession  at  this 
place,  as  it  embraced  some  new  and  very  commendable  features. 
After  the  usual  arrangements  in  the  front  of  members  of  the  different 
degrees  up  to  Templars,  followed  by  the  Grand  Lodge,  there  were 
*^  carriages  containing  aged  and  disabled  Brothers,  another  with  Past 
Grand  Officers,  and  another  with  the  Chief  Magistrate  oi  the  city." 
These  were  succeeded  by  the  "  members  of  New  Albany  Encampment 
No.  5  and  visiting  Sir  Knights,  on  horseback,  and  carriage  containing 
the  orator  and  clergy." 

The  procession  moved  to  the  Centenary  Church,  where  a  most 
admirable  oration  was  delivered  by  Bro.,  the  Rev.  John  W.  Sullivan, 
which  was  listened  to  with  deep  interest  by  the  immense  throng  as- 
sembled in  that  beautiful  and  spacious  church. 

The  procession  was  then  re-formed  and  proceeded  to  the  dinner 
table,  where  ample  justice  was  done  to  a  most  sumptuous  entertain- 
ment prepared  by  Messrs.  McCurdy  and  Fox.  This  was  succeeded 
by  music,  sentiment  and  speeches,  winding  up  with  a  toast  to  woman  • 

*'  Whom  God  created  with  a  smile  of  grace. 
And  left  the  smile  that  made  her  on  her  face." 

and  then  all  united  in  singing  ^  AtUd  Lang  Syne?^ 

Prominent  among  the  assembled  Brethren  were  the  following  dis- 
tinguished members  of  the  Order :  CoL  Posey,  of  Corydon,  one  of  the 
oldest  Masons  in  Indiana,  and  a  member  of  the  first  Lodge  organised 

14  THE    ASHLAR. 

in  the  State ;  Hon.  E.  Newland,  P.  D.  6.  Master ;  Major  Winn,  of 
Orawfordsville ;  G.  Schmidlapp,  of  Madison,  and  that  ardent  and 
true-hearted  Mason,  Harry  Hudson,  of  Loaisville,  with  others  whose 
names  we  have  not 

In  the  evening  the  Masonic  Hall  was  crowded  with  the  Brethren 
and  their  lady-friends  to  witness  the  installation  of  the  officers  of 
Jefferson  and  New  Albany  Lodges.  P.  M.  John  B.  Anderson  offici* 
ated,  assisted  by  Bros.  McMahon,  of  Salem,  and  Winn,  of  Crawfords- 
yille.  The  ceremonies  were  interspersed  with  several  Masonic  odes 
sung  by  a  choir  of  young  ladies  and  gentlemen,  Prof.  Nutting  pre- 
siding at  the  melodeon.  Altogether  it  was  an  occasion  of  great  inter^ 
est,  and  one  that  will  tell  on  the  prosperity  and  character  of  the 
Order  in  Southern  Indiana  for  long  years  to  come. 

From  the  Mirror  and  KeyBtone. 



This  expression,  we  opine,  might  seem  enigmatical  to  an  uninitiated 
mind — ^to  any  person  not  acquainted  with  our  mysteries — inasmuch 
as  its  very  terms  admit  of  a  strong  and  forcible  contrast,  and  in  the 
profane  world  are  not  usually,  if  ever,  associated.  Yet  the  Free  and 
Accepted  Mason  knows  that  security  is  the  essential  element  of  all 
true  liberty,  and  markedly  distinguishes  the  freedom  of  the  highest 
civilization  from  the  restraint  of  savage  life ;  and  the  freedom  of  a 
government  based  upon  constitutional  guarantees  £rom  that  of  a  des- 

The  savage  is  not  free,  even  when  he  in  apparent  security  roams 
the  boundless  forest  or  the  endless  prairie,  unless  he  is  safe  from 
surprise,  assault  and  captivity,  and  is  ever  on  the  watch  to  guard 
against  the  one,  or  the  other,  or  alL  And  the  dwellers  under  despotic 
governments,  however  actually  exempt  from  their  direct  oppressions, 
merely  hold  their  nominal  liberty  upon  the  uncertain  tenure  of  a 
capricious  will,  instead  of  that  security  the  guarantees  of  a  constitu- 
tional government  ensure. 

True  liberty,  as  Masonically  understood,  consists  in  the  enjoyment 
of  equal  rights,  equal  laws  and  equal  privileges.  According  to  this 
definition,  we  hold  the  freest  spot  upon  the  surface  of  the  globe  which 
we  inhabit,  is  the  FreemasovCs  Lodge;  and  we  believe  it  has  ever 
been  so,  in  all  ages  and  climes— before  the  Saxon  set  foot  on  Britain 


— ^before  the  Franks  had  passed  the  Rhine — ^when  Orecian  eloquence 
still  flourished  at  Antioch — ^when  idols  were  still  worshipped  in 
Mecca ;  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  torrid  sone,  or  of  the  ioe-bonnd 
regions  of  the  world,  no  matter  by  what  cruel  and  formidable  des- 
potisms it  may  have  been  and  may  still  be  surrounded.  It  is  thus 
that  the  members  of  our  ancient  and  honorable  Fraternity  are  pre- 
eminently entitled  to  the  proud  distinction  of  the  Free!  For  although 
this  distinctive  appellation  was,  according  to  our  legends,  originally 
conferred  only  upon  worthy  Craftsmen,  among  the  enslared  multi- 
tudes of  ancient  laborers,  when  duly  initiated  into  the  Councils  and 
taught  the  science  of  the  master  builders,  it  has  from  the  beginning 
implied  every  privilege,  every  enjoyment  and  every  security  which 
perfect  liberty  can  confer.  Strict  equality  of  individual  rights  and 
opportunities  of  advancement;  a  perfect  liberty  of  conscience  on 
politics  and  religion,  which  is  entirely  exempt  from  all  enquiry  and 
disparagement,  and  the  exalting  consciousness  which  fills  every  Ma- 
son's heart  that  his  fair  fame,  whether  he  be  personally  present  or 
separated  from  us  by  boundless  oceans,  that  his  nearest  and  most 
cherished  ties  in  domestic  life ;  that  his  business  interests  and  most 
pressing  exigencies,  together  with  every  lawful  secret  of  his  breast, 
are  secure  and  sacredly  safe  in  the  hands  of  his  Brethren,  constitute 
a  kind  and  degree  of  reciprocal  liberty  which  no  state  or  phase  of 
society,  in  the  vague  world  of  mankind,  could  possibly  afford.  And 
thus  it  is,  that  our  Institution  has  ever  been  the  purest,  the  most  en- 
during and  the  most  universal  of  republics  that  ever  existed  within 
the  history  of  the  human  family.  The  Masonic  Institution,  governed 
by  its  own  organic  laws  and  codes  of  mutual  obligation,  and  conscious 
that  no  earthly  power,  not  even  the  greatest,  can  annull  them,  since 
they  are  deeply  engraved  and  impressed  upon  every  Mason's  heart, 
has  flourished  amid  the  deserts  of  despotism,  and  desires  no  new 
favor  from  politicfl  power  in  this  happy  land,  so  fertile  in  freedom 
and  prosperity. 

Bro.  Hjneman  says  that  the  Masonic  Temple  to  be  raised 
in  New  York  city,  will  surpass  any  edifice  of  the  kind  in  the 
world.  It  is  to  be  five  stories  high,  one  hundred  feet  front,  and  one 
hundred  and  twenty-five  feet  deep,  and  will  contain  ample  accommo- 
dations for  the  Orand  Lodge,  and  all  the  subordinate  Lodges,  Chap- 
ters.  Encampments  and  Councils.  It  will  be  built  of  brown  sand^ 
stone  or  marble,  and  will  cost,  it  is  supposed,  $400,000. 


For  tlie  A«hkr. 


The  penal  jnrifldiction  of  a  Lodge  is  far  more  extensive  than  many 
suppose.  It  is  not  confined  to  its  own  members,  bat  extends  in  some 
degree  over  all  Masons  who  reside  within  its  geographical  jurisdiction. 
The  geographical  jurisdiction  of  a  Lodge,  radiates  on  all  sides  from 
the  common  centre,  extends  in  every  direction  half  way  to  the  nearest 
L^dge.  Each  regular  Lodge  of  Master  Masons  has  personal  penal 
jurisdiction  over  all  Master  Masons  residing  within  its  geographical 
jurisdiction,  but  belonging  to  a  distant  Lodge ;  and  although  courtesy 
requires  that  the  Lodge,  near  which  he  resides,  should  rather  make  a 
complaint  to  the  Lodge  of  which  he  is  a  member,  than  itsdf  institute 
proceedings  against  him,  yet  such  a  reference  is  simply  an  act  of  cour- 
tesy, and  may  or  may  not  be  made  in  accordance  with  the  circum- 
stances of  the  case. 

The  Lodge  of  which  any  Master  Mason  is  a  member,  and  the 
Lodge  within  whose  geographical  jurisdiction  he  resides,  have  oo- 
extensiye  and  concurrent  jurisdiction  over  him,  and  he  may  be  charged 
and  tried  before  either ;  and  an  acquittal  or  conviction  had  before  the 
one  will  be  a  valid  bar  td  all  proceedings  before  the  other  upon  the 
same  charge.  The  only  exception  to  this  rule  is  where  two  Lodges 
have  the  same  geographical  jurisdiction  by  reason  of  their  great  prox- 
imity, as  where  two  or  more  Lodges  are  located  in  the  same  city. 

Such  a  power  is  necessary  for  the  well-being  and  protection  of  the 
Fraternity,  and  the  Lodges,  if  deprived  of  it,  will  be  unable  to  reach 
and  correct  a  large  class  of  evils,  or  to  maintain  that  high-toned  and 
moral  character  to  which  the  principles  of  Masonry  ever  admonish 
them  to  aspire. 

When  Masonic  crimes  are  committed,  the  course  of  justice  should 
be  swift  and  sure.  In  no  other  way  can  the  purity  and  reputation 
of  the  Institution  be  protected. 

The  power  to  exercise  personal  penal  j^sdiction  over  all  Mas^r 
Masons  belonging  to  a  distant  Lodge,  who  reside  within  their  geograph- 
ical jurisdiction,  is  necessary,  for  the  self-protection  of  the  Lodges. 
Master  Masons  who  are  not  members  of  a  Lodge,  and  who  live  within 
its  geograplucal  jurisdiction,  have  accorded  to  them  the  privilege  of 
visiting  its  meetings  and  sitting  among  its  members,  and  when  by 
their  acts  they  violate  the  moral  law  and  bring  disgrace  upon  that 
Lodge,  it  should  have  the  power  on  the  spot  where  the  act  was  com- 
mitted and  where  the  evidence  is  to  be  found,  to  punish  the  offender 


in  dae  fonn.  If  in  all  sneb  casea  the  charges  had  to  be  made  in  the 
Lodge  to  which  the  offender  belongs,  situated  perhaps  at  a  great  dis- 
tance, rendering  it  necessary  to  transport  the  evidence  to  a  remote  and 
inconvenient  locality,  the  coarse  of  jostice  wonld  not  only  be  hindered 
and  delayed,  bat  in  molt  cases  entirely  defeated^  and  in  the  meantime 
the  reputation  of  the  Institution  deeply  injured. 

In  the  words  of  a  distinguished  writer  upon  Hasonie  law,  ^^  this 
doctrine  is  founded  upon  the  wholesome  reason  tiiat,  as  a  Lodge  is 
the  guardian  of  the  purity  and  safety  of  the  Institution  within  its 
own  jurisdiction,  it  must,  to  exercise  that  guardianship  with  suooesi, 
be  inrested  with  the  power  of  correcting  every  evil  which  ocean 
within  its  precincts." 

Mackey,  in  his  work  on  the  principles  of  Masonic  law,  uses  the 
following  language  in  relation  to  the  power  of  Lodges  in  this  par- 
ticular:  *^  The  personal  jurisdiction  of  a  Lodge  extends  oyer  all  Ma* 
sons  liviog  within  its  vicinity.  A  Master  Mason  belonging  to  a  dis- 
tant Lodge,  but  residbg  within  the  geographical  jurisdiction  of  an- 
other Lodge,  becomes  amenable  for  his  conduct  to  the  latter  as  well 
as  the  former  Lodge.  But  if  his  own  Lodge  is  within  a  reasonable 
distance,  courtesy  requires  that  the  Lodge  near  which  he  resideSj 
should  rather  make  a  complaint  to  his  Lodge,  than  itself  institute 
proceedings  against  hiuL  BiU  t?te  reputation  of  the  Order  must  not 
be  permitted  to  be  endangered^  and  a  ease  might  occur  in  which  it 
would  be  inexpedient  to  extend  this  courtesy,  and  where  the  Lodge 
would  feel  compelled  to  proceed  to  the  trial  and  punishment  of  the 
offender  without  applying  to  his  Lodge.  The  geographical  jurisdic- 
tion will  in  aU  cases  legalise  the  proceedings." 

This,  in  my  opinion,  is  the  true  doctrine  of  the  Masonic  law  upon 
this  subject 

It  has  been  thought  by  tome  that  Section  4  of  Art  8  of  the  Con- 
Mitution  of  tho  Orand  Lodge  of  Michigan  limits  the  penal  jurisdiction 
of  subordinate  Lodges  in  this  State  to  their  own  memb^s.  If  the 
power  of  the  subordinate  Lodges  to  exercise  personal  penal  jurisdic- 
tion over  their  own  members  was  conferred  by  and  derived  solely 
from  this  clause  in  the  O^stitution  of  the  Orand  Lodge,  then  it 
would  be  unsafe  to  clothe  tie  Lodges  by  implication  with  any  powers 
not  therein  expressly  granted.  Bnt  such,  is  not  the  case.  The  penal 
power  of  Lodges  over  their  own  m^beurs  is  not  derived  ftom  the 
Constitution  of  the  Grand  Lodge.  The  Lodges  possess  that  power 
independent  of  the  Constitution. 

3— VOL.  XL  NO.  X. 


The  power  of  Lodges  to  exercise  penal  jurisdiction  oyer  tbeir  ows 
mem'bers  arises  from  the  necessity  of  things  and  the  law  of  self-pre- 
serration.  It  is  derived  from  aneient  usage.  Section  4^  therefore^ 
does  not  confer  any  new  power ;  its  whole  scope  and  effect  are  simply 
to  regulate  the  exercise  of  a  power  possessed  before,  and  goes  no^ 
iJEbrther  than  to  fix  the  number  of  votes  necessary  for  a  suspension, 
expulsion  or  restoration.  It  will  also  be  observed  that  the  whole 
scope  and  force  of  Section  4  is  confined  to  matters  of  difference  be^ 
tween  members  of  the  same  Lodge.  <*  Each  Lodge  shall  have  power 
to  hear  and  determine  ijl  matters  of  difference  between  its  own  mem^ 
bers,'*  &o. 

Now,  the  class  of  cases  under  consideration  does  not  involve  matters 
of  difference  between  members  of  the  same  Lodge.  On  the  contrary, 
where  a  charge  for  any  Masonic  crime  is  made  against  a  Master 
Mason  who  lives  within  the  geographical  jurisdiction  of  a  Lodge,  but 
who  belongs  to  a  distant  Lodge,  the  matter  of  difference  exists  be- 
tween him  and  some  person  or  persons  not  belonging  to  his  Lodge 

I  am,  therefore,  clearly  of  the  opinion  that  a  clause  in  the  Con- 
stitution which  relates  solely  to  the  jurisdiction  of  tho  Lodges  over 
''  matters  of  difference  between  their  own  members,"  can  have  no  ap- 
plication whatever  to  the  class  of  cases  under  consideration. 

Having  thus  discovered  and  defined  the  extent  of  the  power  and 
authority  of  Lodges  in  this  particular,  it  remains  to  consider  how  far 
courtesy  requires  the  Lodges  near  which  the  offender  resides,  should 
make  a  complaint  to  the  Lodge  to  which  the  offender  belongs.' 

Such  a  reference  to  the  Lodge  to  which  the  offender  belongs,  is  no 
more  nor  less  than  an  act  of  courtesy,  and  should  the  Lodge  near 
which  he  resides,  refuse  or  neglect  to  apply  to  the  Lodge  to  which  he 
belongs,  before  itself  instituting  proceedings  against  him,  it  would  at 
the  most  be  guilty  of  a  want  of  courtesy  to  a  sister  Lodge.  The 
proceedings  in  such  a  case  would  be  perfectly  valid,  for  in  the  language 
of  Maokey,  ^  thet  geographical  jurisdiction  will  in  ail  cases  legalise 
the  proceedings."  The  rule,  in  my  opinion,  is  this :  that  in  no  ease 
where  a  Lodge  would  be  put  to  serious  inconvenience,  or  where  the 
course  of  justice  is  in  danger  of  being  Mndered,  delayed  or  defeated 
by  an  application  to  the  Lodge  to  which  the  offender  belongs,  doe» 
courtesy  require  such  an  application  to  be  made;  but  the  Lodge 
within  whose  geographical  jurisdiction  tho  offender  resides,  may  pro- 
ceed to  charge,  try  and  punish  him  in  due  form. 

Detroit,  July  1856.  R.  H.  B. 

llHB   A8&LA&.  t« 


M.  W.  GEO.  C.  MUNRO, 


Ithe  beantifal  steel  plate  engraTing  which  adonui  this  namber  of 
ITre  Ashlar,  presents  oar  readers  with  an  excellent  portrait  of  the 
Grand  Master  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Michigan. 

Bro.  Geo.  G.  Mtmro  was  bom  in  Onondaga  County,  State  of  New 
York,  on  the  twenty-second  day  of  January,  1814 — ^forty-two  years 
ago.  At  the  age  of  sixteen,  he  left  school,  and  as  a  clerk  in  a  store 
commenced  a  business  career  which  has  been  crowned  with  success. 
Confining  his  attention  principally  to  mercantile  affairs,  he  removed 
to  Michigan  in  1834,  and  for  the  past  twenty  years  has  resided  in 
JonesTille,  Hillsdale  County.  His  attention,  during  that  period,  has 
been  almost  entirely  directed  to  his  business  which  has  been  managed 
irith  such  skill  and  good  judgment,  that  his  labors  have  been  rewarded 
with  large  pecuniary  profit.  Prosperity  could  not  have  crowned  the 
efforts  of  one  more  worthy.  With  a  liberal  hand,  and  in  the  spirit 
which  has  characterized  the  lives  of  many  American  merchants,  he 
has  dispensed  charities,  and  given  assistance  to  the  destitute. 

In  the  community  where  he  resides  and  is  best  known,  Bro.  Munro 
is  highly  esteemed  as  a  citizen,  a  neighbor  and  a  friend,  and  in  a  few 
instances  he  has  been  induced  to  accept  offices  of  trust  and  honor. 
Two  years,  he  acted  as  one  of  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  State 
Agricultural  Society,  and  in  1853  was  chosen  president  and  served 
in  that  capacity  one  year.  At  the  end  of  that  time,  he  was  re-elected) 
but  declined  longer  to  hold  the  office. 

In  July  1848, Bro.  Munro  was  ^initiated"  in  Lafayette  Lodge, 
No.  16,  at  Jonesville,  and  was  '  raised"  in  August  following.  From 
that  time,  he  has  been  an  ardent  and  active  friend  of  our  Institution, 
giving  much  time  and  attention  to  the  study  of  its  history  and  prin- 
oiples,  aidmg  it  liberally  with  his  worldly  means,  and  illustrating  by 
his  life,  its  practical  teachings. 

On  the  St.  John's  Day  succeeding  his  initiation,  he  was  eleeted 
Secretary  of  Lafayette  Lodge.  In  this  office,  he  served  till  the  end 
of  the  year,  when  he  was  chosen  Senior  Warden.  He  was  next  pro- 
moted to  the  office  of  Master  and  sat  in  the  East  during  the  foUowmg 
four  years.  He  was  then  re-elected,  but  found  it  inoompatabla  with 
his  duties  to  his  fUends  and  himself,  to  aooept  the  office  again. 

20  THE    ASHLAR. 

Id  the  Chapter  at  Jonesyille,  the  subject  of  this  sketch  has  saecess* 
ivelj  served  as  King  and  High  Priest,  and  in  the  Ghrand  Chapter  of 
the  State,  he  has  acted  as  Grand  Treasarer. 

In  the  Grand  Lodge,  he  held  seyeral  mbor  offices,  prior  to  1853, 
when  he  was  elected  Senior  Grand  Warden,  and  filled  that  office  two 
years,  when  he  was  advanced  to  the  position  of  Deputy  Grand  Master. 
This  station  he  occupied  two  years. 

Appreciating  the  ceal,  ability  and  sterling  qualities  of  the  man,  at 
the  last  meeting  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  the  Brethren  comprising  thi^t 
body  and  representing  the  Fraternity  of  the  State,  conferred  upon 
Bro.  Munro  the  highest  gift  in  their  power  to  bestow,  and  he  now 
enjoys  the  honor  and  experiences  the  responsibilities  attached  to  the 
high  and  l^onorable  office  of  Grand  Master.  In  the  discharge  of  his 
duties,  he  has  manifested  his  usual  zeal  and  ability,  and  under  his 
guidance  the  Craft  in  Michigan  are  pursuing  their  labors  diligently 
and  harmoniously.  May  the  future  be  as  profitious  to  him  and  them, 
as  has  been  the  past ! 


The  eomer  atone  of  the  Massachusetts  State  Hospital  for  the  In* 
sane  at  Northampton,  Mass.,  was  kid  July  4th,  1856,  with  Masonio 
ceremonies  conducted  by  the  officers  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  that  State. 
The  entire  account  of  this  interesting  event  is  too  long  for  our  pages  ; 
we  therefore  copy  only  that  portion  of  most  immediate  interest  tq 
members  of  our  Order  and  readers  of  our  Magazine  generally. 

After  an  address  from  the  Grand  Master  appropriate  to  the  occa- 
sion, the  oeremonies  prooeeded  thus,  (we  copy  from  the  Frtemasow^ 
Mcnihly  Magazim): 

Grand  Master,  Bight  Worshipful  Senior  Grand  Warden:  The 
Grand  Lodge  of  this  Commonwealdi  having  been  invited  by  the  State 
authorities  to  lay,  in  due  and  ancient  Masonio  form,  the  Foundation 
Stone  of  an  edifice  here  to  be  erected  as  an  asylum  for  the  alleviation 
of  human  sufiering,  and  that  invitation  bavins  been  accepted,  I  now 
order  that  tiiis  Grand  Lodge  assist  me  in  the  performance  of  this 
work.    This  my  will  and  pleasure  you  will  prodain^  to  the  Junior 


Onnd  Warden,  and  he  to  the  Breihren  and  othera  present,  thai  all 
having  due  notice  may  govern  themselves  accordingly. 

Senior  Grand  Warden.  Bight  WorshipfalJunior  Grand  Warden: 
Jt  is  the  order  of  the  Most  Worshipful  Grand  Master  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  the  Commonwealth  of  Massaohnsetts,  that  this  Comer  Stone 
be  now  laid  with  Masonic  honors.  This  his  will  and  pleasure  you 
will  proclaim  to  all  present,  that  the  occasion  may  be  observed  with 
due  order  and  solemnity. 

Junior  Grand  Warden.  Brethren,  and  all  who  are  present,  w31 
take  notice  that  the  Most  Worshipful  Grand  Master  will  now  deposil 
%hia  Foundation  Stone  in  Masonic  form.  You  will  observe  the  order 
and  decorum  becoming  the  important  and  solemn  ceremonies  in  wiiiolfi 
we  ar^  about  to  engage. 

[Invocation  by  the  Grand  Okaplaiin,\ 

H  T  M  N. 

CBoaca. — Let  notes  of  gladnefls  tejl 

Thoughts  that  each  bosom  sweU, 
The  work  began  I 
PpxT.— Hope's  joyous  thoughts  we  bring, 
While  to  our  HesTenly  King 
Chokvs. — ^Friends  nov  united  sing. 
Heart's  joined  as  one. 

CHOBji^a. — ^Where  laid  the  Comer  Stone* 
Ever  in  kindness  kno^n 
Be  man's  best  soodl 
Duet. — Though  vears  shall  pass  away. 
Though  human  -woras  depay, 
CROBp&^Ever  by  Hear'ns  own  ray 
Be  truth  renewed! 

Csoaus. — May,  in  proportions  true, 
Bising  to  grateful  view. 
The  work  aseeadi 
DpsT. — ^Long  may  it  safely  stand, 

Untooched  by  ruthltjes  hand, 
CHoam. — Till  at  Heaven's  last  command^ 
All  time  shall  end. 

Grand  Master,  Bight  Worshipful  Brother  Grand  Treaaurer: 
Ton  will  read  the  inscription  upon  the  plate  which  is  to  be  depositea 
nnder  the  Foundation  Stone. 

The  Grand  Treasiirer  read  as  follows : 

The  Comer  Stone  of  an  edifice  for  the  TmsD  Statx  Lun atio  Hosbttal.  estab- 
lished under  Act  of  the  Legislature  of  Massachusetts,  passed  May  21,  laid  by 
the  Moat  Worshipfbl  Qraad  Lodge  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons  of  Maaasohu- 
setts,  M.  W.  Winslow  Lewis,  M.  D.,  Grand  Master,  on  the  4th  of  July,  1856, 
the  80th  AnniTersaiy  of  American  Independence.  Henry  J.  Gardner,  Governor 
of  the  Commonwealth.  Commissioners:  Luther  Y.  Bell,  H.  W.  Benchley« 
SamL  J.  Standley. 

Grand  Master.  There  being  no  objection,  I  now  order  you,  Bro. 
Grand  Treasurer,  to  deposit  the  plate  with  the  papers  ia  the  place 
prepared  for  their  reception. 

[Ibaic  by  the  Band  during  the  ceremony  cf  making  the  dgmitJ] 


The  principal  Architect  then  presented  the  working  tools  to  thd 
Grand  Master,  who  directed  the  Grand  Marshal  to  present  them  Uf 
the  Deputy  Grand  Master  and  Senior  and  Junior  Grand  Wardens. 

The  Grand  Master,  the  Deputy  Grand  Master  and  Grand  Wardens 
then  descended  from  the  platform,  the  G.  Master  taking  the  Trowel, 
the  Deputy  Grand  Master  the  Square,  the  Senior  Grand  Warden  the 
Level,  and  the  Junior  Grand  Warden  the  Plumh,  the  Grand  Master 
standingat  the  East  of  the  Stone,  his  Deputy  on  his  right,  the  Senior 
Grand  Warden  at  the  West  and  the  Junior  Grand  Warden  at  tho 
South  side  of  the  Stone.  The  Grand  Master  then  spread  the  cement, 
and  when  that  had  been  done,  he  directed  the  Gnind  Marshal  to  order 
the  Craftsmen  to  lower  the  Stone.  (This  was  dShe  by  three  motions, 
▼iz:  Ist,  by  lowering  a  few  inches  and  stopping,  when  the  public 
Grand  Honors  were  given ;  2d,  again  lowering  a  few  inches  and  giving 
Grand  Honors ;  3d,  letting  the  Stone  down  to  its  place  and  giving 
the  Grand  Honors  as  before.  The  Square,  Level  and  Plumb  were 
then  applied  to  the  Stone  by  the  proper  officers^) 

\^Flourish  of  Musie-I 

Grand  Master,  llight  Worshipful  Deputy  Grand  Master:  What 
is  the  proper  Jewel  of  your  office  ? 

I>piUy  Grand  Mailer.     The  Square. 

Grand  Master.  Have  you  applied  the  Square  to  those  parts  of 
the  Stone  that  should  be  square? 

Deputy  Grand  Master,  I  have.  Most  Worshipful  Grand  Master, 
and  the  Craftsmen  have  done  their  duty. 

Grand  Master.  Right  Worshipful  Senior  Grand  Warden :  What 
is  the  proper  Jewel  of  your  office  ? 

Senior  Grand  Warden,    The  Level 

Grand  Master.     Have  you  applied  the  Level  to  the  Stone  ? 

Senior  Grand  Warden,  I  have,  Most  Worshipful  Grand  Master, 
and  the  Craftsmen  have  done  their  duty. 

Grand  Master.  Right  Worshipful  Junior  Grand  Warden :  What 
is  the  proper  Jewel  of  your  office  ? 

Junior  Grand  Warden.    The  Plumb. 

Grand  Master.  Have  you  applied  the  Plumb  to  the  several  edges 
6f  the  Stone  ? 

Junior  Grand  Warden.  I  have,  Most  Worshipful  Grand  Master, 
and  the  Craftsmen  have  done  their  duty. 

Grand  Master.  Having  full  confidence  in  your  skill  in  the  Royal 
Art,  it  remains  with  me  now  to  finish  the  work. 

The  Grand  Master  then  gave  three  knocks  upon  the  Stone,  and 

^  I  find  this  Foundation  Stone  well  forked,  true  and  TRtnrrr, 
and  may  this  undertakbg  be  conducted  and  completed  by  the  Crafts- 
men according  to  the  grand  plan,  in  Peace,  Love  and  Harmonv." 

The  Deputy  Grand  Master  then  received  from  the  Grand  Marshal 
the  Cornucopia  containing  corn,  and  spread  the  corn  upon  the  Stone, 
saying : 

^  May  the  health  of  the  workmen  employed  m  this  undertaking  be 


preserved  to  them,  and  may  the  Supreme  Ghrand  Arobiieet  bleia  and 
prosper  their  labors." 

The  Grand  Marshal  then  took  the  Wine  from  the  Altar  and  pre* 
sented  it  to  the  Senior  Grand  Warden  who  poured  it  npon  the  Stone, 
saying : 

^^  May  plenty  be  showered  down  upon  the  people  of  this  ancient 
Commonwealth,  and  may  the  blessing  of  the  Bounteous  Girer  of  All 
Things  attend  all  their  philanthropic  undertakings." 

The  Grand  Marshal  presented  the  Oil  to  the  Junior  Grand  War- 
den who  poured  it  upon  the  Stone,  saying : 

"  May  the  Supreme  Buler  of  the  World  preserre  this  people  in 
peace,  and  vouchsafe  to  them  the  enjoyment  of  every  blessbg." 

Grand  Master.  ^  May  corn,  wine  and  oil,  and  all  the  necessaries 
of  life,  abound  among  men  throughout  the  world,  and  may  the  blessing 
of  the  Almighty  God  be  upon  this  undertaking,  and  may  the  structure 
here  to  be  erected,  be  preserved  to  the  latest  ages,  in  order  that  it 
may  promote  the  humane  purposes  for  which  it  is  designed." 

The  Grand  Master  then  presented  the  Implements  to  the  Architect, 
saying : 

"  To  you,  Bro.  Architect,  are  confided  the  Implements  of  operative 
Masonrv,  with  the  fullest  confidence  that  by  your  skill  and  taste  a 
fabric  shall  arise  which  shall  add  new  lustre  to  our  honored  Common- 
wealth. May  it  endure  for  many  ages,  a  monument  of  the  liberality 
and  benevolence  of  its  founders." 

^^  Old  Hundred"  was  here  suog  by  the  assembly,  and  the  ceremonies 
were  closed  by  a  Benediction  bv  the  Rev.  Dr.  Stearns. 

The  procession  was  then  agam  formed  and  marched  to  a  beautiful 
grove  in  the  vicinity,  where  a  bountiful  collation  had  been  provided 
by  the  citizens.  The  procession  returned  to  the  town  about  6  o'clock, 
and  the  festivities  of  the  day  were  closed  by  a  free  Promenade  Con- 
cert at  the  Town  Hall,  and  an  exhibition  of  fireworks  in  the  evening. 
We  have  little  space  for  remarks,  but  cannot  close  without  expressing 
our  thanks  to  the  Brethren  of  Jerusalem  Lodge,  of  Northampton,  for 
their  kind  attentions  and  successful  endeavors  to  render  the  visit  of 
the  Grand  Lodge  to  their  beautiful  village  an  agreeable  one. 


MoDESTT. — It  is  a  sure  sign  of  good  sense  to  be  diffident  of  it. 
We  then,  and  not  till  then,  are  growing  wise,  when  we  begin  to  dis- 
cern how  weak  and  unwise  we  are.  An  absolute  perfection  of  under- 
standing is  impossible;  he  makes  the  nearest  approach  to  it  who  has 
the  sense  to  discern  and  the  humility  to  acknowledge  its  imperfections. 
Modesty  always  sits  gracefuUy  upon  youth ;  it  covers  a  multitude  of 
faults  and  doubles  the  lustre  of  every  virtue,  which  it  seems  to  hide: 
the  imperfections  of  men  being  like  those  flowers  which  appear  more 
beautiful  when  their  leaves  are  a  little  contracted  and  folded  up,  than 
when  they  are  full  blown  and  display  thttcaselves  without  any  reserve 
to  the  view. 



BaoTHBE  C.  Moore, — Sixty  years  bavo  almost  passed  over  my 
'head  since  landing  on  the  site  of  this  city.  In  Febrnary,  1793.1 
first  descended  the  Ohio  riyer  from  PittsbnrgL  The  arrival  of  the 
centennial  anniversary  of  the  immortal  Washington's  uniting  with 
the  ancient  and  honorable  Fraternity  of  Freemasons,  and  the  cele- 
bration of  that  event  on  the  4th  inst ,  has  brought  me  here.  Wash- 
ington died  in  December,  1799.  Funeral  honors  were  paid  him  in 
all  the  principal  cities,  Philadelphia  being  at  that  time  the  seat  of  tb^ 
Federal  Government^  and  of  which  place  I  was  then  a  resident,  and 
a  writer  in  the  public  offices,  excelled  all  others  in  the  pomp,  splendor, 
solemnity  and  expense  of  arrangements.  Both  Houses  of  Congress 
wore  in  full  attendance  in  the  procession.  The  President — John 
Adams — and  his  Cabinet,  with  all  the  Executive  Officers  and  Clerks, 
Foreign  Ministers,  Consols,  officers  of  the  Army  and  Navy,  and  dia- 
tinguished  strangers  and  citizens,  were  there  to  honor  the  memory  of 
the  illustrious  dead.  The  Freemasons  were  out  in  large  numbers, 
and  had  a  conspicuous  place  assigned  them  in  the  procession,  next  to 
the  hearse  and  horse  of  the  deceased.  I  was  Secretary  of  Washing- 
ton Lodge,  No.  59,  that  year.  Brother  William  Gamble,  who  died 
in  this  city  three  or  four  years  ago,  and  at  the  time  a  member  of  the 
same  Lodge  was  with  me  in  the  procession.  General  Henry  Lee, 
then  a  member  of  the  House  of  Representatives  of  the  United  States 
from  Virginia,  and  a  distinguished  partisan  officer  of  the  American 
Revolution,  delivered  the  eulogium  by  appointment  of  Congress. 
Dr.  Samuel  Magan,  the  Episcopal  minister  of  St.  Paul's  Church,  by 
appointment  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Pennsylvania,  pronounced  an 
appropriate  discourse  to  the  Freemasons. 

Washington  continued  a  member  of  Fredericksburg  Lodge,  No.  4, 
Virginia,  to  tho  time  of  his  death,  in  December,  1799,  and  is  re- 
ported to  the  proceedings  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  the  State,  amons 
the  deaths  of  that  year.  I  owned  a  printed  pamphlet  containing  afl 
the  proceedings,  with  a  list  of  Lodges,  their  numbers  and  location, 
with  the  names  of  officers  and  members  respectively.  On  my  leaving 
Pioua  some  years  ago,  I  presented  this  relic  of  ancient  Freemasonry 
in  Virginia,  to  Warren  Lodge  of  that  town. 

The  Hon.  Jonathan  Bayard  Smith,  one  of  the  Judges  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, was  Grand  Master  of  the  State  at  the  time  of  Washington'a 
death.  His  signature  is  affixed  to  my  Masonic  Diploma,  bearing  date 
December  24,  1798,  with  George  A  Baker  as  Grand  Secretary. 

Your  Friend  and  Brother, 

John  Johnstoit. 
Gineinnati,  Not.  9, 1862. 

•  From  Oinoimiati  Beviaw  1852. 



It  has  been  our  oonstant  endeavor  since  we  ooromenoed  the  pnbli- 
<Bation  of  Thb  Ashlae,  to  lessen  sn  eyil  prominent  in  every  section , 
and  awaken  our  readers  to  the  dangers  which  will  sooner  or  later  follow, 
if  it  go  on  unchecked.  Others,  far  and  near — through  the  length  and 
breadth  of  our  land — ^have  sounded  notes  of  warning.  Masonic  jour* 
nals,  addresses  of  Grand  officers  and  reports  of  Committees  on  Foreign 
Correspondence  have  given  frequent  alarms,  and  called  in  tones  of 
eloquence  upon  Brethren  to  avert  the  threatening  disaster.  Are  all 
these  cautions  heeded  ?  Are  care  and  prudeDce  generally  exercised, 
when  members  are  called  upon  to  ballot  for  candidates?  Brother, 
what  does  the  experience  of  your  Lodge  answer  1  Have  you  known 
instances  in  which  a  little  more  investigation,  a  little  more  time  and 
caution  would  have  brought  to  light  facts  derogatory  to  the  petitioner, 
and  caused  his  rejection  1  If  you  know  of  no  such  instance,  are  you 
satisfied,  on  reasonable  grounds,  that  every  one  admitted  is  worthy  and 
well  qualified  ?  These  are  serious  questions,  and  we  are  forcibly  re- 
minded of  their  importance,  when,  travelling  through  the  'Country,  we 
perceive  the  vast  increase  of  membership  in  every  locality.  There  is 
need  of  more  care.  As  a  Masonic  journalist,  we  consider  it  a  duty 
to  continue  to  warn  our  readers  against  the  impending,  not  to  say 
growing,  evil ;  and  we  believe  the  day  is  not  far  distant  when  it  will 
be  incumbent  on  Orand  Lodges  to  impose  restrictions  in  the  making 
of  Masons,  which  shall  stop  the  *^  hot  haste"  of  Lodges.  There  are  a 
few  regulations,  which,  if  enforced,  would  probably  effect  a  cure  and 
remove  the  disease. 

In  the  first  place,  let  every  applicant  be  required  to  be  thoroughly 
informed  in  what  is  to  be  learned  of  the  ritual  of  each  degree,  before 
be  advances  to  the  next,  and  let  him,  according  to  the  old  rule,  wait 
a  month  between  the  degrees.  Under  such  salutary  restrictions,  the 
rapid  and  dangerous  growth  of  the  Order  would  be  checked,  and  none 
but  the  best  material  would  be  introduced  into  the  building.  No 
one  could  reasonably  complain  of  the  stringency  of  such  rules.  We 
hold  that  the  secrets  of  Masonry,  when  properly  unders^od,  are  a 
priceless  boon  which  no  amount  of  money  should  buy,,  and  he  who 
receives  them,  should  place  upon  them  their  proper  value.  If  he  do 
so,  he  will  be  willing  to  endure  delay,  and  study  long  and  laboriously, 
in  order  that  he  may  qualify  himself  to  advance.  The  man  who  is 
not  willing  to  exert  himself  to  gain  a  knowledge  of  the  ritual,  or  who 
has  not  sufficient  mental  caliber  to  acquire  it,  is  not  fitted  to  receive 

4— VOlk.  U.  NO.  L 


the  second  or  third  degree.  The  adoption  of  the  course  indicated 
would  undoubtedly  lessen  the  member  of  Lodges  as  well  as  check  the 
work.  80  much  the  better — ^no  harm  can  result  from  that.  Lodgea 
are  too  numerous,  and  Masonry- -or  rather  its  degrees  are  becoming 
too  cheap. 

We  have  perused  with  pleasure  the  following  graphic  remarks  of 
the  Grand  Master  of  Massachusetts,  which  were  delivered  to  a  new 
Lodge.  We  commend  them  to  our  readers  as  enforcing  by  illustra- 
tion the  truth  of  our  sentiments : 

Do  not  bv  beat  of  drum  entice  or  entreat  any  one  to  join  with 
you.  Let  all  come  with  free  will  and  accord,  deeming  the  cause  a 
good  one  and  the  pay  and  reward  certain.  Let  them  be  scanned 
singly  and  scrutinised  individually  ;  not  coming  up  in  whole  squads, 
begetting  confusion  and  error;  but  marching  up  war-fashion,  with 
body  errect  to  his  future  Captain,  there  pledging  himself  (and  under- 
standingly  so)  to  the  great  action  for  which  he  is  willing  to  engage. 
Let  him  fully  understand  the  implements  of  his  profession.  Teach 
him,  these  are  tools  apparently  insignificant,  which  may  be  wielded 
witili  the  mightiest  effect,  acting  noiselessly,  but  penetrating  deeply ; 
and  that  they  should  enter  even  into  the  heart,  ere  their  full  power  is 
effected.  That  even  the  uniform  they  wear  is  highly  symbolical  and 
impressive,  and  that  the  Masonic  Soldier  can  assign  some  efficacy, 
some  intent  and  meaning  in  his  decoration,  which  his  more  warlike 
Brother  would  find  it  difficult  to  do,  as  regards  his  own.  Let  him 
be  well  drilled  as  a  subaltern,  before  he  aspires  to  be  the  officer,  and 
at  every  roll  call,  let  him  be  in  his  placa  Caution  him  to  keep  and 
conceal  the  pass-words  and  countersign  entrusted  to  him;  and  be  ever 
on  the  watch  for  spies  and  enemies,  that  he  should  support  and  main- 
tain that  Constitution  under  which  he  has  enlisted,  and  the  especial 
regulations  of  his  own  Company.  In  short,  that  by  his  loyalty,  de* 
▼otion  and  upright  conduct,  he  may  gain  that  proud  distinction  which 
is  awarded  to  the  **  accepted"  Soldier  of  our  Faith.      •     ♦     •     •     • 

'^  In  these  piping  times  of  our  peace  and  prosperity,  no  foes  to  be 
assailed,  no  enemies  to  be  overcome,  be  not  the  less  watchful.  Let 
the  outposts  be  vigilantly  guarded ;  sentinels  on  erery  watch  tower. 
Lower  not  ihe  draw-bridge  to  your  inner  works,  for  too  ready  ad- 
mission. Examine  all  through  the  loop-holes  of  a  well  guarded  jea- 
lousy. Every  Masonic  soldier  should  be  a  Cerberus  to  his  trusts,  an 
Argus  to  his  Order,  a  Briareus,  feeling  with  an  hundred  hands  the 
pulsations  of  the  motives  of  all  who  approach  his  sacred  retreat  As 
your  official  Head,  then,  I  say  unto  you — watch  ! 


j^"*^   "  J\.ecp   huj  wjugUB   iruiu   cvii   auu   uuj  iipo  uuiu   Dp^rcukiu^ 

guile;  depart  from  evil  and  do  good;  seek  peaoe  and  pursue  iV* 
Suieh  are  the  injunoiiooB  of  Maionry. 



The  annual  oonrocation  of  the  Orand  Bojal  Arch  Chapter  of  Con- 
neoticat  was  held  at  New  Haven  in  May  last  We  hare  received 
from  Comp.  E.  G-.  Btorer  the  official  report  of  its  proceedings.  The 
M.  E.  Isaac  H.  Coe,  Grand  High  Priest,  opened  the  Chapter.  In 
his  address  he  thas  appropriately  alludes  to  the  decease  of  an  old  and 
&ithful  workman : 

<<  The  Masonic  Fraternity  in  this  State  have  within  the  past  year 
been  called  to  part  with  one  of  its  oldest  and  most  unwavering  de- 
fenders—one who  has  stood  for  many  years  as  a  pillar  combining 
'^Wisdom,  Stren^h  and  Beauty."  I  refer  to  our  Most  Excellent 
Companion  and  Past  Grand  High  Priest,  William  H.  Ellis,  of  this 
city.  Although  information  of  his  decease  has  been  very  generally 
communicated  by  our  Grand  Secretary,  yet  I  should  be  considered 
derelict  in  my  duty,  did  I  not  at  least  notice  briefly  his  Masonic 

Barely,  if  ever,  has  he  failed  to  attend  our  annual  gatherings,  while 
his  firm  and  unflinching  adherence  to  the  *^  ancient  landmarks  of  the 
Order''  has  become  proverbial  with  the  Craft  Were  the  workmen 
at  a  stand — he  was  always  ready  with  some  excellent  design  drawn 
from  the  great  Masonic  Trestle-Board,  and  all  again  resumed  their 
labors.  Did  confusion  for  a  moment  threaten  to  disturb  the  quiet  of 
the  body — he  would  never  fail  to  direct  attention  to  some  portion  of 
Masonic  Law,  and  thus  poui  oil  upon  the  waters  and  still  the  rising 

He  was  one  to  whom  it  was  an  honor  to  defer.  True,  he  had  his 
faults, — and  who  has  not  ? — but  as  the  gold  contrasted  with  the  alloy 
appears  more  beautiful,  so  do  the  virtues  of  the  good  man  appear 
more  excellent  when  contrasted  with  the  few  faults  that  may  appear 
in  his  character.  But  why  should  I,  comparatively  a  novice  in  Ma- 
sonry, speak  of  the  Masonic  virtues  of  one  who  has  been  so  long  a 
living  epistle,  known  and  read  of  all  the  Fraternity  ? 

Companions,  his  seat  in  the  East  is  to-day  vacant;  his  cheerful 
countenance  greets  us  no  more ;  his  voice  is  no  longer  heard  in  our 
councils  To  him  the  hour  of  retiriog  from  labor  to  repose  hascome ; 
he  has  gone  to  carry  up  for  inspection  the  labor  of  his  life,  to  be  tried 
by  the  unerring  rule  of  truth.  While  his  body  reposes  in  peace  amid 
the  graves  of  his  kindred,  let  his  Masonic  virtues  be  engraven  upon 
our  hearts.    Companion  and  Brother,  rest  thou  in  peacel" 

The  report  of  the  Committee  on  Foreign  Correspondence,  like  all 
productions  from  the  pen  of  Comp.  Wm.  Storer,  is  an  elaborate  and 
able  composition.  He  quotes  with  approbation  from  the  address  of 
G.  H.  P.  Shoemaker,  of  Michigan,  delivered  in  January  1855.  We 
have  not  space  to  comment  upon  the  report  more  at  length  in  this 
number,  but  may  refer  to  it  again  in  our  next 

28  THB    ASHLAR. 

In  Bcoordance  wiih  a  resolution  adopted,  a  oommittee  of  nzteeD^ 
of  which  High  Priest  I.  A.  Coe  is  chairman,  waa  appointed  to  make 
preparations  for  the  reception  and  entertainment  of  the  officers  and 
members  of  the  General  Grand  Chapter  of  the  United  States  which 
will  hold  its  triennial  session  at  Hartford  on  the  second  Tuesday  of 
September  current 

The  following  officers  were  elected  for  the  ensuing  year:  M.  B. 
Isaac  H.  Coe,  G.  H.  P. ;  David  Clark,  D.  G.  H.  P. ;  Samuel  Tripp. 
G.  E. ;  Alexander  Hamilton,  G.  S.;  Horace  Goodwin.  G.  T. ;  R  O. 
Storer,  G.  S. ;  Chester  Tilden.  G.  C. ;  Fred.  J.  Calhoun,  G.  C.  of 
Host;  Nathan  Dikeman,  Jr.,  G.  R.  A.  Capt 

There  are  according  to  the  returns  eighteen  Chapters  in  Oonnecti- 
eut,  oompristng  about  one  thousand  members. 


Jackson,  August  3d,  1856. 

Here  I  am,  dear  Ashlar,  in  a  city  renowned  for  the  number  and 
intelligence  of  its  Masons.  At  this  place  reside  M.  S.  Shoemaker, 
Grand  High  Priest;  Benj.  Porter  jr.  Post  Grand  Lecturer,  High 
Priest  of  the  Chapter  in  this  place  and  Master  of  Lodge  No.  17; 
Jas.  A.  Dyer,  P.  M. ;  J.  C.  Wood,  P.  M. ;  R.  S.  Cheney,  W.  M.  of 
Lodge  No.  50 ;  J.  T.  Titus,  and  many  other  lealous  and  faithful 
members  of  the  Fraternity.  Having  arrived  in  town  late  last  evening, 
I  have  seen  few  Brethren ;  I  learn,  however,  that  the  various  Masonic 
bodies  here  are  doing  a  large  amount  of  work.  There  are  at  this 
time  six  petitions  before  the  Chapter. 

I  left  Detroit  on  Monday  last,  the  28th  of  July,  and  rode  in  the 
cars  to  Wayne.  Then  I  took  passage  for  NorthvUle  in  an  uncovered 
wagon,  dignified  by  the  name  of  ^  stage."  Long  before  we  (that  is 
the  other  passengers  and  myself)  reached  our  destination,  the  rain 
poured  in  torrents.  The  consequence  was  a  very  natural  one — I  got 
wet  and  experienced  my  first  fever  and  ague  chilL  After  a  night's 
rest,  I  found  myself  able  to  circulate  among  the  Brethren.  Dr. 
Gregory  was  absent,  but  I  had  the  pleasure  of  meeting  Bro.  W.  D. 
Whalen  and  other  worthy  membersL  Northville  Lodge  is  composed 
of  good  materials,  but  labors  under  a  disadvantage  to  which  many 
country  Lodges  are  subjected — ^its  members  are  scattered  over  much 
territory.  Several  of  them  reside  at  Plymouth,  where  I  had  the 
pleasure  of  meeting  them. 

THE   ASHLAB.  29 

Taeflday  evening  fotind  me  among  old  friends  at  Ypeilanti.  The 
Lodge  waa  convened  and  worked  in  the  third  degree,  Bro.  D.  Ed- 
wards in  the  East.  We  have  so  many  times  spoken  favorably  of 
this  Lodge,  that  it  wonld  be  superflnoos  to  add  further  praise.  No 
where  in  the  State  have  we  met  with  more  Masonic  zeal  than  in  that 

I  also  had  an  opportunity,  which  was  joyfully  improved,  of  visiting 
Belleville  Lodge.  This  is  situated  in  an  easterly  direction  about 
seven  miles  from  Ypsilanti,  and  is  an  offshoot  from  Phoenix  Lodge. 
Bro.  L.  J.  Ford  is  Master,  and  Bro.  Dean  is  Senior  Warden.  From 
appearances,  I  should  judge  that  this  young  sister  is  doing  well 
She  has  among  her  members  some  excellent  men.  Bro.  H.  E.  Cham- 
pion is  a  host  in  himself;  the  latch  string  of  his  door  is  always  out, 
and  his  generosity  knows  no  bounds. 

A  short  ride  in  the  cars  carried  me  to  Ann  Arbor,  the  abode  of 
literature  and  science.  It  is  a  dpot  well  chosen  for  the  University. 
The  scenery  around  it  is  beautiful  and  such  as  might  inspire  the 
dullest  minds  with  a  love  of  the  beautiful  The  city  is  quiet,  and  the 
retired  situation  of  the  University  renders  it  free  from  the  noise  and 
bustle  of  business.  I  am  not  personally  acquainted  with  the  Pres- 
ident and  professors,  but  believe  they  are  able  and  cultivated  men, 
competent  to  fill  the  stations  which  they  occupy.  One  of  them  cer- 
tainly has  a  world-wide  reputation  and  should  make  the  name  of 
Ann  Arbor  known  wherever  a  knowledge  of  science  prevails  I  refer 
to  Prof  Brunnow,  the  astronomer  who  recently  left  Europe  and  came 
to  this  State  to  take  charge  of  the  observatory.  Michigan  should  be 
proud  of  her  University  and  proud  that  she  has  within  her  borders 
such  a  man  as  Brunnow.  At  Ann  Arbor  a  new  Lodge  has  recently 
sprung  into  existence ;  Bro.  J.  N.  Gott  W.  M.  The  old  Lodge  is 
still  flourishing.  We  had  the  pleasure  of  meeting  Bros.  Gott,  Shat- 
tuck,  Sprague,  Guiterman,  and  others  who  displayed  a  praiseworthy 
zeal  for  the  Craft.  I  also  saw  Comp.  Piatt,  High  Priest  of  the  Chapter, 
who  informed  me  that  that  body  was  prospering. 

I  made  a  short  stay  at  Dexter  where  I  found  W.  M.  Carlisle  in- 
disposed and  somewhat  ^  shaky."  He  improved  rapidly,  and  I  doubt 
not  he  is  quite  convalescent  by  this  time. 

From  Dexter  I  went  to  Pinckney.  It  was  my  first  visit  to  that 
village.  Bros.  Haze,  W.  M.,  M.  B.  Wilcox  and  others  gave  me  a 
cordial  welcome.  The  Lodge  in  this  place  is  new,  but  it  has  a  good 
room  and  about  thirty  members  of  the  right  stamp.  It  is  progressing 
and  will  be  one  of  the  best  Lodges  in  the  State  ere  long. 


On  the  whole,  I  judge  that  the  Graft  is  prospering.  The  weather 
is  beautiful ;  nature  has  put  on  her  finest  robe  and  smiles  almost  con- 
stantly. Little  does  he  who  is  encased  between  the  brick  walls  of  a 
city,  know  how  to  enjoy  life  at  this  season  of  the  year.  Every  body 
in  the  country  looks  happy,  and  well  may  each  one.  The  crops  arc 
good  and  abundant ;  the  farmer  has  harvested  his  wheat  and  much  of 
his  hay ;  his  com  and  potatoes  are  doing  well,  and  he  sees  pUnty 
near  at  hand.  Ah  I  merry  people  of  the  country,  you  may,  at  this 
season,  look  upon  your  city  neighbors  with  a  sensation  akin  to  pity. 

A.  W. 

Ionia,  Mich.,  August  10,  1856. 

Since  my  last  letter,  written  a  week  ago,  I  have  not  made  very 
rapid  progress  geographically.  Among  the  warm-hearted  Masons  of 
Jackson  I  spent  three  days  very  pleasantly,  and  had  an  opportunity 
to  meet  many  Brethren  from  various  parts  of  the  State.  Bro.  Titus 
laid  me  under  renewed  obligations,  and  for  his  kind  services  any  ex- 
pression of  thanks  is  but  a  poor  return.  I  trust  he  will  accept  them, 
however,  "  taking" — as  the  common  saying  is — ^'  the  will  for  the  deed." 

I  left  Jackson  Wednesday  evening,  the  6th  inst,  in  company  with 
Bro.  W.  E.  Owen,  J.  W.  of  Union  Lodge  of  Strict  Observance,  No.  3. 
A  pleasant  ride  through  a  beautiful  country  landed  us  at  Eaton 
Bapids.  This  is  a  very  flourishing  village,  and  should  the  projected 
railroad  from  Cincinnati  to  Mackinac  pass  through  its  territory,  it 
will  advance  rapidly  in  the  path  of  improvement  and  prosperity. 
Masonry,  I  should  judge,  flourishes  well  in  this  place.  The  Lodge 
has  about  fifty  members,  and  the  Lodge-room  is  one  of  the  best  in 
the  State.  It  is,  I  should  think,  the  longest  "  oblong  square"  in  the 
jurisdiction — ^being  in  this  respect  a  little  faulty— or  rather  running 
into  "  the  extreme."  The  ante-rooms  are  well  arranged,  and,  when 
some  improvements  shall  have  been  made  in  the  equipment  of  the 
Lodge-room,  our  Brethren  may  well  feel  proud  of  it  and  challenge 
comparison.  Bro.  Vaughan,  Secretary  of  the  Lodge  and  one  of  its 
pillars,  received  me  in  a  truly  Masonic  spirit,  and  made  my  short  stay 
an  exceedingly  agreeable  one.  Bro.  V.,  I  shall  not  soon  forget  your 
welcome,  nor  fail  to  reciprocate  it  when  an  opportunity  ofiers. 

Thursday,  the  8th  inst.,  I  found  comfortable  quarters  at  the  Benton 
House  in  Lansing,  kept  by  Bro.  E.  H.  Peck.  I  was  fortunate  enough 
to  be  present  at  a  meeting  of  Lansing  Lodge,  No.  33,  the  same  even- 
ing, and  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  the  Brethren  work  in  the  second 
degree.  Bro.  E.  B.  Merrifield  is  Master  of  this  Lodge  and  presides 
with  dignity  and  ease.    Excepting  the  performances  of  the  Senior 

THE    ASHLAE.  31 

DeaooQ — magna  pars  fui^tha  ceremonies  were  well  and  accurately 
condacted,  and  could  not  fail  to  produce  a  deep  and  lasting  impression 
on  the  candidate.  Beside  Bros.  Merrifield  and  E.  H.  Peck,  I  had 
the  pleasure  of  meeting — ^grip  and  grip — many  gentlemanly  and  warm- 
hearted memben§  of  the  Craft  Bro.  Pinckney,  W.  M.  of  Capitol 
Lodge  of  Strict  Observance,  No.  66,  was  absent  which  I  regretted 
very  much.  In  Lansing  there  are  two  Lodge-rooms ;  both  are  well 
fitted  up.  The  Chapter  in  this  place,  of  which  Comp.  Havens  is  a 
leading  and  active  member,  is  progressing  harmoniously.  Its  work 
is  good,  and  its  ^  timber,"  I  am  informed,  is  of  the  best  quality. 

Friday  morning,  I  left  Lansing  in  the  stage  and  arrived  at  Port- 
land about  noon.  I  searched  in  vain  for  my  old  friend  Bro.  Geo. 
Hill,  a  Mason  whose  heart  is  engaged  in  the  work  of  his  hands.  He 
had  removed  to  Ionia,  In  his  place,  however,  I  found  the  happy 
countenance  of  a  true  member  of  the  Order,  Bro  Sam.  Sutliff.  The 
exchange  of  a  few  words,  a  shake  of  the  hand,  and  I  was  again  seated 
in  the  stage  on  my  way  to  Lyons.  The  road  was  at  times  quite  rough, 
but  I  felt  perfectly  safe  under  the  guidance  of  Bro.  P.  B.  Haight 
who  held  the  reins  and  directed  the  spirited  steeds  over  the  rough 
and  rugged  paths.  In  company  with  Bro.  J.  C.  Hall,  I  arrived  at 
Lyons  about  3  o'clock  P.  M.  It  is  said  that  haste  makes  waste. 
This  may  be  true  generally,  but  I  cannot  admit  it  when  applied  to 
my  own  movements ;  for  I  have  been  in  haste  wherever  I  have  travelled, 
and  have  made  no  waste  to  my  knowledge.  At  Lyons  I  circulated . 
among  the  Brethren  in  a  great  hurry,  and  two  hours  after  my  arrival 
among  them,  was  on  my  way  to  this  place. 

Ionia  is  delightfully  situated,  being  surrounded  with  much  wood- 
land whose  verdure  at  this  season  is  very  refreshing  to  a  person  ac- 
customed to  the  brick  walls  and  hot  air  of  a  thickly  populated  city. 
Every  thing  looks  well  here,  notwi^standing  the  light  rains  and  the 
dryness  of  the  soil.    The  wheat  crop  in  this  region  is  light,  but  good. 

The  Lodge  in  this  place  is  large,  having  about  ninety  members. 
Under  the  guidance  of  W.  M.  Palmer  H.  Taylor,  it  is  doing  con- 
siderable work,  and  its  material  is  of  the  best  kind.  The  new  Chap- 
ter, which  has  been  in  operation  but  a  short  time,  already  embraces 
about  thirty  members  and  is  doing  remarkably  well  Its  officers 
have  made  great  proficiency,  and  manifest  the  deepest  interest  in  its 
welfare.  Geo;  W.  Wilson  is  High  Priest  and  fills  the  office  with 
honor  to  himself  and  credit  to  the  body  over  which  he  presides. 

Bros.  Fred.  Hall  and  S.  W.  John  K.  Croswell  extended  to  me  the 
hand  of  welcome.    Both  will  receive  my  thanks  for  their  kind  services. 

A.  W. 

32  THE   ASHLAR. 




On  the  1 1th  of  September  1801,  Zion  Lodge  met  at  the  house  of 
Bro.  Jafl.  Donaldson.  Bro.  Joseph  Campao,  who  is  now  Imng,  a 
hale  and  hearty  gentleman  of  the  old  school,  and  is  daily  seen  in  the 
streets  of  Detroit,  acted  as  Senior  Deacon.  Bro.  R.  G.  Barde  was 
passed,  and  Bros.  T.  MoCrea  Jr.,  John  Askin  Jr.,  Jonathan  Schiep- 
pelin,  M.  F.  Dumas  and  R.  G.  Barde  were  raised.  This  was  certain- 
ly a  large  amoont  of  work  for  one  eyening.  ''  Bro.  Campaa,"  says 
the  record,  ^  assigns  illness  as  a  reason  for  his  late  neglects  of  sum- 
monses  and  absences  from  regular  Lodges.  The  body  deem  the 
reason  sufficient." 

The  next  meeting  took  place  on  the  5th  of  October  1801,  Bro. 
Joseph  Campau  being  present.  It  was  resolved  unanimously  that 
the  Tiler  "  be  allowed  for  each  Lodge  night  the  sum  of  seyenty-five 
cents,  and  for  each  initiation  the  sum  of  one  dollar."  ''  Bro.  Barde 
enters  and  makes  a  satisfactory  apology  for  his  tardiness."  ^  A  copy 
of  a  letter  from  Jas.  May,  formerly  a  member  of  this  Lodge,  bearing 
date  the  3l8t  August  1799,  was  receiyed;  ordered  that  the  Secretary 
cause  it  to  be  re-delivered  to  Mr.  May  in  a  blank  cover."  ^  The 
Master's  Lodge  was  closed,  and  an  Entered  Apprentice  opened,  when 
the  W.  M.  delivered  a  lecture  on  the  first  degree."  This  example  is 
worthy  of  imitation  at  the  present  time.  ^  The  Lodge  resolves,"  ac- 
cording to  the  record,  "that  on  Tuesday  the  20th  inst.,  at  10  o'clock 
in  the  morning,  they  will  meet  in  full  dress  at  the  room  which  they 
at  present  occupy,  and  go  in  procession  to  the  one  prepared  for  our 
future  meetings. '  Resolved  also,  that  Bro.  Scott  officiate  on  that  day 
as  Chaplain,  that  Bro.  Bates  perform  the  office  of  Orator,  and  that 
Bros.  Scott  and  Askin  Jr.  be  a  committee  of  invitation." 

Oct.  20th,  1801.  The  Lodge  ''convened,  as  resolved  on  the  even- 
ing of  the  5th  inst.,  at  the  house  late  the  property  of  our  deceased 
Bro.  Jas.  Donaldson."  After  the  despatch  of  ''some  preparatory 
business,"  the  members  ^  went  in  procession  to  the  Council  House, 
where  Bros.  Scott  and  Bates  officiated,  ss  appointed  by  the  last  re- 
gular Lodge.  The  body  then  proceeded  to  the  Hall  lately  prepared^ 
in  the  house  of  our  W.  M.  McDonnell.  Thos.  Martin,  Major  in  the 
1st  U.  S.  Regiment  of  Infantry,  after  performbg  a  certain  cai^gmony, 
is  admitted  as  a  visiting  Brother."  ^  The  Lodge  requested  Bro.  Bates 
to  supply  them  with  a  copy  of  his  address  for  publication,  who  con- 
scious of  much  inaccuracy,  begged  time  for  consideration." 

THE    ASHLAR.  33 

Not.  Sd,  1801.  At  this  tneetiog  a  Oommtttee,  consisting  of  Bros. 
Abbott  and  Askin,  reported  that  Bro.  Bates  "will  supply  a  copy  of 
his  address  for  publication,  and  Bro.  Sohieppelin  is  requested  to  have 
a  few  hnndred  copies  thereof  printed  in  such  manner  as  he  shall  deem 
most  advisable."  It  was  ordered  that  a  special  summons  be  sent  to 
Bros.  Jona.  Nelson,  Jno.  Snow  and  Gabriel  Godfroj,  requesting  their 
attendance  at  the  next  regular  Lodge.  Bro.  Schieppe^in  was  directed 
to  purchase  books  for  the  Lodge ;  and  a  committee  was  chosen  to 
inquire  into  the  conduct  of  Bro.  Jas.  Wilkinson. 

At  the  next  meeting  on  the  7th  of  December,  the  committee  report 
fayorably  respecting  Bro.  Wilkinson,  and  he  is  admitted  a  member 
af  the  Lodge.  Nemon  Pinckney  was  initiated.  The  following  officers 
were  then  elected  for  the  ensuing  year : 

Wm.  McDonnell  Scott,  Master. 

Geo.  Wallace,  Jr.,  S.  W. 

Fred.  Bates,  J.  W. 

John  Askin,  Jr.,  T. 

R.  G.  Barde,  Sec. 

Rob.  Abbott,  S.  D.  ^      ,  „ 

J.  Wilkinson,  J.  D.  \  *°^  Stewards. 

Dec.  21  St,  1801.  "Emergency,"  says  the  record,  "oonyened  by 
order  of  the  W.  M.  for  the  purpose  of  bquiring  into  the  validity  of 
the  late  election  of  officers  and  other  purposes."  "  An  inquiry  now 
took  place  into  the  late  election  of  officers,  on  a  suggestion  of  unfair* 
ness.  After  an  ample  investigation  of  the  subject,  the  Lodge  are 
satisfied  of  the  validity  of  said  election."  Bro&  Martin  and  Pinckney 
were  passed. 

Deo.  27th,  1801.  At  this  meeting  Bro.  Wallace  was  fined  twelve 
and  one  half  cents  for  tardiness.  "  Israel  Ruland  offers  such  reasons 
for  the  non-payment  of  his  Lodge  accounts  as  to  excite  lenity." 

"  The  Apprentice's  Lodge  removed  for  some  time  down  stairs,  to 
give  an  opportunity  for  instaUing  the  officers  elect  A  Past  Master's 
Lodge  was  then  opened,  when  Bro.  Scott  was  installed  Master  accord- 
ing to  ancient  custom.  The  W.  M.  Scott  then  proceeded  to  invest 
his  different  officers."  "  The  Past  Master's  Lodge  then  dosed,  when 
the  Brethren  then  generally  returned  to  the  Hall  to  resume  the  labom 
of  the  day  as  apprentices.'' 

"The^W.  M.,  in  order  to  solemnize  the  day  so  long  honored  by 
Masons,  addressed  a  prayer  to  the  Father  of  Nature,  elegantly  and 
happily  suited  *to  the  anniversary  of  our  patron  saint.  The  body 
then  formed  and  marched  in  procession  to  the  house  of  Bro.  Jos. 

5-— VOL.  IL  NO.  I. 


Harrison  where  they  partook  of  an  entertainment  yery  bandsomelj 
provided,  and  that  with  much  convivial  harmony  and  flow  of  sodl. 
From  thence  about  sunset  we  returned  in  orderly  procession  to  our 
Hall,  closed  the  Lodge  in  charity  and  Brotherly  love  on  an  adjourn- 
ment until  the  next  regular  Lodge  night  barring  emergencies." 

On  the  4th  of  Jan.  1802,  Bros.  Godfrey  and  Pinckney  were  raised. 

On  the  1st  of  Feb.,  Bro.  Martin  was  raised,  and  at  meetings,  held 
on  the  1st  of  March  and  the  5th  of  April,  sundry  excuses  for  absence 
were  given  and  accepted. 

Masonic  Female  Colleoe. — Of  all  the  charities  of  Masonry  none 
presents  the  OtAer  in  a  more  amiable  light,  than  its  efforts  in  behalf 
of  the  education  of  the  children  of  deceased  Brothers.  The  Signet 
and  Journal  brings  us  an  account  of  the  Fourth  annual  commence- 
ment of  the  Southern  Masonic  Female  College,  situated  at  Marietta, 
Ga.,  which  took  place  June  23th  and  24th.  This  institution  is  re- 
presented as  very  flourishing,  and  rapidly  establishing  an  enviable 
reputation.  The  writer  thus  describes  the  present  grounds  and  the 
necessity  for  enlargement : 

''  We  have  never  seen  a  more  beautiful  and  rural  spot  than  the  Col- 
lege grounds.  The  fine  well  of  limpid  water,  the  old  oaks,  spanning 
with  their  gigantic  arms  the  entire  campus,  with  the  antique  work- 
manship of  the  College  buildings — all  these  things  combined  give  to 
the  place  quite  a  picturesque  and  rural  appearance,  and  make  it  a 
place  in  which  the  fairies  might  delight  to  hold  their  moonlight  revels. 
But  it  appears  that  something  still  remains  to  be  done  before  this 
plot  of  classic  ground,  with  its  appendages  will  become  all  that  the 
Fraternity  could  desire. 

With  the  intense  interest  manifested  in  the  success  of  this  favored 
institution,  and  its  increasing  patronage,  it  is  even  now  manifestly  ap- 
parent, that  the  buildinga  must  be  enlarged,  or  the  prosperity  of  the 
mstitution  will  be  permanently  checked.  A  want  of  more  commodious 
buildings  was  more  apparent  from  the  vast  number  of  persons  in  at- 
tendance who  could  not  get  to  see  or  hear  any  portion  of  the  com: 
menoement  exercises.  Would  it  not  be  well  for  the  Masonic  Frater^ 
nity  of  Georgia  to  take  this  matter  under  serious  consideration,  and 
to  devise  ways  and  means  by  which  to  raise  funds  for  the  erection  of 
a  chapel  ?" 

Let  this  and  similar  institutions  stand  as  permanent  answers  to  the 

objections  to  Masonry  based  upon  its  exclusion  of  females  from  its 

mystic  ceremonies.    '^  By  their  works  ye  shall  know  them,"  applies 

to  bodies  as  well  as  to  individuals,  and  proudly  can  the  Order  point 

to  these  monuments  of  enlightened,  well  regulated  benevolence,  as 

proofis  of  the  benign  influence  of  its  precepts. 



Prom  the  proceedings  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  California  at  its  last 
eommanication,  we  gather  some  information  relative  to  Lodges  in  tibe 
West  Indies. 

There  are  at  Honoldn,  the  principal  island,  two  Lodges.  A  brief 
history  of  each  may  be  found  in  the  following  extract  taken  from  a 
communication  addressed  to  the  G.  M.  of  California  by  Hawaiian 
Lodge : 

In  the  year  1843,  a  Brother  named  Le  Tellier,  then  commanding  a 
French  whale  ship  in  this  ocean,  duly  empowered  by  the  Grand  Comicil 
of  the  33d  of  France  to  institute  Masonic  Lodges  in  the  Pacific,  in 
places  oyer  which  no  other  jurisdiction  had  previously  been  extended, 
granted  a  warrant  to  certain  Brethren  to  open  a  Lodge  in  this  city 
under  the  name  of  "  Le  Progres  de  L'Oceanie."  For  some  years 
this  Lodge  prospered  uid  added  to  its  iist  of  members  the  names  of 
many  of  our  first  and  most  estimable  citizens,  being  considered  a 
legitimate  Lodge  and  legally  constituted,  which,  indeed,  it  undoubted- 
ly was. 

About  the  year  1850  or  1851,  several  causes  combined  to  break  up 
the  Lodge,  and  it  ceased  to  work  or  to  meet ;  the  warrant  hty  ne- 
glected in  the  Lodge  chest,  and  the  Lodge  was, considered  extinct. 
This  state  of  things  continued  for  nearly  two  years,  when,  in  1852,  a 
number  of  the  old.  members  of  the  Lodge  ^  Le  Progres,"  together 
with  a  few  recent  comers,  met  and  agreed  to  ask  for  the  jurisdiction 
of  the  State  of  California  over  these  islands  For  this  purpose  they 
applied  to  the  M.  W.  Grand  Lodge  of  California  for  a  dispensation  to 
open  a  Lodge,  which  was  granted,  and  the  following  year  they  re- 
ceived a  charter  under  the  name  of  Hawaiian  Lodge,  No.  21,  which 
is  our  present  flourishing  body.  At  the  time  of  its  formation,  the  old 
members,  then  surviving,  of  ^  Le  Progres,"  formally  made  over  the 
jewels  and  appurtenances  of  that  Lodge  to  the  new  one,  and  them- 
selves became  active  members,  to  a  man,  of  Hawaiian  Lodge. 

It  appears  that  about  a  year  and  a  half  ago  several  members  of 
Hawaiian  Lodge  withdrew,  and  raking  the  old  charter  from  the  rub- 
bish, organized  and  sent  to  France  for  a  new  charter  or  an 
endorsement  of  their  proceedings.  The  Hawaiian  Lodge  chose  a 
committee  to  examine  the  charter  of  the  revived  Lodge  and  ascertain 
whether  that  body  was  regular.  They  subsequently  made  a  report 
respecting  the  documents  shown  them,  frt)m  which  we  make  an  ex- 

A  paper  empowering  one  Brother  Le  Tellier  to  establish,  under 
authority  and  jurisdiction  of  the  Supreme  Council  of  France,  Lodges 
of  Freemasons  of  the  Scottish  rite, 'in  such  places  as  he  might  deem 
useful  and  just,  throughout  the  Pacific  Ocean,  wherever  no  other 
Masonic  jurisdiction  at  the  time  existed.    This  paper  also  gave  him 

36  THE    ASHLAR. 

the  privilege  of  wearing,  under  certain  circumstanceB  and  for  certain 
purposes,  a  flag  with  specified  Masonic  symbols  and  import.  &c.  It 
bore  a  seal  and  several  signatures,  and  purported  to  emanate  from  the 
Supreme  Council  aforesaid ;  and  it  bore  date  (as  nearly  as  we  remem- 
ber) in  April,  1842. 

Another  paper  bearing  as  signature  the  name  of  Bro.  Le  Tellier, 
empowered  certain  Brethren  to  congregate  and  act  as  a  Lodge  of 
Freemasons  at  Honolulu,  the  said  Lodge  to  bear  the  distinctive  ap- 
pellation of  ^  Le  Progres  de  L' Oceanic."  This  papei  bore  date  (as 
nearly  as  we  remember)  in  March,  1843. 

A  third  paper  bearing  also  as  signature  the  name  of  Bro.  Le  Tel- 
Her,  informed  his  Brethren  of  the  "  Progress  de  P  Oceanic"  of  the 
favorable  notice  taken  by  the  Supreme  Council  of  his  (Le  Tellier^s) 
labors  in  the  cause  and  propagation  of  Masonry  in  the  Pacific  Ocean. 
It  states  also  that  the  said  Supreme  Council  had  conferred  upon  him 
(Le  Tellier)  the  30th  degree  in  Masonry,  as  a  token  of  their  apprecia- 
tion of  his  services  rendered, 

A  fourth  paper  bore  a  seal  and  signatures,  and  purported  to  ema- 
nate from  the  Grand  Orient  of  France.  This  paper  bore  date  (aa 
nearly  as  we  remember)  in  December,  1854,  and  appeared  from  its 
tenor  to  be  in  answer  to  one  received  from  the  Brethren  of  the  ^^  Pro- 
gress de  L'Ooeanie,"  and  contained  substantially  what  we  now  write 
from  memory. 

It  commenced  by  acknowledging  the  receipt  of  a  communication 
(planche)  addressed  to  the  Most  Worshipful  Grand  Master  of  the 
Grand  Orient  of  France,  and  then  proceeded  as  follows : 

'^  The  Grand  Orient  would  be  giutified  to  add  another  Subordinate 
Lodge  to  its  jurisdiction.  But  the  warrant  of  constitution  (iepouvoir 
canstittUif),  of  which  you  have  sent  us  a  copy,  does  not  emanate  from 
this  body,  which  has  the  supreme  control  of  all  Masonry  in  France. 
There  exists  in  France  another  Masonic  power  which  has  created  your 
Craft  {cree  votre  metier).  We  have  therefore  thought  it  our  duty  to 
give  no  sequence  to  your  request,  until  your  wishes  shall  have  been 
more  definitely  expressed  to  us,  <&c.,  &c." 

On  receiving  the  report  of  its  committee,  the  Hawaiian  Lodge 
passed  a  resolution  requesting  its  members  not  to  visit  the  revived 
Lodge  till  the  decision  of  the  Grand  Master  of  California  should  be 
given  on  its  genuineness.  A  commnnication  was  addressed  to  the 
Grand  Master  respecting  the  matter,  which  was  laid  before  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  California  and  referred  to  the  Committee  on  Masonic  Juris- 
prudence. Their  report  fully  sustains  the  action  of  Hawaiian  Lodge, 
and  recommends  a  resolution,  which  was  adopted,  that  all  intercourse 
between  that  body  and  Lodge  ^  Le  Progres  de  L'Oceanie"  be  inter- 
dicted. The  ground  on  which  the  Committee  rest  their  opinion  that 
the  revived  Lodge  is  clandestine  or  irregular,  is  the  fact  that  it  at  one 
time  had  not  a  single  member,  and  therefore  ceased  to  exist  This  is 
certainly  sound  ;  but  the  Committee  might,  without  overstepping  its 

THE    ASHLAR.  37 

authority,  have  also  stated  tliat  the  sonrce,  whence  the  old  charter 
originated,  was  not  such  as  is  recognized  at  the  present  time  as  legiti- 
mate. There  is,  as  far  as  we  know,  hut  one  genuine  and  regular 
Lodge  in  the  West  Indies,  and  that  is  Hawaiian  Lodge^  acting  under 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  California. 



The  "  Independent  Grand  Lodge  of  Canada,*^  of  which  W.  M. 
Wilson  is  Grand  Master,  held  its  first  annual  communication  in  the 
citj*of  Hamilton  on  Wednesday,  the  9th  day  of  July  last  We  find 
an  account  of  its  proceedings  in  the  Masonic  Pioneer, 

Representatives  from  thirty- two  Lodges  were  present  David 
Brown  presented  his  credentials  as  representative  of  the  Grand  Lodge 
of  Vermont 

The  Grand  Master  delivered  a  well  written  address,  giving  a  hrief 
account  of  his  doings.  He  recommends  that  action  he  taken  to  pro* 
duce  uniformity  in  the  work,  and  suggests  that  a  committee  "•  take 
into  consideration  and  report  upon  the  propriety  of  adding  the  '  mark' 
to  the  Fellow  Craft's  degree."  He  congratulates  his  Brethren  on  the 
*^  recognition"  accorded  them  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Ireland,  and 
some  of  the  Grand  Lodges  of  the  United  States ;  says  that  the  de- 
cision of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  will  not  a£fect  the  validity  of 
the  new  Grand  Lodge,  and  that  no  arguments,  but  ^^  worthless  and 
specious"  ones,  have  in  any  instance  been  adduced  against  the  '*  cor- 
rectness" and  ^^  present  constitutional  position"  of  the  new  body.  He 
recommends  that  the  members  of  Subordinate  Lodges  continue  to 
affiliate  with  those  Masons  in  Canada  who  have  not  as  yet  seen  fit  to 
recognize  their  action  as  legal,  and  expresses  the  opinion  that  Grand 
Master  Evans  of  New  York  must  have  been  misinformed  as  to  facts 
when  he  wrote  his  letter  condemning  the  "  Independent  Grand  Lodge." 
The  address  alludes  to  the  circular  of  the  Provincial  Grand  Lodge 
respecting  the  new  body,  and  says  it  is  incorrect  in  its  statements. 

A  constitution,  reported  by  a  committee,  was  adopted,  after  which 
the  following  were  elected  officers:  W.  Mercer  Wilson,  G.  M. ; 
A.  Bernard,  D.  G.  M. ;  J.  H.  Isaacson,  G.  S.  W. ;  Charles  Magill, 
G.  J.  W  ;  Rev.  St  George  Caulfield,  G.  C. ;  Wm.  Bellbouse,  G.  T. ; 
T.  B.  Harris,  G.  R. ;  John  Osborne,  G  S.  An  open  vote  having 
been  taken  for  Tyler,  John  Morrison  was  elected. 


A  committee  appointed  to  arrange  the  numbers  of  the  warrants  of 
the  affiliating  Lodges,  presented  the  following  report,  which  was 
adopted : 

1.  Social  A  Military  Yirtues,  Montreal.  21 .  St.  Thomas, St  Thomas. 

2.  Niagara, Niagara.  22.  Brant, Brajitfordu 

3.  Barton* Hamilton.  23.  Great  Western, Windsor. 

4.  Union, Grimsby.  24.  Wellington, DnnnviUe. 

5.  Norfolk, Simcoe.  25.  Shefford, Waterloo. 

6.  Sussex, BrockviUe.  26.  Yaughan, Maple. 

7.  Prevost, Dunham.  27.  Harmony, Binorook. 

8.  Golden  Rule, Stanstead.  28.  Wellington, Stratford. 

9.  St.  George, St.  Catherine.  29.  Hoyle, La  Colle. 

10.  Prince  £dward, ....  Picton.  30.  Acacia, Hamilton. 

1 1 .  Nelson, ClarenceTille.  31.  St.  Andrew's, Caledonia. 

12.  St  Andrew's, St  Andrew'a  32.  Kilwinning, London. 

]  3.  St.  George's, Montreal.  33.  Rehoboam, Toronto. 

14.  St.  Johns, London.  34.  Jacques  Cartier, .._ Montreal. 

15.  Zetland, Montreal.  35.  St  Francis, Melbourne. 

1 6.  King  Solomon, Toronto.  36.  St.  John's, Ingersoll. 

1 7.  Strict  Observance,. .  Hamilton*  37.  King ^^^ug* 

18.  St  John's, Cayuga.  38.  Victoria, Sherbrooke. 

19.  ThisUe, Amherstburgh.  39.  Alma,    Gait 

20.  St.  John's, Hamilton. 

A  report  was  made  by  ^  a  committee  on  the  address  of  the  Grand 
Master  "  in  which  they  endorse  his  sentiments. 
Nothing  else  of  importance  was  transacted. 

The  Power  of  Friendship. — The  fortifying  and  motive  power  of 
friendship  is  varied,  immense  and  incxhanstible.  It  has  strengthened 
patriots  to  lay  their  lives  on  the  altar  of  freedom  and  country.  Its 
glowing  cordon  was  around  Tell,  and  Fnrst,  and  Arnold,  and  their 
compeers  on  the  field  of  Orutli.  when,  breast  to  breast,  in  the  shadow 
of  the  Swiss  Alps,  they  swore  to  free  the  canton  from  Austrian  thral- 
dom, or  to  die  together.  It  has  encouraged  philosophers,  poets, 
artists,  inventors  in  their  rejected  teachings  and  unappreciated  labors. 
The  description,  by  his  great  disciple,  of  the  last  moments  of  the 
poisoned  sage,  in  his  prison,  amidst  the  group  of  admiring  friends,  is 
an  illustrative  picture  whose  colors  fade  not  with  the  sun  of  Athens, 
and  which  the  world  will  never  let  perish  The  public  career  of  the 
great  sonled  Gracchus  plainly  owed  its  chief  impulse  to  the  ardent, 
ever  animating  friendship  of  Caius  Blosius.  This  communing  en- 
thusiasm still  sustsdns  the  true  and  good  when  evil  days  come  and 
the  persecutions  of  evil  men  prevail.  It  has  ever  been — ^while 
humanity  remains  in  man  it  ever  will  be — companionship  to  the 
captive,  wealth  to  the  poor,  impulse  to  the  struggling,  support  to  the 
suffering,  solace  to  the  wretched,  joy  to  the  prosperous,  and  to  all  who 
deeply  know  it  an  inspiring  presence  through  life,  and.  in  death  a  hope 
full  of  immortality. —  Wm,  R,  Alger. 

THE    ASHLAR.  39 


In  the  faithfnl  adherence  to  the  principle  of  the  secrecy  of  the 
ballot  lies  the  secnrtty  of  our  Institution.  Violate  that,  and  you 
remoye  the  great  safe*guard  of  the  Order.  It  is  not  only  the  right, 
but  the  duty,  of  a  member  to  cast  a  black  ball  whenever  he  is  not 
satisfied  beyond  reasonable  doubt  that  the  petitioner  is  worthy  and 
well-qualified ;  and  that  ball  he  has  a  right  to  cast  secretly  and  in 
such  a  manner,  that  no  one  can  know  his  act  Members  cannot  law- 
fully or  properly  question  each  other  as  to  their  manner  of  balloting, 
and  any  efforts  to  ascertain  who  caused  the  rejection,  is  wrong  and 
contrary  to  the  great  principle  of  our  Institution. 

In  order  to  secure  perfect  secrecy,  the  mode  of  balloting  in  each 
Lodge  should  be  carefully  considered.  Our  attention  has  been  di- 
rected to  this  subject  in  our  recent  travels,  and  experience  has  taught 
us  that  there  is  need  of  a  reformation.  In  many  Lodges  the  ballot 
is  taken  in  such  a  manner,  that  it  is  in  fact  no  secret;  the  Senior 
Deacon,  or  some  other  member  near  the  box,  can  see  the  balls  as  they 
are  deposited.  Either  the  boxes  should  be  differently  constructed, 
or  they  should  be  placed  on  the  altar  and  the  ballots  deposited  there. 
This  mode  is  practised  in  several.  Lodges  in  Michigan,  and  while  it 
facilitates  operations,  it  secures  perfect  secrecy. 

This  subject  should  receive  the  careful  consideration  of  Lodges. 
It  has  been  commented  on  in  some  jurisdictions  by  those  high  in  author- 
ity. ^  I  deem  it  important,"  says  the  Grand  Master  of  Massachusetts, 
"^  to  call  the  attention  of  the  Lodges  to  the  matter  of  balloting  for  the 
admission  of  candidates.  First,  as  to  the  mode.  This  ballot  is,  and 
is  to  be,  strictly  secret  It  is  the  Mason's  great  prerogative.  It  is  a 
right  which  every  member  enjoys,  and  which  he  is  bound  to  exercise 
faithfully,  impartially  and  conscientiously.  With  him  alone,  rests  the 
responsibility  of  its  use.  This  prerogative  is  of  a  two-fold  character : 
a  Mason  has  a  right'  to  cast  a  ballot,  which  shall  reject  the  application 
of  a  candidate,  but,  moreover,  he  is  entitled  to  do  this  in  a  manner 
that  shall  be  a  profound  secret  to  all  his  Brethren.  This  is  another 
and  an  important  part  of  his  privilege. 

^*  The  ballot  is  taken  in  some,  and  probably  in  most  Lodges,  in  such 
a  manner  that  really  it  is  not  so  secret  at  all.  I  would  recommend 
such  a  construction  of  the  ballot  boxes,  as  will  make  the  ballot  what 
it  is  intended  to  be — ^profoundly  secret  to  all  persons,  whatever. 

"  In  this  connection  allow  me  to  say  further,  that  every  member 
should  feel  that  the  welfare  of  the  Institution  is  in  a  great  degree 

40  THB    ASHLAR. 

committed  to  bis  keeping,  so  far  at  least  as  the  admission  of  candidates 
involves  its  welfi$re.  The  humblest  member  holds  the  key  of  the 
door,  in  the  form  of  a  black  ball,  which  is  more  effectual  than  bolts 
and  bars,  or  armed  sentinels  can  be.  On  the  other  hand,  thej  should 
be  watchful  over  themselves,  that  this  great  power  be  never  exercised 
bj  them  under  the  impulse  of  unjustifiable  motives." 

Without  a  proper  arrangement  of  the  ballot,  it  is  a  farce,  and  the 
principle  which  has  been  sanctioned  by  immemorial  usage,  and  on 
which  rests  the  security  of  Masonry,  is  violated  and  set  at  nought. 
Brother !  consider  this  matter;  is  yowr  Lodge  at  fault?  If  so,  seek 
to  apply  the  proper  remedy. 

Frbeuasonrt  and  the  Aechbishop  of  Dublih. — The  Boman 
Catholic  Archbishop  of  Dablin  has  issued  a  pamphlet  condemning 
the  Institution  of  Masonfy  and  prohibiting  any  of  his  church  people 
from  belonging  to  the  same  under  very  severe  penalties.  The  tract  is 
set  forth  as  ''  what  every  Christian  must  know."  In  connection  with 
remarks  on  Freemasonry,  it  says:  '^Mortal  sin  makes  us  lose  the 
grace  and  friendship  of  God,  and  bum  forever  in  the  fire  of  helL  *  * 
It  is  a  mortal  sin  to  be  a  member  of  a  secret  and  forbidden  society, 
such  as  societies  of  Freemasons." 

The  Evening  Packet  says:  "It  does  not  appear  that  any  good 
Masons  have  taken  fright  at  this  conflagatory  decree  from  Paulus 
CuUen,  Archiepiscopns  in  Ntdnbus;  and  they  show  sense.  They 
are  not  a  perch  nearer  Pluto,  because  Dr.  Cullen  has  designated  them 
to  that  entertaining  gentleman.  But  we  have  to  ask  a  question,  and 
it  is  this :  why  does  not  Dr.  Cullen  condemn  to  flame  and  brimstone 
a  certain  society  called  '  The  Bibbon  V  It  is,  we  suppose,  quite  an 
innocent  affair,  compared  with  the  graceless  compact  of  Freemasonry. 
If  Dr.  Cullen  is  to  be  considered  the  patron  of  the  evil  he  omits  to 
censure,  then  Captain  Bock  and  hia  meriie  men  are  archiepiscopally 
booked  for  Elysium." 

It  is  exceedingly  paradoxical  for  the  clergy  of  the  Boman  Catholic 
Church  to  condemn  the  Institution  of  Masonry  on  account  of  its 
secrecy,  when  they  approve  of,  and  belong  to,  a  secret  society  whose 
character  stands  before  the  world  in  the  most  unenviable  light.  The 
bulls  and  edicts  issued  by  the  popes  and  bishops  against  unr  Order, 
in  different  parts  of  the  world  stand  in  full  force  to-day,  never  having 
been  recalled  or  annulled.  They  are  weak  and  powerless,  however, 
to  effect  the  purpose  for  which  they  were  designed. 

THE   ASHLAR.  41 

Holland. — The  MasoDB  of  Holland  reeently  celebrated  their  one 
hundredth  annivejsary  ander  the  presidency  of  Prince  Frederic  of  the 
Netherlands.  A  letter  from  the  Hagne,  which  we  find  in  an  exchange, 
says :  ^  Four  hundred  Brothers  sat  down  to  a  magnificent  repast  in 
the  great  hall  of  the  Lodge,  a  building  erected  in  1816,  by  Prince 
Frederic,  at  an  expense  of  £10,000,  and  rented  by  the  Brethren. 
Delegates  attended  on  the  part  of  the  Freemasons  of  England,  France, 
Bossia  and  several  other  Statea  On  the  health  of  the  Prince  Pres- 
ident being  proposed,  a  silver  crown  of  exquisite  workmanship  was 
presented  to  his  Boyal  Highness,  who,  in  responding  to  the  toast, 
pulled  from  his  pocket  the  title  deeds  of  the  Freemasons'  Hall  above 
alluded  to,  and,  handing  them  to  the  Treasurer,  begged  the  associated 
Brethren  to  accept  at  his  hands  that  magnificent  building  as  a  centen- 
ary gift.  Not  an  individual  in  the  hall  had  been  apprised  of  his 
Boyal  Highness'  intention,  so  that  this  munificent  act  excited  as  much 
surprise  as  enthusiasm.  It  may  be  observed  that  Prince  Frederic  of 
the  Netherlands  is  the  second  son  of  the  late  King  WiUiam  of  Hol- 
land, and  is  one  of  the  wealthiest,  if  not  the  wealthiest,  man  in  the 
Netherlands.  He  never  interferes  in  political  matters,  having  been 
slighted  by  certain  diplomatists  in  1815,  when  he  at  once  and  for 
ever  withdrew  from  State  business.  He  is  a  man  of  simple  and  re- 
fined tastes,  affable  and  courteous  in  demeanor,  and  respected  by  alL" 

Ambrican  AnoPTivE  Bite. — We  have  given  our  views  somewhat 
at  length  respecting  this  spurious  and  pernicious  system.  The  argu- 
ments which  we  advanced,  have  not  been  answered,  and  as  far  as  we 
are  aware,  no  attempt  has  been  made  to  refute  them.  As  far  as  we 
can  learn,  in  this  section  the  new  degrees  meet  with  little  favor,  and 
they  are  generally  discountenanced.  They  are  upheld  by  few  of  the 
Masonic  journals  in  this  country.  Bro.  Moore,  of  the  Cincinnati  Be- 
view,  has  attacked  them  without  gloves,  and  throws  the  influence  of 
his  widely  circulated  periodical  against  them.  Bro.  Hyneman,  of  the 
Mirror  &  Keystone,  says  in  a  late  nnmber  of  his  paper  that  he  ^<  will 
in  a  very  short  time  have  something  to  say  in  reference  to  the  '  Ame- 
rican Adoptive  Bite,'  and  that  he  is  ^  in  possession  of  a  copy  pf  ^  the 
Mosaic  Book,'  which  clearly  proves  its  object  to  subvert  the  very 
foundations  of  Freemasonry."  It  is  our  intention  at  an  early  day  to 
say  more  on  the  subject. 

Bro.  Wm.  H.  Drew,  of  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  has  been  elected 
Grand  Lecturerin  his  jurisdiction. 

6— VOL.  XL  NO.  L 

43  THE   ASHLAR. 


Bbo.  Weston:  Pontiac,  AuguBt  2, 1856. 

Dear  Sir : — At  a  special  oommonication  of  Pontiao  Lodge,  No. 
21,  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  held  at  the  Masonic  Hall  in  the 
village  of  Pontiac,  Oakland  Oo.,  Mich.,  August  2, 1856,  the  follow- 
ing preamble  and  resolutions  were  reported  and  unanimously  adopted : 

WTi/ereoB,  It  lias  pleased  the  Supreme  Ruler  of  the  UniTene  in  the  dispen^- 
tion  of  HiB  Divine  Troridenee,  to  call  from  this  life  oar  worthy  and  belored 
Brotiher  Pbtxb  D.  Makxlxt;  and 

Whereas,  We  deem  the  occasion  aprtropriate  to  the  expression  ef  the  senti- 
ments of  affection  entertained  for  him  Dy  every  member  of  this  Order  who  en- 
joyed his  aoquaintanco  while  living,  and  especially  those  of  the  Lodge  to  which 
he  belonged,  and  of  irhich  he  was  an  active  member;  therefore 

Besolffed,  That  in  the  death  of  Bro.  Makiliet  we  reoognize  that  inscmtable 
wisdom,  which,  -while  it  removes  from  our  midst  an  esteemed  Brother,  from 
the  domestic  circle  a  kind  husband  and  iiidulgent  father,  from  society  a  valu- 
able citizen  and  good  neighbor,  admonishes  us  not  only  of  the  uncertain  tenure 
of  life,  but  of  the  utility  of  the  practical  virtues  which  he  exhibited  in  his  daily 
intercourse  with  the  world,  ana  in  bis  attadiment  and  devotion  to  the  principles 
of  his  profession  as  a  man  and  a  Mason. 

EeMved,  That  as  members  of  this  Lodge  we  offer  our  condolence  and  sym- 
pathy in  their  sore  affliction  to  the  bereaved  family  and  friends  of  our  deceased 
Brotner,  and  that,  in  compliance  with  his  special  request  and  in  discharge  of 
the  duty  imposed  by  considerations  of  brotherly  love  and  esteem,  we  wlII  now 
proceea  in  a  body  to  pay  the  last  tribute  ot  respect  to  his  memory,  prescribed 
oy  the  uaaffes  of  our  ancient  and  honorable  Order. 

Resolved,  That  a  copy  of  the  foregoing  preamble  and  resolutions  be  furnished 
by  the  Secretary,  under  the  seal  of  this  Lodge,  to  the  &mily  of  the  deceased, 
and  also  to  the  editor  of  Trk  Ashtmr,  with  the  request  that  he  publish  the 
same.  JOHNSON  A.  CORBIN,  Secretary. 

On  the  3d  of  August  1856,  at  the  residence  of  Hon.  B.  Wood- 
worth,  of  inflammation  of  the  bowels,  Fankib  Anna,  only  daughter 
of  Bro.  Andrew  J.  Gummbgs  and  his  wife  Fannie  E.  Cummings, 
aged  sixteen  months  and  twenty-three  days.  The  funeral  was  at- 
tended by  Bro.  G.  B.  Engle  of  Port  Huron.  It  was  the  evening  of 
a  lovely  day  emblematical  of  the  calm  decease  and  peaceful  life  of 
the  departed  cherub ;  the  summer  sun  was  quietly  setting,  when  the 
inanimate  remains,  still  beautiful  in  death,  were  deposited  to  mingle 
with  their  kindred  earth  at  the  foot  of  an  evergreen,  whose  perennial 
verdure  will  typify  her  memory  cherished  in  the  hearts  of  her  mourn- 
ing but  trusting  parents. 


In  Detroit  Lodge,  No.  2,  from  May  10th  to  July  26th:  Geo. 
Kumey,  Albert  T.  Yreeland,  B.  Bush  Bagg,  De  Witt  0.  Nichols, 
John  Stevenson,  William  Ourtis  and  Peter  Babillion. 


Td  nn  FEATRMiTT.'—We  now  preseiit  70a  ynOi  the  fint  somber  of  the 
■eoond  tolnme  of  Thx  Asblas.  The  irork  has  been  sncceisfallT'  eanied 
through  one  year.  As  in  the  begiaaing»  it  needs  a  ready  sopport  to  make  H 
live  and  flourish.  Our  best  and  untiring  eflbrts  shall  be  giyen  to  make  it 
worthy  of  patronage;  but  our  endeaTors  will  be  Tain  if  not  seconded  by  the 
substantial  aid  of  the  Oraft.  Brother,  do  you  think  that  a  Hasonio  work 
ought  to  be  puUiahed  and  snpportedT  If  so,  is  it  not  a  duty  to  sobecribe 
for  Thb  AtaujLM,  unless  prerented  by  poverty?  Let  every  reader  ssriously 
consider  this  and  act  as  the  best  interests  of  Masonry  require.  Brother,  if 
you  think  this  periodical  should  be  sustained,  subscribe  for  it  and  get  otJien 
to  do  the  same.  In  this  way  you  can  materially  advance  its  interests  We 
must,  to  a  certain  extent^  rely  upon  the  kind  serviced  of  our  friends  in  different 
kcalitiee,  and  we  look  to  them  now  with  hope  and  confidence.  Two  doUan 
are  not  much  for  each  individual  to  pay,  and  yet  the  aggregate  of  wkdj  such 
small  sums  is  to  the  proprietor  a  great  help.  Be  kind  enough,  Brethren, 
to  consider  this  fi»t  and  impress  it  upon  tlie  minds  of  others,  and  oblige  us 
by  doing  what  you  can  to  advance  the  cause. 

EzoBss  CUE  ABsmroE. — Vfe  are  obliged  to  g^ve  personal  attentions  to  renew- 
ing subscriptions  and  getting  up  a  list  for  the  present  year.  This  neceesarUy 
causes  us  to  leave  the  editorial  chair  for  three  or  four  weeks  at  a  time,  and  to 
intrust  to  other  hands  the  preparation  of  a  portion  of  the  matter  which  appears 
in  The  Ashlas.  We  must,  therefore,  ask  our  readers  to  excuse  any  deficiencies 
arising  from  our  absence.  In  the  course  of  two  or  three  months*  at  the  longest, 
we  expect  to  be  at  home  as  "  much  as  usual,*'  and  shall  bestow  upon  our  work 
more  editorial  labor  than  our  present  duties  will  admit  o£ 

Mauc  Dxonxi.-^At  its  recent  communication  in  March,  the  Qrand  Lodge  of 
England  declared  that  the  "  degree  of  Mark  Masonry  is  not  at  variance  with 
Cnuft  Masonry,  and  that  it  be  added  thereto  under  proper  retaliations.'*  It 
will  be  conferred  between  the  second  and  third  degrees. 

DxTBOiT  OiTT  I>auD0TOET.--J.  B.  Johnsou  will,  in  a  few  days,  issue  a  new 
edition  of  his  Detroit  Directory  for  the  current  year.  He  has  been  at  much 
pains  and  expense  to  make  his  work  accurate.  It  will  contain  about  three 
hundred  pages  and  embrace  a  large  amooat  of  statistical  matter  of  interest  to 
every  one  who  wishes  to  gain,  in£»rmation  reflpecting  the  Peninsular  State  or 
its  beautiful  Oity  of  the  Stnits.  Let  ewy  ooe  who  deafies  Ught  on  these  nib- 
jects,  obtain  a  copy. 


Visits  amovo  thb  BavrHRicy. — Since  the  date  of  oiir  oorrespondenee  at  Icmia 
▼e  have  viaited  the  following  aamed  places: 

Lowell. — We  stopped  in  bat  a  few  minutes  while  the  stage-paasengers  took 
dinner,  and  met  Bro.  C.  S.  Hooker,  an  old  friend  of  Masonry. 

GaAim  Rapids. — ^A  tedious  ride  over  a  v&ry  dusty,  dirty  road  carried  ns  to 
this  place.  It  is  one  of  the  most  flourishing  cities  in  the  State,  being  next  to 
Detroit,  we  are  informed,  in  population.  Its  growth  has  been  rapid  and  is  still 
continuing.  There  are  now  in  the  process  of  erection,  three  or  four  large  brick 
blocks  beside  a  large  number  of  dwelling  houses  and  smaller  buildings.  Every 
thing  bears  the  marks  of  energy  and  prosperity.  The  people  are  active  and 
busy,  and  a  lazy  man  cannot  be  found.  The  people  are  looking  forward  to  the 
completion  of  Hie  Detroit  and  Milwaukee  Railroad,  in  the  course  of  a  year  or 
a  year  and  a  half,  which  will  make  a  direct  and  easy  communication  between 
the  City  of  the  Straits  and  Grand  Rapids.  In  this  thriving  place.  Masonry 
flourishes,  and  numbers  among  its  active  and  zealoub  members,  Bros.  D.  B. 
Lyon,  W.  L.  Mills,  D.  S.  Leavitt  and  others.  The  new  Encampment^  of  which 
K  T.  Leavitt  is  O.  C,  is  doing  exceedingly  well  in  every  respect 

Kalamazoo. — We  left  Grand  Rapids  at  5  o'clock  P.  M.  in  the  stage  and  ar- 
rived at  the  Burdick  House  in  E.,  kept  by  Bro.  Lacey,  at  5  o'clock  A.  M.,  after 
a  cold  and  tedious  ride.  Here  -we  visited  the  new  Encampment  which  is  in 
the  full  tide  of  prosperity  under  the  guidance  of  such  K.  T.'s  as  Geo.  W.  Lusk, 
G.  0.  and  W.  C.  Ransom,  Gen.  This  is  one  of  the  most  beautifol  places  in 
Michigan,  and  its  fame  in  this  respect  has  spreaii  far  and  wide. 

Battle  Ceeek. — We  were  disappointed  in  not  meeting  that  old  and  tried 
Mason,  J.  G  Goff.  We  are  indebted  to  Bro.  H.  D.  Hay  word  for  personal  atten- 
tions. We  were  not  able  to  remain  long  in  this  delightful  city,  but  saw  a  lai^e 
number  of  the  Brethren,  among  whom  we  may  appropriately  mention  as  active 
and  worthy  members,  £.  Sprague  and  Wm.  S.  Pease. 

Paw  Paw. — Here  we  tarried  put  three  hours,  which  were  pleasantly  spent 
under  the  guidance  of  Bro.  Simmons.    The  Graft  here  is  in  a  good  condition. 

DowAoiAo. — ^We  visited  the  Lodge  at  this  place.  Work  was  well  done  in  the 
third  degree.  Bro.  P.  D.  Beckwith,  W.  M.,  gives  much  time  and  attention  to 
Masonry,  and  is  worthy  the  confidence  reposed  in  him  by  his  Brethren. 

Nilbsu — We  met  Bros.  Landon,  W.  M.,  Wm.  Graves,  Henry  Rounds,  and 
other  warm-hearted  members  of  the  Order.  Bro.  McOmber,  G.  T.,  we  did  not 
see,  which  was  a  matter  of  regret  to  us.  There  are  a  Chapter  and  a  Lodge  in 
this  place.    Both  are  doing  well. 

MicmoAH  Crrr.-^We  spent  a  short  time  in  this  city  and  had  the  pleasure  of 
forming  Hie  acquaintance  of  Bros.  Sammons,  De  Groff,  H.  R.  Smith,  and  others 
who  are  &r  from  being  rough  ashlars  in  the  temple  of  Masonry.  From  this 
place  we  went  to  Chicago,  but  as  we  intend  to  visit  that  city  again  soon,  we 
omit  a  i^otice  ot  it  now. 

The  Pbhdtsulae  Joubhal  or  MEDionnB  and  Collatbbal  Sodoioes  for  August 
is  upon  our  table,  fiUed  with  its  usual  amount  of  original  and  selected  readings 
interesting  both  to  the  professional  and  non-professional  man.  The  Journal 
gbould,  and  probably  does,  enjoy,  as  it  deserves*  a  liberal  snpport  and  an  ex- 
oellent  reputation.    Issued  monthly,  fS  per  year. 


OFDnom  OP  TBS  Psm.  Our  thanks  are  dae  to  the  PmmnUar  AAtocaU 
iorthe  IbUoving  kind  eipreaaione  in  onr  behalf.  Whenever  the  noticeaol 
our  cotttemporariee  paea  without  acknowledgment,  we  tmat  thej  will  impnte  it 
to  onr  modesty,  and  not  to  indifference: 

Tbb  Asblae. — We  have  received  the  Angnrt  nnmber  of  this  most  deserving 
periodical,  which  completes  the  first  volume  of  its  publication.  Thus  far  it  has 
oeen  more  successful  tnan  could  have  been  expected  under  the  discouragements 
wiOi  which  it  had  to  contend  at  the  start;  and  now  that  it  haa  so  nobly 
survived  the  most  trying  period  of  its  existence,  we  have  every  assurance  that 
the  "  Bre^ren  of  the  mystic  tie"  will  give  it  the  liberal  support^  it  so  richly 
merits.  In  point  of  editorial  ability,  judicious  management  and  cypographicaJl 
skill,  it  is  a  credit  to  the  press  of  Uie  State,  and  aaaa  auxiliary  to  the  Institution 
of  MasoBTy,  its  efforts  will  prove  of  great  service  in  giving  it  tone  and  character, 
ii  the  present  judicions  management  is  continued,  aa  we  have  every  reason  to 
believe  that  it  will  be. 

Terms  fS  per  annum.    Address  Axltn  Wistok,  Detroit,  If ieh. 

For  my  part,  I  confess  I  have  not  the  heart  to  take  an  offending  man 
or  woman  from  the  general  crowd  of  sinfal,  erring  beings,  and  judge  them 
harshly.  The  little  I  have  seen  of  the  world  and  know  of  the  history  of  man- 
kind, teaches  me  to  look  upon  the  errors  of  others  in  sorrow,  not  anger.  When 
I  take  the  history  of  one  poor  heart  that  haa  sinned  and  saffored,  and  represent 
to  myself  the  straggles  and  temptations  it  has  pawed,  the  brief  pulsations  of 
joy,  the  feverish  inquietude  of  hope  and  fear,  the  tears  of  regret,  the  feebleness 
of  purpose,  the  pressure  of  want,  the  desertion  of  friends,  the  scorn  of  the  world 
that  has  but  little  charity,  the  desolation  of  the  soul's  sanctuary,  and  threaten- 
ing voice  within,  health  gone,  even  hope  that  staya  longest  with  as,  gone,  I 
have  little  heart  for  aoght  else  bat  thankfulness  that  it  is  not  so  with  me,  and 
would  fkin  leave  the  erring  soul  of  my  fellow-being  with  Him  from  whose  hand 
it  came, 

**  Even  as  a  little  child. 
Weeping  and  laughing  in  its  childish  sport"     [Hcnm  Journal, 

Go  to  the  grave  of  buried  love  and  meditate.  There  settle  the  account 
with  thy  conscience  for  every  psst  benefit  unreqoitted,  every  past  endearment 
unregarded*  Console  thyself  if  thou  canst  with  this  simple,  yet  futile  tribute 
of  regret,  and  take  warning  by  this,  thine  unavailing  sorrow  for  the  dead,  and 
hence  forward  be  more  fiuthfoL —  Waakingtan  Irvmg, 

The  Triennial  Assembly  of  the  General  Grand  Encampment  of  the 
ITnited  States  of  America  will  take  place  at  Hartford,  in  the  State  of  Connecti- 
cut, on  Tuesday  the  9th  day  of  September  next^  at  12  o'clock.  Meridian,  in  con- 
formity with  the  G  G.  Constitution. 

The  Triennial  Meeting  of  the  General  Grand  Encampment  of  the 
United  States  of  America  will  take  place  at  Hartford,  in  the  State  of  Connecti- 
out»  on  Tuesday  the  9th  day  of  September  next,  at  10  o'clock  in  the  forenoon, 
in  conformity  with  the  G.  G.  Constitution. 

Graham's  Hlostratsd  Monthly  Magasine  for  September  is  upon  onr 

table,  well  filled  with  its  usual  variety. 


BtmnnEw  DnaoroBX  of  thb  Statb. — ^We  have  received  from  Bro.  H.  Hun- 
tingtoB  and  Jaa.  SuU]ierland  a  circular  aanouncijig  the  publication  of  a  business 
directoj  of  the  State  of  Michigan.  It  will  embrace*  sajs  the  circular,  the 
names  of  mechanics,  merchants  and  professional  men  in  eyery  Tillage  and  town 
in  every  county  in  the  State,  together  with  a  complete  directory  of  Detroit 
Oity.  It  will  also  contain  tibe  names  of  Post  Offices  and  Post  Masters ;  the 
names  of  the  present  United  States  Officers,  Michigan  State  Officers,  Ac.  It 
will  also  contain  a  table  of  distances  on  the  railroads  leading  from  Detroit,  and 
a  short  history  of  each  county.  Every  other  page  will  be  ornamented  with 
business  cards.    The  work  will  be  issued  at  an  early  day. 

The  printed  proceedings  of  the  Orand  Chapter  of  Indiana,  held  at 
Shelbyville  in  May  last,  have  come  to  hand.  The  address  of  the  Grand  Master 
P.  congratulates  the  Companions  on  the  prevalence  of  order  and  prosperity  in 
that  body.  Dispensations  for  ten  new  Chapters  have  been  granted  during  the 
year,  and  the  number  ef  Subordinate  Chapten  is  now  thirty-six.  Number  of 
admissions  duriog  the  year  335;  number  of  exaltations  77.  Whole  number  of 
contributing  members  1108. 

"Absurd!"  exclaimed  Bro.  Shelton.    «How  oan  we  be  the  Bn>th«rs  of 

"  Because,*'  said  Bro.  Bell,  *a  king,  like  ourselves,  is  but  a  man ;  and  though 
a  erown  may  adorn  his  nead,  and  a  sceptre  his  hand,  yet  the  blood  in  his  veins 
is  derived  from  the  common  parent  of  mankind,  and  is  no  better  than  that  of 
his  meanest  subject.  But  Freemssonry  teaches  us  to  regard  our  superiors  with 
peculiar  esteem  when  we  see  them  divested  of  external  grandeur,  and  condes- 
cending, in  a  badge  of  innocence  and  bond  of  friendship,  to  trace  wisdom,  and 
to  follow  virtue,  assisted  by  those  who  are  of  a  rank  beneath  them.  Virtue  is 
true  nobility;  vrisdom  is  the  channel  by  which  virtue  is  directed  and  conveyed; 
wisdom  and  virtue  only  can  distinguish  us  as  Masons. — JRev.  of  a  Square. 

Bbo.  HnrxvAif 's  Fas x.— We  have  received  a  likeness  of  Bro.  Leon  Hyne- 
man,  of  the  Mirror  A  Keystone^  impressed  on  paper  through  **  the  medium  of 
the  rays  of  old  soL"  It  is  an  excellent  picture  and  shall  henceforth  adorn  our 

*'  Success  prompts  to  exertion,  and  habit  fiacilitates  success.  Habit  also 
gives  promptness,  and  the  soul  of  dispatch  is  decision.  One  may  write  a  book 
or  paint  a  picture,  while  another  is  deliberating  about  a  plant  or  a  time-page. 
The  more  we  do,  the  more  we  eon  do.  If  we  go  forward  with  spirit  and  con- 
fidence, we  shsll  succeed.  The  best  are  idle  half  the  time,  and  he  who  does 
nothing,  renders  himself  incapable  of  doing  anything,  while  capacity  is  in- 
vigorated by  occasions  of  necessity.  Our  expenditure  of  intellectual  wealth 
makes  us  rich,  and  we  acquire  ideas  by  imparting  them." 

**  Our  jewels  or  ornaments  imply  that  we  by  our  affeotiona  by  justice 
and  our  actions  by  truth,  as  the  square  triea  the  workmanship  of  the  mechanic." 



TOLir.       DETROIT,  OCTOBER,  1856. 


We  live  io  &  repnblio.  The  people  elsot  the  officers  who  Bdminuter 
the  goTernmeni  The  right  of  anfirage  is  very  geoenll;  exteaded, 
and  all  claBaes  of  citjzena  take  an  iistereat  in  political  coDteets,  Par- 
ties and  aectiona  are  namerooB.  Every  praotioablB  effort  to  advanoa 
ita  interesta  and  menanrea,  ia  made  by  each.  Newspapera,  pamphlets 
and  other  reading  matter  are  aent  broad  cast  tbrengh  the  land.  Pnb* 
lie  apeakera,  eloqaent  and  ardent,  addreia  large  ooncounes  of  people. 
Zeal  bcgeta  leal ;  exoitcment  is,  as  it  were,  oontagioos,  and  beeomu 
general  Such  ia  always  the  case  in  important  election!,  and  reanlts 
from  the  nature  of  onr  government  and  the  condition  of  oar  peopls. 
Is  it  strange  that  amid  the  heat  of  the  batlle,  the  pasnons  of  men 
abonld  become  aronaed,'  ^d  feelings  of  enemity  be  created  and  fos- 
tered between  the  members  of  opposing  parties?  Not  to  expect  luoh 
a  result,  wonld  be  plawig  iiar  greater  confidence  in  haman  natore 
than  experience  will  warrant 
7— VOL  n.  NO.  u. 

48  THE    ASHLAB. 

We  are  in  the  midst  of  a  heated  political  eontest — ^in  the  nidst  of 
bitter  party  strife.  The  dust  of  the  approachiog  battle  begins  to 
rise  in  our  eyes ;  the  clamor  and  tramp  of  the  forces,  marshalHng  for 
the  conflioty  are  heard  on  ev«  ry  side,  and  oor  ears  are  filled  with  the 
war  criea  which  far  and  near  urge  od  the  excited  hosts.  At  this  time, 
we  haye,  as  Masona,  a  solemn  duty  to  pcrform-^a  duty  which  cannot 
be  neglected  or  yiolated  without  serious  injury  to  our  Inatitution. 

The  chief  characteristic  of  Masonry  is  the  freedom  which  it  allowa 
to  its  members  in  religion  and  politics.  With  regard  to  these  matters^ 
each  one  is  left  to  act  as  his  judgment  and  consctenoe  may  direct.  He 
adopts  his  own  Tiewa,  and  Masonry  neither  inquires,  nor  knows,  nor 
aeeks  to  know,  what  they  are ;  on  this  point,  she  has  no  more  concern 
than  she  has  respecting  the  taste  with  which  her  meiubers  dress,  or 
the  style  of  garment  each  may  wear.  These  are  matters  with  which 
she  has  no  business,  and  of  which  she  takes  no  cogniiance. 

Free  to  act  as  we  deem  best  for  the  public  welfare,  we  should  not, 
amid  the  excitement  of  the  contest  calculated  to  create  bitter  animov- 
itiep^  forget  the  great  Tirtues  and  holy  precepts  inculted  by  our  In- 
stitution  ;  we  should  CTcr  bear  in  mind  the  principles  on  which  it  is 
founded,  and  that  we  are  *^  linked  together  by  an  indissoluble  chain 
of  sincere  affection.*'  The  way  is  straight,  the  path  is  plain,  whatever 
political  views  we  may  espouse.  Kekp  Mason&y  and  PoLrrics  a- 
fart;  let  them  have  no  connection,  however  distant  I  Remember 
when  you  visit  the  Lodge  room,  that  ^  no  private  piques  or  quarrels 
— ^far  less  quarrels  about  religion,  or  nations,  or  State  policy"  can 
exist  there  with  safety  to  our  Order.  At  the  door,  we  must  lay 
aside  all  our  differences— *let  them  rest  in  silence  and  forget  them  for 
the  time,  and  mingle  like  Brothers  on  the  ground  floor,  in  the  middle 
chamber,  or  the  sanctum,  on  a  common  level,  united  for  a  great  and 
glorious  object.  How  beautiful  and  heart-cheering  is  such  a  sight ! 
Brother  1  yon,  like  ourselves,  can  behold  it  and  know  its  influence. 
From  the  fierce  strife,  men,  all  flushed  with  party  rancor — rivals  and 
strenaoos  opponents  in  the  political  contest — come  up  to  the  entrance 
of  the  porch ; — ^their  flushed  countenances  become  composed ;  the  spirit 
of  opposition  minifested  in  the  eye  grows  dim ;  the  hands  active  in 
gesticulation  but  a  moment  before,  as  the  indices  of  opposing  thoughts, 
clasp  each  other  with  a  warmth  which  flows  only  from  the  heart ;  no 
angry  debate  is  heard,  no  word  of  diBreq>ect  escapes  from  the  lips  of 
any ;  aU  is  tranquil  and  calm — a  unity  of  sympathy  and  desires,  and 
as  each  listens  to  the  teachings  of  Masonry  and  feels  their  benign 
influfinoe,  he  forgets  that  there  is  any  strife  without,  all  is  so  peaoe- 

THB   A8HLAK.  49 

M  and  vnaainaiu  within.  Snob  a  ioene  is  the  stroDgeat  endenoa  of 
the  benefit  and  parity  of  Masonry ;  soeh  a  soene  is  one  of  ber  proadest 
tropbies.  This  state  of  things  should  be  witnessed  in  every  Lodge. 
Where  it  does  not  exist,  some  one  has  been  &Ise  to  his  tnut,  some 
one  has  disregarded  the  prineiples  of  the  Instttation^  and  throogh 
ignorance,  earcleseness,  maliee  or  misguided  seal,  seeks  to  bflist  a 
Mown,  when  he  should  be  aotoated  only  by  feelings  <tf  reverepoe  and 

The  snbjeet  under  eonsideration  is  one  of  vast  importaneo.  It 
daims  the  attention  of  every  Mason,  however  interested  and  busy  ho 
nay  be  in  the  politioal  world ;  he  cannot  slight  it  without  doing  in- 
justice to  the  Institution  and  injury  to  bimselt  Our  duty  calls  upon 
us  to  warn  you,  Brethren,  against  the  danger  which,  there  is  reasoa 
to  fear,  may  result  from  such  a  state  of  public  a&irs  as  the  present 
Wo  cannot  do  better,  in  enforcing  our  views,  than  to  call  your  atten- 
tion to  the  following  sentiments  strongly,  but  appropriately  expressed 
by  that  veteran  Masonic  editor,  Bro.  Moore  of  the  Freemo/ton^ 
Magazine : 

It  is  in  times  like  the  present— when  the  political  world  is  agitated 
to  its  centre — ^when  friends  and  neighbors  are  arrayed  against  oach 
other  on  some  abstract  principle  of  government,  or  sociiJ  reform — 
that  there  is  immiaeot  danger  that  the  broad  and  conservative  prin- 
ciples of  our  iDStitution  may  be  forgotten,  or  in  moments  of  excite- 
ment disregarded,  and  the  angiy  elements  of  discord  introduced  where 
should  dwell  only  fraternal  kindness  and  peace.  It  is  against  this 
danger — never  more  imminent  than  now — that  we  would  caution  our 
Brethren  everywhere,  and  remind  them,  in  the  lanffuage  of  Masonry, 
that  '*  no  private  piques  or  quarrels  must  be  brought  within  the  door 
of  the  Lodge,  far  less  any  quarrels  about  religion,  or  nations,  or  State 
poUcff^"  or  ^politici^  as  what  never  yet  conduced  to  the  welfare  of 
the  Lodge,  nor  ever  will"  Masonry  admits  not  of  sectional,  political 
or  ecclesiastical  distinctions :  and  its  followers,  in  the  same  tolerant 
spirit,  should  everywhere  and  under  all  circumstances  rise  superior  to 
private  prepossessions,  to  local  prejudices  and  distinctious,  ana  **•  blend 
their  anect.oos  in  the  mutual  endearments  of  brotherhood  and  chari- 
ty." It  is  only  by  an  earnest  and  determined  persistence  in  enforcing 
a  strict  obedience  to  the  wise  command  of  the  Masonic  flatbers,  that 
we  can  hope  to  escape  the  storm  wich  is  now  raging  with  mad  violence 
around  us.  Masonry  and  politics  cannot  dwell  together.  There  is 
no  affinity  between  them.  The  teachings  of  history  in  other  lands 
abundantly  illustrate  this  assertion.  All  past  experience  proves  that 
whenever  the  bad  spirit  of  politics  has  gained  sdmission  within  the 
Lodge,  the  genius  of  Masonry  has  retired  behind  the  veils  It  will 
always  be  so.  And  he  who  with  reckless  hands  would  open  the  door 
to  it,  or  countenance  its  admission,  can  be  regarded  only  as  a  traitor 
to  his  obligations  and  an  enemy  to  the  Institution. 


Thoie  who  oannot  follow  such  injanotions,  who  oannot  remember, 
and  act  in  aocordanoe  with,  the  fundamental  principles  of  Maaonry, 
who  eannot  cherish  the  spirit  which  is  inculcated  by  all  her  teachings, 
should  renuiin  away  from  the  Lodge  room ;  they  have  no  right  to 
tread  upon  its  floor  with  polluted  feet  and  unholy  thoughts ;  thej 
oannot  do  so  without  wilfully  disregarding  the  most  solemn,  moral 
obligations  ever  assumed  by  man. 

The  duty  referred  to,  we  regard  as  plain  and  simple,  and  one  which 
every  Brother  can  readily  understand  and  perform.  Not  of  a  more 
serious  nature,  but  one  requiring  more  care  and  attention,  is  the  duty 
encumbent  on  Masons  in  their  daily  intercourse.  Strenuous  each  may 
be  in  the  advocacy  of  his  political  views ;  to  the  principles  of  his 
party,  he  may  be  attached  with  an  undying  devotion ;  his  Brother^ 
he  may  oppose  and  fight  in  the  political  arena,  with  a  courage  and 
determination  that  challenge  the  admiration  of  all; — ^bnt  let  him  do 
it  all  in  the  spirit  of  Masonry ;  let  him  ever  remember  that  ''honest 
differences"  of  opinion  on  the  most  important  questions  of  political 
economy  and  "  State  policy"  have  always  existed  among  the  best  and 
purest  men,  and  probably  always  will  exist ;  let  him  attribute  to  his 
Brother  the  same  sincerity  of  purpose,  the  same  lofty  aim,  the  same 
disingenuous  love  of  country  and  the  same  exalted  patriotism,  which 
he  claims  for  himself.  If  in  the  excitement  and  turmoil — the  heat  of 
the  raging  contest,  his  passions  and  prejudices  become  excited  and 
betray  him  into  expressions  of  enmity  toward  members  of  the  Frater* 
nity,  if  at  such  times  the  gall  of  bitter  animosity  springs  up  in  his 
heart  and  causes  him  to  say  to  his  Brother,  ^  I  am  better  than  thou" 
— ^let  such  sentiments  and  expressions  die  with  the  hour  that  called 
them  forth  ]  let  them,  like  the  Indian's  tomahawk,  be  buried  and  for- 
gotten. Keep  them  within  the  bounds  of  the  political  arena,  and  let 
them  not  disturb  private  and  social  relations.  Not  only  to  sustain 
the  principles  of  Masonry  and  accomplish  the  object  for  which  it  is 
designed,  is  this  necessary ;  it  is  vitally  important  for  the  welfare  of 
the  individual  and  the  protection  of  the  character  of  our  time-hallowed 
society.  By  cultivating  fraternal  relations  and  ^  promoting  each  other's 
welfare,"  each  one  holds  a  cheek  upon  his  prejudices,  and  keeps  his 
passions  within  due  bounds ;  within  himself,  he  cherishes  a  spirit  that 
counteracts  the  pernicious  influence  of  strong  political  excitement  He 
eannot  therefore,  by  a  strict  adherence  to  Masonic  principles  and  the 
practice  of  its  tenets,  but  be  a  better  man  socially,  morally  and  polit- 
ically ;  he  cannot  but  exert  a  powerful  sway  in  harmonising  the  dis* 
oordant  elements  of  the  times,  and  bringing  to  a  quiet  and  peaceful 
issue  the  animated  struggle. 

THBASflLAB.  51 

No  Hmod  should  foi^  the  character  of  our  Institation — liB  lofti- 
ness aod  parity.  UpOD  him  rests  an  indiTidaal  responsibility  to  pro* 
teot  it  unharmed — without  even  a  blot  or  shadow.  He  stands  before 
the  world  as  an  example  of  its  benign  power.  If  he  is  false  to  its 
precepts — if  he  treats  his  Brother  with  bitternesS)  and  entertains 
toward  him  feelings  of  hatred — ^if  he  does  not  join  in  promotiBg  his 
welfare — ^if  he  giyes  lose  reins  to  his  passions,  and  permits  them  to 
triumph  in  his  intercourse  with  members  of  the  Order,  say  the  pro- 
fane :  "•  Behold  I  such  are  the  results  of  the  much  boasted  Institution 
of  Masonry,  such  are  its  members — ^bostile  and  belligerent  toward 
each  other  in  social  and  private  intercourse  I"  What  Mason  could 
listen  to  such  remarks,  especially  if  they  be  true,  without  feelings  of 
shame  and  degredation?  What  Mason  could  listen  to  them,  without 
feeling  keenly  the  rebuke,  and  acknowledging  that  he  had  been  faith- 
less to  the  great  trust  reposed  in  him  ? 

The  iofiuenoe  of  Masonry  in  a  country  like  this,  will,  if  its  members 
be  faithful,  prove  a  powerful  engine  in  allaying  internal  discord  and 
contention,  in  strengthening  the  fundamental  institutions  of  the  coun- 
tiy,  and  in  maintaining  and  perpetuating  the  government;  it  will 
prove  a  powerful  engine  in  causing  this  glorious  Union  to  progress, 
as  it  has  progressed,  in  peace,  prosperity  and  civilization,  till  none 
shall  consider  it  an  unsuccessful  experiment,  but  all — even  kings  and 
princes — shall  acknowledge  that  its  political  system  is  the  best  on  the 
face  of  the  earth.  Ponder  these  things.  Brethren,  at  the  present 
time,  and  ponder  diligently.  It  is  the  hour  of  trial,  of  temptation, 
that  tries  our  Institation  as  well  as  you  individually.  Be  consider- 
ate ;  be  guided  by  the  light  of  reason ,'  go  to  the  Lodge  in  that  spirit 
which  will  enable  you  to  truly  meet  your  Brother  on  the  level ;  greet 
him  in  social  and  private  intercourse  with  fraternal  regard.  Do  this, 
and  no  shock  will  impede  the  progress  of  Masonry,  no  clouds  will 
lower  over  her  peaceful  course,  no  reproaches  will  fall  upon  her  head 
She  will  continue  to  glide  on  smoothly,  breathing  a  spirit  of  charity 
and  love,  and  emitting  in  her  course  an  atmosphere  that  will  cause 
all  who  breathe  it,  to  look  upon  her  as  the  hand-maid  of  progress  and 
civilization.  That  the  present  crisis  may  evince  the  sincerity  of 
Brethren  and  their  faithfulness  to  the  principles  of  our  ancient  society, 
is  our  fervent  prayer  1 

"  The  chief  point  in  Masonry  is  to  endesTor  to  be  happy 

ourselveSy  and  oommunioata  that  happiness  to  others^" 




With  softy  subdued  a&d  tremulous  roar* 
The  blue  waves  lap  the  siluot  shore. 
Beyond  whose  marge,  in  languid  dim, 
Flowers  driok  the  breath  of  summer  baloL 

The  fitting  sunlight  softlj  ftdls 
On  the  f  *am's  slumbering  ci>rona]s, 
And  s^ren  songs,  in  whispered  glee. 
Float  mlaad  firom  the  blae-li)^>ed  ^ 

Afar  the  mystic  cadence  swells. 
As  evening  notes  from  swinging  bells; 
And  all  the  passing  waves  of  air 
Thrill  with  the  murmur  sweet  and  rare. 

A  distant  vessel  glides  along; 
I  catoh  the  merry  sailors'  song; 
I  see  the  pennors  flap  and  play. 
As  still  she  steals  along  the  bay. 

But>  as  the  evening  faint  and  fair 
Gomes  nun-like  through  the  fields  of  air. 
And  sinks  into  the  lap  of  night, 
The  vessel  slowly  fades  from  sight 

80  when  the  purpling  splendors  pale. 
And  faith  and  sight  tng!>tber  fail, 
Hope,  like  the  vessel  in  the  bay. 
Oft  fades  in  trembling  gloom  away. 


Id  our  issue  of  tbe  20tli  ultimo,  when  expressing  our  views  relative 
to  the  proper  mode  of  clothing  a  F.  C,  we  stated  that  ^*  everything  in 
Masonry  was  symbolic  and  intended  to  convey  a  moral  lesson,  or  to 
remind  us  of  the  habits  of  those  who  first  wrought  on  our  Temple ;" 
we  will  DOW  add,  as  also,  to  emblematically  remind  us  of  the  su-tain- 
ing  power  of  Him  to  whose  honor  and  glory  our  Lodges  have  been 
erected ;  for,  to  use  the  language  of  Hutchinson,  '^  remembering  the 
wonders  in  the  beginning,  we,  claiming  the  auspicious  countenance  of 
heaven  on  our  virtuous  deeds,  assume  tbe  figures  of  the  Sun  and  Moon 
as  emblematic  of  tbe  great  Light  of  Truth  discovered  to  the  first  men, 
and  thereby  implying  that,  as  true  Masons,  we  stand  redeemed  from 
darkness,  and  are  become  the  Sons  of  Light,  acknowledging  in  our 
profession  our  adoration  of  Him  who  gave  light  unto  His  worka. 
Let  us,  then,  by  our  practice  and  conduct  in  life,  show  that  we  carry 
our  emblems  worthily." 


Now,  to  oorry  oar  §pMem9  worthdijff  wo  miuit  vodarstand  their 
emblematic  or  symbolic  meaning,  and  there  are  none  which,  we  think, 
may  be  deemed  more  essential  to  understand,  than  the  supports  of 
our  Lodge,  uid  that  it  is  essentially  necessary  they  should  be  under- 
stood emblematically  and  symbolically ;  for  Preston  says :  *^  To  b^in 
well  is  the  most  likely  means  to  end  well ;  and  it  is  justly  remarked, 
that  when  order  and  method  are  neglected  at  the  beginning,  they  will 
be  seldom  found  to  take  place  at  the  ead."  As  a  Lodge  is  aaid  to 
extend  from  East  to  West,  and  between  North  and  South,  so  '*  the 
Uniyerse  is  the  temple  of  the  Deity  whom  we  serye.  Wisdom,  irtrength 
and  beauty  are  about  his  throne,  as  the  pillars  of  his  works ;  for  his 
mtdom  is  infinite,  his  strength  is  in  omnipotence,  and  beatUy  stands 
forth  through  ail  his  creation  in  symmetry  and  order.  He  haih 
stretched  forth  the  heavens  as  a  canopy,  and  the  earth  he  hath  planted 
88  his  footstool ;  he  crowns  his  temples  with  the  stars,  as  with  a  dia- 
dem ;  the  sun  and  moon  are  messengers  of  his  will,  and  all  his  law  is 
concord.  The  pillars  supporting  the  Lodge  are  representative  of 
those  divine  powers."  But  how  many  of  our  readers — even  of  those 
who  have  been  called  on  to  preside  over  Lodges,  Md  have  thereby 
become  rulers  in  our  Israel — take  more  than  a  supericial  view  of 
their  supports,  without  which  no  Lodge  can  exist?  How  many  have 
any  knowledge  of  the  emblematic  meaning  of  the  pillars  of  Wisdom, 
Strength  and  Beauty,  or  for  a  moment  imagine  that  ^e  initials  •f 
these  three  words,  in  Hebrew,  give  the  name  applied  to  the  Deity  by 
us.  Yet  this  is  so,  and  to  use  the  language  of  one  of  our  ripest 
scholars  and  most  distinguished  writers  in  Masonry,  we  would  say : 
''So  striking  is  the  ooincidence  that  we  are  not  surprised  that  doubts 
have  been  expressed  whether  it  is  an  accident  or  intentional  on  the 
part  of  those  who  first  introduced  these  attributes  into  the  Lodge." 
We  will  exemplify  what  we  mean : 

Dabar,  ^^'-j,  is  the  Hebrew  word  for  Wisdom. 

Os,  fj,  is  the  Hebrew  word  for  Strength. 

Oomer,  yffy^  is  the  Hebrew  word  for  Beauty. 

Now  take  tiie  initials  of  these  three  words  in  the  original,  >^,  y,  j, 
and  spell  them  backward,  from  left  to  right,  as  in  the  Hebrew,  and  we 
find  6,  O,  D,  as  the  archetype  of  that  Wisdom,  Strength  and  Beauty, 
wluoh  sustain  and  support  a  Masonic  Lodge,  and  whose  name  is  thus 
formed  by  the  initials  of  these  three  attributes. — JUSrrar  4-  J!eif$tone. 

It  is  useless  for  Masons  to  inculcate  the  teachings  of  our 

Order  by  words,  if  their  own  actions  do  not  correspond  therewith. 



This  body  met  at  Watertown  on  the  6th  day  of  Febraary  last,  M. 
£.  Hoory  8.  Baird  G.  H.  P.  In  his  address  he  thus  allude  in  ap- 
propriate terms  to  the  stability  of  Masonry : 

While  the  political  condition  of  the  world  is  constantly  undergoing 
changes ;  while  new  dynasties  are  being  formed  and  old  ones  for- 
gotten ;  while  Kingdoms  are  converted  into  Republics,  and  Kings 
and  Emperors  become  fugitives :  Masonry  stands  unchanged  and  un- 
changeable. She  alone  of  all  human  institutions  has  withstood  the 
ruthless  hand  of  timo^  resisting,  not  with  force^  but  with  firmness,  the 

Sower  of  persecution  and  the  efforts  of  her  enemies  to  destroy  her. 
'ounded  on  a  Rook  of  Adamant,  supported  by  the  pillars  of  Wisdom, 
Strength  and  Beauty,  her  Towers  reach  the  highest  Heavens,  and  she 
stands,  amid  the  general  ruin  of  all  sublunary  institutions,  a  monu- 
ment of  her  own  antiquity  and  durability.  At  no  period  in  modem 
times  has  Masonry  been  in  a  more  prosperous  and  favorable  condition 
than  at  present,  when,  in  the  midst  of  the  general  prosperity  of  our 
common  country,  she  maintains  her  proud  and  lofty  position.  Let 
us.  Companions,  by  assiduity  in  our  several  stations,  by  the  observance 
of  the  landmarks,  and  by  the  faithful  discharge  of  the  duties  incul- 
cated by  our  Order,  sustain  and  promote  this  prosperity  and  secoie 
the  approbation  of  the  just  and  good. 

Gomp.  A.  D.  Smith,  in  pursuance  of  the  order  of  the  Grand  Chapter, 
presented  to  M.  E.  Past  Grand  High  Priest  Luther  M.  Tracy  a  jewel 
which  had  been  voted  to  him  by  the  Chapter. 

A  report  of  the  Committee  on  Foreign  Correspondence  was  anb- 
mitted*  It  contains  little  of  interest  to  those  out  of  the  jurisdiction, 
being  principally  a  review  of  the  proceedings  of  other  bodies.  We 
observe  that  the  name  of  the  Past  Grand  High  Priest  of  Michigan 
is  printed  Wm.  L.  Grunby^  instead  of  Wm.  L.  Greenly. 

The  following  are  the  officers  for  the  current  year :  Rufus  Delos 
Pulford,  G.  H.  P. ;  Henry  L.  Palmer,  D.  G.  H.  P. ;  Daniel  Howell, 
G.  K. ;  John  BuUen,  G.  S. ;  John  Hawkins  Rountree,  G.  T. ;  Wm. 
R.  Smith,  G.  S. 

There  are  in  the  jurisdiction  eleven  Chapters  with  about  three 
hundred  and  fifty  members. 

The  reflecting  man  is  cautious,  how  he  takes  a  step,  and  it 
is  not  indifferent  to  him  whether  they  are  directed  to  the  East  or 
West,  North  or  South.  His  desire  is  to  be  continually  progressing, 
and  he  does  progress,  even  though  he  is  compelled  occasionally  to 
wait,  or  even  taken  a  by-path.  But  to  him  the  three  grand  steps 
which  symbolically  lead  ironi  this  life  unto  the  source  of  all  know- 
ledge, are  of  the  utmost  importance.  He  advances  with  a  firm  step, 
and  he  never  turns  back.  Gabickb. 

THE   ASHLAR.  65 

For  the  Ashlar. 


The  present  article  will  be  deToted  to  a  brief  exposition  of  the  prin- 
cipal causes  whidi  disqualify  a  candidate  for  initiation.  Without 
further  preliminary  remarks,  I  will  enter  upon  the  subject,  and  con- 

1.  Physioal  DUqudUficatvms, 

The  candidate  must  be  a  man ;  mo  woman  can  be  made  a  Mason. 
While  the  Institution  in  its  extended  charity  has  regard  for  the  wel- 
&re  and  character  of  the  wires,  dangbters  and  other  female  relatiTes 
of  its  members,  yet  it  wisely  prohibits  any  female  firom  being  made 
acquainted  with  its  mysteries.  While  woman  is  exempted  from  all 
the  duties  and  obligations  of  membership,  she  is  yet  permitted  to 
share  in  its  b^efits.  Masonry  has  in  all  ages  been  the  guardian  of 
woman  and  her  protector  when  death  has  desolated  her  fireside. 

The  regulation,  howerer,  which  provides  that  the  candidate  must 
be  a  man,  has  a  much  wider  signification,  and  is  not  confined  in  its 
operation  to  the  exdusien  of  females.  The  candidate  must  be  a  whole 
and  perfect  man,  L  e.  he  must  be  possessed  of  all  the  essential  organs 
snd  members  which  constitute  a  hale  and  upright  man.  A  man  who 
has  lost  his  arm,  cannot  be  made  a  Mason,  for  how  can  he  work  seeing 
he  lacks  so  important  a  member?  It  will  be  equally  apparent  to  the 
reader,  that  a  person  who  has  bad  the  misfortune  to  loose  a  leg,  cannot 
be  initiated.  How  could  such  a  person  be  taught  to  approach  the 
****,  or  be  made  a  Mason  in  due  form.  An  eye  and  an  ear  are  also 
essential;  the  candidate  must  see  and  hear.  A  mute,  for  similar 
reasons  understood  by  every  intelligent  Brother,  is  disqualified.  In 
short,  the  candidate  must  not  only  not  be  a  woman,  but  he  must  also 
be  a  man  possessed  of  aU  the  essential  members  of  a  man  which  are 
either  useful  for  work,  or  necessary  for  defence  and  relief.  This 
principle  is  incorporated  in  the  Book  of  Constitution  of  the  Frater- 
nity in  South  Carolina:  ^  Every  person  desirous  of  obtaining  ad- 
mission, must  also  be  upri^t  in  body,  not  deformed  or  dismembered 
at  the  time  of  making  application,  but  of  hale  and  entire  limbs,  as  a 
man  ought  to  be." 

The  candidate  must  be  free  bom.  This  is  one  of  the  most  ancient 
and  binding  of  the  tenets  of  our  Fraternity.  No  slave  or  one  bom  « 
skve  can  be  made  a  frw  and  aoeeptod  Ibson. 

8 ^VOL.  IL  NO.  n. 

56  THE   ASHLAR. 

2.  Mental  QualifiaUians. 

The  eairdidate  mnit  be  ef  lawfbl  age;  thk  pertains  to  tiie  mental 
qualifications  of  candidates,  which  class  of  qoalification  will  now  be 
eonsidere  I 

What  is  the  lawful  age,  must  be  determined  bj  the  laws  of  the 
oountry  where  the  candidate  resides,  and  where  the  Lodge  is  situated. 
The  age  of  majority  has  been  yariously  established  in  different  coun- 
tries. In  the  United  States  the  limit  of  non-age  is  fixed  at  twenty- 
one  years,  under  which  age  all  persons  are  regarded  as  infants,  not 
capable  of  entering  into  any  binding  compact,  or  of  engaging  in  bust- 
ness  on  their  own  account  In  France  the  age  of  nsajority  was 
formerly  fixed  at  twenty-fiye  years,  but  by  the  Code  Napoleon  it  was 
reduced  te  twenty-cme.  By  the  civil  law  the  age  of  majority  is 
twenty-fiye  years. 

An  idiot,  a  madman  or  a  fool  cannot  be  made  a  Mason  for  reasons 
too  plain  to  need  illustration.  There  is  a  distinction,  howerer,  be- 
tween a  madman  and  idiets  and  fools.  The  latter  are  bom  thus,  their 
affliction  is  permanent,  and  the  dis  qualification  therefore  attaches  to 
them  through  life.  Madness,  on  the  contrary,  is  an  evil  which  some* 
times  overtakes  the  most  powerful  minds,  and  it  may  be  but  tempo- 
rary. Madness  will  only  exclude  a  candidate  so  long  as  it  lasts ;  but 
the  cure  must  be  perfect  and  permanent.  A  periodical  madman,  one 
who  is  afflicted  with  mania  at  periodical  times,  cannot  be  made  a 
Mason  even  in  a  lucid  interval ;  for  in  a  moment  his  madness  may 
return,  and  the  reputation  and  mysteries  of  the  Order  thus  be  ex- 
posed to  great  danger. 

A  person,  however,  who  has  been  insane,  and  who  has  entirely  re- 
covered, so  that  there  is  no  reasonable  expectation  that  he  will  again 
relapse  mto  mania,  is  not  thereby  disqualified.  The  greater  caution 
must  nevertheless  be  used  in  all  sueh  cases,  and  the  opinion  of  those 
learned  in  the  diseases  of  the  mind  carefully  consulted. 

An  old  man  in  his  dotage  cannot  be  made  a  Mascm.  The  reason 
for  this  prohibition  is  apparent  to  aU. 

The  question,  however,  may  be  asked,  how  old  must  a  man  be  in 
order  to  be  disqualified?  The  answer  to  this  question  will  be  ibimd 
in  the  fact  that  it  is  not  the  age  alone  which  disqualifies,  but  the 
present  actual  condition  of  the  mind  and  body.  No  matter  how 
old  the  candidate  may  be,  provided  he  is  still  hale  in  body,  and  is  yet 
possessed  of  sound  memory  and  discretion.  A  somid  mind  in  a  sound 
body  is  all  that  is  required. 

Agreeably  to  an  anci«[it  tenet  of  our  Order,  no  atheist  can  be  made 

THB   ASHLAR.  57 

«  Mmoa.  This  ragaltttion  is  founded  upon  the  preeumption  that  he 
who  does  not  believe  in  God,  is  not  capable  of  taking  any  solemn  and 
binding  obligation.  This  rale  for  a  long  time  and  nntil  late  years, 
alao  prevailed  in  all  courts  of  justice.  An  atheist  was  not  oonsidered 
a  competent  witness.  Whether  this  presumption  be  founded  in  right 
reason  and  facts  or  not,  it  is  unnecessary  for  me  here  to  inquire,  it 
being  a  well  settled  and  ancient  regulation  of  Masonry  that  no  atheist 
can  be  admitted. 

I  propose,  howerier,  to  make  a  few  remaiics  upon  the  nature  of  the 
faith  required.  The  requirement  is  aimply  faith  in  Gk>d.  It  goes  no 
farther,  k  demands  nothing  more.  By  fitith  in  God  is  intended  simp- 
ly, ^  heUef  in  a  tuperiar  power  to  which  the  eandieUOe  holds  hin^ 
seifresponsMe  for  his  acts."  Masonry  does  not  define  the  character 
or  attributes  of  the  God  in  which  it  requires  us  to  believe  All  men, 
with  few  exceptions,  brieve  in  a  God.  It  is  only  when  they  begin  to 
define  their  idea  of  a  God,  that  they  begin  to  difier.  Now  there  are 
as  many  definitions  of  the  idea  of  a  God  as  there  are  creeds  in  the 

The  Jews  believe  in  God,  so  do  the  Christians;  but  the  latter  also 
believe  in  the  divinity  of  Christ,  which  the  former  deny.  The  Jewish 
and  the  Christian  definitions  of  God  are  therefore  essentially  different. 
The  Mohammedans  also,  among  whom  are  thousands  of  good  Masons, 
believe  in  «  God ;  but  their  definition  of  a  God  differs  from  that  of 
either  the  Jews  or  the  Christiana.  The  Persians,  among  whom 
Masonry  exists,  believe  in  a  dual  Gh)d,  composed  of  a  good  and  evil 
principle.  Even  among  Christians  themselves  there  are  a  multitude 
of  sect&  The  Baptist,  the  Presbyterian*  the  Methodist,  the  Univer- 
salist  and  the  Unitarian  creeds— each  presents  a  different  idea  of  the 
divine  character  and  attributes.  • 

Masonry  has  nothing  to  do  with  any  of  these  various  definitions  of 
God.  It  requires  the  applicant  for  its  bonorSj  mysteries  and  benefits 
simply  to  have  faith  in  God,  leaving  him  to  define  his  idea  of  God 
according  to  the  dictates  of  his  own  reason  and  conscience.  Herein 
consists  the  universality  of  Masonry  and  its  crowning  glory.  It  at- 
tracts around  his  altar  men  of  all  creeds,  kindreds,  nations,  tongues 
and  sects  by  the  gentle,  but  pow^ul  bonds  of  charity  to  unite  the 
whole  human  race  into  one  universal  brotherhood.  Masonry  claims 
at  once  my  admiration  and  regard,  because  it  is  the  fullest  expression 
on  earth  of  the  universal  fatherhood  of  God  and  brotherhood  of  man. 

When  Cyrus  was  at  Babylon,  he  called  before  him  persons  of  all 
nations,  and  to  each  he  put  the  question:  who  is  God 9    And  the 

58  THE    ASHLAR. 

Egyptian  said,  Knet  is  God  alone;  and  the  Hindoo  said,  Brabms; 
and  the  Roman  said,  Joto  ;  and  the  Persian  said,  Ormnsd ;  and  the 
Hebrew  said,  Jehovah.  Then  Cyms  was  exceeding  wroth  and  said, 
now  verily:  ^' There  is  no  Ood  bat  Zeus;  let  all  these  acknowledge 
him,  or  suffer  death."  Then  stood  forth  one  of  the  Magi  or  wise  men 
and  asked  each  of  them,  by  what  name  they  called  the  son,  and  when 
thej  answered,  each  gave  a  diflEsrent  name.  Then  the  wise  man,  in 
imitation  of  Cyms,  appeared  to  be  overcome  with  anger  and  said :  '^  Vile 
infidels,  there  is  no  son  bnt  Phebos ;  wherefore  call  the  son  by  that 
name  of  die."  Then  turning  into  Oyms  and  regarding  him  with  a 
mild,  but  serious  countenance,  he  said:  "  Oh  King,  does  thou  not  see 
that  even  as  the  different  nations  of  the  earth  call  the  son,  which 
sheds  its  bright  rays  over  all  the  earth,  by  different  names,  so  also 
do  they  find  different  names  for  the  same  one  great  Ood  who  is  alike 
the  Father  of  all  nations,  kindreds  and  tongnes?"  And  Cyrus  waa 
ashamed  that  his  anger  had  be^i  kindled,  and  he  sent  them  away 
with  f^tto. 
Detroit,  September  1856.  R.  H.  B. 


While  a  difference  of  opinion  exists  as  to  the  origin  of  Masonry, 
its  existence  for  many  centuries  is  established  beyond  doubt.  Bra 
Wm.  R.  Smith,  the  venerable  Grand  Secretary  of  the  Grand  Lodge 
of  Wisconsin,  in  an  address  delivered  before  Mineral  Point  Lodge, 
No.  1,  in  1852,  vindicated  the  antiquity  of  our  society  in  an  able  and 
convincing  manner.  "  Our  opponents,"  said  he,  ^  have  sought  to  limit 
the  period  of  the  antiquity  of  the  Order  to  the  year  1717.  True  it 
is,  and  all  Masonic  history  acknowledges,  that  in  that  year  Masonry 
was  revived,  and  Lodges  were  opened  at  London,  by  means  of  which 
a  second  Grand  Lodge  of  England  was  establishecL  But  this  very 
revival  proves  a  more  ancient  establishment;  the  statute  book  of 
England  shows  that  an  act  was  passed  in  the  year  1424,  the  third 
year  of  Henry  YI.,  expressly  forbidding  the  assembling  of  Free- 
masons. History  tells  us  that  Queen  Elisabeth  ineffectually  under- 
took to  suppress  a  Grand  Lodge  whidi  met  at  York,  on  St,  John's 
eve,  in  1561 ;  and  our  own  records  trace  a  regular  list  of  Grand 
Masters  and  Patrons  up  to  Prince  Edwin,  the  brother  of  King  Athel- 
stane,  in  926.  This  list  contains  many  names,  the  most  renowned  in 
British  annals;  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  Alfred  the  Great  was  also 
a  Oraad  Master. 


Erery  year  throwB  more  light  on  our  antiquity.  Sir  Charles  Le- 
mon, in  his  address  in  1846  to  a  Proyincial  Orand  Lodge  in  England, 
observes :  '^  It  happened  last  year  that,  travelling  in  Poland,  he  was 
indoioed  to  visit  a  very  ancient  Jewish  Temple,  built  600  years  before 
Ohrist,  and  which  is  preserved  in  tiie  same  state  in  which  it  was 
originally  built  and  ornamented — here  he  discovered  Masonic  emblems 
now  naed  by  the  Fraternity.  He  was  introdnoed  to  the  Chief  Babbi 
whom  he  fbnnd  to  be  a  worthy  Freemason."  A  late  writer*  remarks, 
that,  in  investigatiag  the  subjeet  of  the  DMplme  of  the  Seorei^  as  it 
was  ealled  by  liie  Fatiiers  of  the  Ohnreh  who  were  Masons,  he  dis* 
oovered  condnsive  evidence  that  no  less  than  ei^^teoi  of  these  holy 
men  belonged  to  the  Fraternity.  They  had  their  signs  and  their 
symbols ;  and  Si.  Chrysostom,  who  lived  in  the  fifth  century,  alludes 
to  our  mysteries  where  he  saya,  '^  the  initiated  will  know  what  I  mean.'' 
Gliddon,  in  bu  Lectures  on  Egyptian  ArchsDology  at  Boston  in  1843, 
speaks  of  the  symbols  (mly  used  by  the  Pries^  which  to  the  ignorant 
wero  ludicrous,  but  to  the  knowing  were  of  great  moral  worth.  He 
remarks  that  the  Stones  of  the  Pyramids,  and  of  other  stupendous 
stmctores  on  the  Nile  which  have  survived  the  changes  of  time,  bear 
Masons'  marks  as  firesh  as  tiiough  chiseled  yesterday.  Similar  traces 
have  lately  been  discovered  on  the  monuments  of  Nineveh  and  Ba- 
bylon, undoubtedly  having  reference  to  Masonic  mysteries,  and  among 
them  to  the  occult  name  <rf  Jehovah.  The  evidences  of  the  antiquity 
of  die  Order  are  found  not  only  in  all  written  history,  but  in  all  the 
ancient  remabs  of  the  labor  of  man  which  still  exist  on  the  ftuse  of 
tiie  earth,  or  are  at  times  drawn  forth  from  its  buried  receesea'' 

Pbssbcution. — ^Wherever  the  enemies  of  Masonry  have  power,  they 

seek  to  crush  it  by  persecution.    Such  is  the  case  in  Italy,  as  will  be 

seen  by  the  followmg : 

The  Mesiagiere  di  Modena  gives  the  following  sentences  of  persons 
accnsed  of  having  belonged  to  a  society  called  Freemasons.  They 
were  arraigned  £sfore  the  military  commission  established  for  the 
state  of  siege  in  Carrara,  and  condemned  on  the  lOtb  inst :  Oalsslari 
Giaoomo,  aged  60,  day  laborer,  and  Cazini  Jaeobo,  aged  28,  small 
proprietor,  to  the  Ergastola  for  life ;  Christiani  Francescy,  aged  28, 
mason,  to  twenty  years  of  the  same^  and  Meaucci  Santi,  aged  19, 
farm  servant,  to  ten  years  imprisonment  with  hard  labor.  These 
sentences  have,  of  course,  been  confirmed  by  his  Highness  the  Doke 
of  Modena. 

J.  H.  gli«pherd,  Vermont. 

60  THB   ASHLAR. 



EntbuBiasts,  npon  all  sabjeotfl,  are  prone  to  faXi  in  love  with  some 
particular  pet  of  their  own  fancy,  some  "  one  idea,"  and  to  run  after 
that  to  the  neglect  of  every  thing  elae.  So  is  it  in  Preemaaonry.  As 
it  presents  itself  to  them  they  see  but  the  one  favorite  part  of  it,  that 
part  they  pursue  to  extremes,  and  unwilling  to  acknowledge  merit  in 
any  other.  In  the  oomprchensiyeness  of  our  noble  scienoe  there  is 
ample  room  for  the  selection  of  "•  hobbies"  to  suit  the  fancy ;  and  full 
many  are  chosen  and  ridden  nigh  unto  death,  and  not  much  to  the 
credit  of  the  horse  or  his  rider.     I  select  a  few  of  the  most  common. 

Some  will  tell  you  that  Freemasonry  is  a  "  social  institution ;" 
that  it  is  for  the  purpose  of  enabling  us  to  meet  as  lorers  of  each 
other>  and  of  mankind  at  large ;  that  we  may  then  avail  ourselves  of 
the  hours  of  refreshment,  remembering  always  tiiat  we  are  not  to  con* 
vert  the  means  thereof  to  the  purposes  of  intemperance  or  excess ; 
that  the  cheerful  song  and  festive  toast  are  the  great  features  of  the 
Order  as  it  is,  and  as  it  should  be ;  and  that  the  most  perfect  con- 
fidence between  man  and  man  which  is  engendered  among  Masons,  is 
its  end  and  aim.     They  say,  it  is  a  '^  social  institution." 

Others  inform  us  that  Freemasonry  is  a  "  moral  institution ;"  that 
its  great  purpose  is  to  teach  us,  by  its  precepts,  the  three  great  classes 
of  duties  that  we  owe  to  our  Ood,  to  our  neighbor  and  to  ourselves ; 
that  we  are  by  it  to  be  restrained  from  the  violations  of  the  great 
"  bill  of  rights,"  the  moral  law,  which  is  comprehended  in  the  ten 
commandments ;  taught  to  do  justice  between  man  and  man,  to  love 
mercy  and  to  extend  it  to  all,  and  to  walk  humbly  before  Qod,  and 
to  treat  even  his  very  name  with  reverence.  They  say,  it  is  a ''  moral 

There  be  those  also^  who  say  that  Freemasonry  is  a  '^  charitable 
institution ;"  that  its  purpose  is  to  relieve  the  distressed  among  the 
Brethren ;  to  suppress  the  widow's  sigh,  and  to  dry  the  orphan's  tear ; 
to  wipe  the  death-damp  from  the  brow  of  the  dying,  and  to  commit 
his  ashes  to  the  tomb ;  to  fulfill  the  injunction :  **  If  thy  Brother  be 
waxen  poor  and  fallen  into  decay  with  thee,  thou  shalt  relieve  him ; 
yea,  though  he  be  a  stranger  or  eojoumer,  that  he  may  live  with  thee." 
They  say,  it  is  a  "•  charitable  institution.'* 

Others,  and  great  admirers  and  lovers  of  the  Royal  Art.  are  they 
who  say,  it  is  a  ^  religious  institution ;"  that  it  teaches  its  votary  to 

*  From  the  American  Freemaaon. 

THE    ASHLAR.  61. 

pat  his  trust  in  God  with  a  faith  that  wayers  not ;  that  the  resnrrec- 
tioD  of  the  body  and  the  immortality  of  the  soul,  so  clearly  set  forth 
in  oar  symbology,  are  bat  the  shadowings  of  the  great  doctrines  of 
revealed  religion,  which  teach  nstilso  to  rely  on  the  firm  grip  of  the 
Lion  of  the  tribe  of  Jadah,  to  raise  as  to  a  bliss  anspeakable  and  fall 
of  glory.  Thas  are  they  led  to  cry  out:  '^ Glory  to  God  in  the 
highest)  and  on  earth  peace  and  good  will  towards  men."  And  these 
say,  it  is  a  ^  religions  institntion." 

Who  is  right?  Who  is  wrong?  All  these  are  right!  Each  of 
these  is  wrong !  I  Freemasonry  is  a  social  institntion,  bat  it  is  not 
that  alone,  Freemasonry  is  a  moral  institntion,  bat  not  merely  a 
moral  institntion.  It  is  charitable,  and  it  is  more  than  charitable. 
It  is  a  religions  institation,  and  in  the  common  acceptation  of  the 
word,  it  is  more  than  that ;  it  is  void  of  bigotry  and  withont  secta- 
rianism, teaching  those  truths  which  all  mast  acknowledge,  and  inonl- 
cating  nnfeigned  piety.  Freemasonry  is  social,  moral,  charitable, 
religions ;  it  is  not  merely  possessed  of  one  of  these  attributes  with- 
ont the  others,  as  some  wonld  fain  have  ns  to  think,  bnt  it  possesses 
all  of  them,  and  more.  Those,  therefore,  who  give  it  either  of  these 
valnable  jewels,  are  right;  those  who  give  it  only  one,  two,  three,  and 
even  all  of  them,  are  wrong. 

The  work  of  Freemasonry  is  the  same,  the  lectnres  are  the  same^ 
wherever  seen  or  heard.  Tet  have  I  seen  Freemasonry  tanght  as  a 
science  limited  in  its  aims,  ends  and  operation,  as  hardly  to  recognise 
it  It  is  not  possible  to  distinguish  by  which  of  its  votaries  it  is 
shorn  of  its  brightest  beams ;  by  those  who  make  it  altogether  of  the 
earth,  earthy,  or  by  those  who  make  it  solely  epiriiaal.  Let  me  ever 
view  it  as  a  grand,  a  perfect  whole,  where  are  combined  the  virtnes 
of  all,  contrived  by  wisdom,  supported  by  strength,  adorned  by  beau- 
ty. 0,  what  a  goodly  temple  our  fathers  builded  I  Let  ns,  then, 
cherish  each  Parian  shaft,  each  pure  pilaster,  in  its  pristine  beauty 
and  perfection,  and  suffer  no  despoiler  to  despoil  us  of  our  heritage. 
Away  with  all  such  trifling  as  wonld  make  our  Order  seem  to  be  only 
designed  for  good  fellowship  I  Away  with  all  such  lessons  of  secta- 
rian bigotry  as  tend  to  convince  the  neophyte  it  is  less  than  a  uni- 
versal religion  I    Instead  of  these  give  us  Freemasonry. 

'^  Oft  have  I  met  your  social  band,**  sang  one  who  loved  the  festal 
board  fnll  well.  Long  may  we  all  meet  in  that  cheerful  place. 
Much  may  we  all  enjoy  those  temperate  pleasures  of  the  Lodge-room 
which  we  love  so  well  But  as  we  greet  and  are  greeted  with  the 
Mason-grip,  as  we  enjoy  tiie  Mason*song,  the  Mason-jest»  the  Mason- 

,62  THE    ASHLAR. 

smile,  the  Maaon-biiig^,  let  tu  not  foiget  the  Maton-diity,  the  Dlason- 
tear,  the  MaaoD-prayer. 


Bbo.  Weston: — There  bmoib  to  be  a  very  genend  want  of  information  among 
members  of  Lodges,  respecting  the  modus  operandi  of  conducting  trials  for 
Masonic  offences.  I  must  confess  my  own  ignorance  on  this  point  As  I  sup- 
pose, yon  understand  the  matter,  be  kind  enough  to  say  a  word  an  thia  subject 
in  the  next  issue  of  Ths  Ashlar. 

Fraternally  yours, 

!■--  ■,  Sept*  8th>  1856.  H. 

We  are  well  aware,  as  Bro.  H.  SDggeata,  that  the  Graft  do  not 
poflfless  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  proper  BDanner  of  oondncting 
Masonic  triaia.  Thia  is  somewhat  to  be  wondered  at,  as  the  mode  of 
prooedare  is  simple  and  snoh  as  would  naturally  suggest  itself  to  die 
"thinking  mind.''  The  design  of  Masonie  trials  is  to  arrive  at  truth 
and  promote  the  ends  of  justice. 

It  is  a  great  principle  in  law  as  well  as  equity  that  every  pereon 
accused  shall  have  adequate  notice  of  the  offence  charged  against  him, 
and  ample  opportunity  of  defence.  This  principle  holds  in  Masonry. 
The  charges,  therefore,  should  be  made  in  writing,  setting  forth  with 
an  accuracy  which  leaves  no  reasonable  doubt  as  to  their  meaning, 
the  crime  alledged  to  have  been  committed.  It  is  best  to  make 
specifications  afser  the  general  charge,  numbered  respectively  1,  2,  3, 
4,  &c.,  so  that,  if  the  defendaut  be  found  guilty,  he  may  know  on 
what  ground  he  is  conTioted.  In  this  case  the  question  of  guilty  must 
be  taken  on  each  one  separately.  The  charge  should  be  signed  by 
the  accuser  and  put  in  the  lumds  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Lodge,  who 
should  read  it  at  the  next  regular  meeting,  or  at  such  time  as  the 
W.  M.  may  direct  The  time,  however,  of  bringing  it  before  the 
Lodge  is  often  regulated  by  the  by-laws.  It  is  proper  for  the  Master 
to  appoint  a  committee  to  take  evidenee,  which  should  in  all  oases  be 
accurately  reduced  to  writing.  Profanes  as  proper  witnesses,  they 
should  be  placed  under  oatlvbysome  competent  legal  officer,  and 
testimony  should  be  taken  by  a  committee.  The  evidence  of  Maaons 
should  be  given  before  a  committee  to  be  reported  by  them  to  the  Lodge, 
or  it  should  be  given  in  open  Lodge ;  in  either  case  no  judicial  oath 
is  necessary. 

Aa  soon  as  the  charges  are  brought  before  the  Lodge,  a  copy  of 
them  should  be  served  on  the  defendant;  he  should  be  notified  of  the 
time  and  plaoe  of  taking  testimony,  and  ahould  have  an  opportunity 

THE    ASHLAR.  63 

to  appear  and  question  the  witnesses  who  appear  against  him,  and 
also  to  prodnce  others  in  his  behalf.  He  ahonld  also  have  dne  notice 
t>f  the  time  of  the  trial,  and  should  be  allowed  to  appear  by  oonnsel 
who  is  a  Mason — ^in  short,  he  should  have  a  fair  opportunity  to  defend 
himself  from  the  beginning  to  the  end  of  the  proceedings. 

After  the  testimony  is  placed  before  the  Lodge  at  the  time  of  trial, 
and  properly  discussed  pro  and  con,  the  accuser  and  accused  having 
withdrawn,  the  Master  should  put  the  question  of  guilty  or  not  guilty 
on  each  specification.  When  no  law  of  the  Grand  Lodge  or  its  sub- 
ordinate regulates  the  matter,  usage,  we  think,  would  decide  that  the 
result  should  be  determined  by  ballot  It  is  thought  by  high  author 
ity  that  in  order  to  convict,  two  thirds  of  the  ballot  should  be  black. 
We  believe,  however,  that  generally  only  a  majority  is  required  in 
most  Lodges. 

If  the  defendant  is  convicted,  the  Master  will  then  put  the  question 
as  to  the  nature  of  the  punishment.  ^  He  will,"  says  Mackey,  ^  com- 
mence with  the  highest  penalty,  or  expulsion,  and,  if  necessary,  by 
that  punishment  being  negatived,  proceed  to  propose  indefinite  and 
then  definite  suspension,  exclusion,  public  or  private  repremand,  and 
censure."  This  should  be  determined  by  a  show  of  hands.  A  major- 
ity is  sufficient  to  inflict  either  of  the  above  named  penalties,  except 
ezpiMon  or  suspeTisian  which  require  a  two  thirds  vote. 

We  have  referred  only  to  the  general  rules  which  should  govern 
the  proceedings  of  Lodges;  there  are  many  questions  of  a  specific 
nature,  it  is  not  necessary  to  refer  to  in  this  connection. 

^  You  are  the  recipients,  and  should  be  the  fiBiithful  ex- 
ponents of  those  rites  and  mysteries  handed  down  by  a  chosen  few, 
unchanged  by  time  and  uncontrolled  by  prejudica  To  this  end,  yoa 
should,  each  and  all,  endeavor,  while  here^  to  correct  each  other's 
works,  and  perfect  yourselves  in  "  a  knowledge  of  the  true  and  perfect 
work,"  which  may  stand  the  test  of  the  square  of  truth.  Wherever 
I  have  been,  I  have  met  '^  peace  within  our  walls,  and  prosperity  in 
our  palace,"  and  while  "•  the  harvest  is  truly  plenteous,  the  laborers 
are  few."  The  teachers  need  instruction,  the  talents  committed  to 
their  charge  have  not,  in  some  instances,  been  cultivated  with  proper 
industry  and  fidelity." 

9 VOL.  II.  NO.  II. 

64  THE   ASHLAB. 

Fran  Gra&«m's  Uognuor^ 




**  Be  ihi6»  or  aught 
Than  this  more  secret  now 
I  haste  to  haow."*-MaToir. 

In  the  sixth  story  of  a  magiifieeot  house,  in  La  Ohmvss^e  d'Antniy 
there  lodged,  some  yean  ago,  a  yonng  aum,  named  Mark  Anthony 
BiponneaxL  He  was  a  stout,  yooDg  stripling  of  twenty-llTe  years  of 
age,  with  a  roond  and  florid  face,  blue  amd  prominent  eyes,  a  slighlly 
tamed  op  nose,  boroad  at  the  base,  projecting  and  erinoson  lips ;  a 
healthy,  happy  and  contended  face,  to  which,  unfortunately,  a  low 
forehead,  and  hair  so  low  grown  that  it  had  to  be  brushed  up  straight, 
gave  a  look  of  more  obstinacy  than  intelligence  to  its  expression,  and 
something  sordid  and  enrious.  Mark  Anthony  was  clerk  to  the 
Ministry  of  Finance,  and  made  1 ,800  francs  a  year.  He  made  that 
suffice,  but  was  not  content  with  it  Employed  at  State  work,  he  had 
learned  all  the  illusions  thereof,  and  kept  out  of  their  reach  in  prirate 
life.  Thanks  to  much  sobriety,  he  saved  on  bis  feed  to  clothe  himself 
withal ;  and  thanks  to  many  circumstances  of  eireumspection  in  all 
his  movements,  he  kept  his  clothes  decent  for  a  long  time  after  they 
would  have  ceased  to  be  so  on  the  person  of  a  man  in  the  habit  of 
using  a  great  deal  of  gesture.  Riponneau  never  stretched  his  legs 
and  arms,  nor  drew  his  person  up  to  its  full  height,  unless  at  moments 
of  great  exasperation,  then  he  indulged  in  the  most  extravagant  capersy 
accompanied  by  exclamations  like  this : 

"  Think  of  only  having  1,800  francs,  and  the  germ  of  greatness  in 
one's  soul  P  The  <<  germ  of  greatness,^  in  this  case,  meant  a  longing 
for  all  life's  luxuries. 

^  Ah  P  continued  Mark  Anthony,  ^  to  be  poor,  and  see  staring  in 
one's  face  that  great  house  of  Monsieur  and  Madame  De  Crivelin  f 
They  are  rich,  and  all  goes  well  with  them  ;  the  world  flatters  them ; 
they  are  happy  f  And  here  Master  Riponneau  stamped  his  foot 
^  If  I  were  even  as  weU  oif  as  M.  Domen.  the  inmate  of  the  second 
ioor  rooms,  how  diilerently  would  I  use  my  fortune  I  But  he  is 
happy  in  his  way ;  since  able  to  live  anywhere,  he  lives  only  at  homa 
Besides,  were  he  without  fortune,  he  has  acquired  glory  and  respect. 
TimneTTt  tt  tonnerre  f  He  is  happy  I"  At  this  passage  of  his  lamen- 
tations, Riponneau  kicked  over  a  stool. 

THB    ABHLAB.  65 

Tkfin  followed  new  exelamations,  aboat  tbe  b«mi«i4iiaker  ii  the 
vtore  fee  Ihe  ri|(bt  of  the  door,  the  ooofeotioiiflr  on  the  left,  «nd  all  the 
teiMiDtB  in  the  house,  one  after  another,  for  (an  ezeepiioB  to  the  gene- 
tal  role)  thk  house  was  aplendidlj  tenanted ;  grooms,  dogs  and  horses 
«nade  *  noise  in  the  oonrt^  the  smoke  of  the  chimn^  smelt  of  tniffles 
«Dd  pheasants  j  and  when  be  went  down  in  the  moming  for  his  milk. 
Hark  Anthony  met  the  slender  ehambermaids  of  the  establishment, 
redolent  of  their  mistresses'  perAunes.  His  boots  looked  worse 
blaeked  than  ever,  beside  die  waxed  slippers  of  the  valets  de  ehambre. 
The  happiness  of  the  masters  insulted  him  in  its  eznltatioQ.  Then, 
in  the  evening,  there  were  delicious  voiees  sinpng  in  concert)  the 
murmurs  and  bustle  of  dancing.  Sometimes  bent  from  a  window,  be 
would  cateh  a  glimpse  of  a  supfde  form,  and  a  blonde  or  brunette  head 
crowned  with  flowers,  and  radiant  above  soft  muslin  or  glossy  silk. 
All  this  kept  Mark  Anthony  in  a  perpetnal  fever  of  wishing  for  the 
happiness  of  riches,  without  being  able  to  attain  any  other  enjoyment 
than  kicking  the  floor  or  beating  the  walls. 

Now,  one  evoiing  when  Riponneau  had  arrived  at  a  pitch  of  per- 
fect frenzy,  he  heard  a  knock  at  his  door,  and  almost  immediatd,y 
afterwards  in  walked  a  man  of  about  sixty  years  of  age,  and  with  a 
high  and  broad  forehead.  He  was  wrapped  in  a  robe  de  ehambre  of 
wadded  and  quilted  calico,  like  the  old  short  gowns  of  our  grand- 
mothers. This  man  had  a  lively  and  piercing  eye,  and  an  egression 
of  cunning,  though  arch  and  full  of  geniality. 

'^  Neighbor,"  said  he  to  Riponneau  in  a  sweet  and  quiet  voice, 
^  every  man^s  house  is  his  castle.  I  did  not  assist  in  the  taking  of 
the  Bastile,  or  concur  with  the  revolution  of  July,  without  recogniring 
this  grand  political  principle.  But  all  liberty  has  its  limits,  because 
it  may  infringe  on  other  people's  liberty.  You  are  at  Uberty  to  howl, 
but  only  to  a  certain  extent — for  I  am  at  liberfy  to  sleep;  and  if 
jour  liberty  destroys  mine,  it  bee<nnes  tyranny  and  mine  slavery, 
which  is  against  the  principles  of  the  two  revolutions  I  have  jost  re- 
ferred to." 

Mark  Anthony  wanted  to  get  angry,  Ae  neighbor  did  not  give  him 
a  chance  and  resumed :  ^  Besides  it  is  not  I  who  complain ;  I  don't 
mind  noise.  It  is  your  little  neigbor,  Mademoiselle  Juana,  the  dress- 
maker, who  came  in  this  evening  as  pale  as  a  i^ost,  and  with  her 
eyes  red  with  work  and  crying.  She  is  going  to  retire,  poor  child,  in 
hopes  of  sleeping — so  she  said.  Now,  my  dear  neighbor,  on  her  ac- 
count, please  to  study  your  melo-dramatic  parts  wilh  a  little  less 

66  THE    ASHLAR. 

<'  Heh  P  Bftid  Mark  Anthony. 

^  Besides,^  said  the  old  gentleman  with  a  critioal  air,  ^  I  haro  seen 
Talma,  sir,  and  belidve  me,  it  was  not  with  many  gestures  and  iond 
cries,  that  he  prodnoed  his  &ie  effeots.  In  Manlins  he  only  raised 
his  forefinger  and  looked  aslant,  as  he  said :  '  'Tis  I  who  foresaw  their 
frivolous  attempts,  and  overthrew  the  Oanls  finom  the  high  capitol  :^ 
and  the  house  rang  with  applause.    Believe  me,  or,  good  declamation." 

"But,  sir,  I  am  not  a  play-actor." 

"  Ah !  bah !"  said  the  old  man, "  you're  a  lawyer  then  ?" 

«  No." 

"  Ton  are  too  young  to  be  a  deputy.  What  the  mischief  are  you, 
that  you  yell  so  about  nothing?" 

^*  I  am  poor,  sir ;  I  long  for  the  happiness  of  riches,  and  I  amuse 
myself  in  my  own  way." 

The  neighbor  looked  at  Biponneau  with  interest  There  was  on  the 
face  of  the  former  a  struggle,  first  with  a  mischievous  inclination  and 
a  benevolent  wish.  Benevolence  got  the  upper  hand.  He  took  a 
chair,  and  with  the  sweet  authority  of  age  and  indulgence,  said  to 
Biponneau : 

'<  Ah,  you  are  poor,  and  consequently  unhappy?  Let  us  chat  a 
little,  neighbor.  You  know  that  poor  people  are  always  libera]  to 
each  other,  and  I,  who  am  happy,  will  give  you  a  little  of  what  yon 
want ;  I  will  tell  yon  how  happy  I  am." 

"  Well,  neighbor,  you  live  alone  at  home?" 

'•  Yes." 

"  You  work  day  and  night?" 

«  Yes," 

«  You  rarely  go  out  ?" 

«  That  is  true." 

"  What  does  your  happiness  consist  in,  and  what  can  you  give  me  ?" 

^  Nothing;  but  I  shaU  have  done  much  for  you,  if  I  tf^e  a  load 
off  yoor  mind.  It  is  en/vy  which  devours  and  destroys  all  the  joys  of 
your  youth,  like  the  worm  at  the  heart  of  the  bud." 

^  1  envions?"  exclaimed  Hark  Anthony. 

'<  Are  you  married,  young  man?"  said  the  old  neighbor. 


**  Have  you  a  sweetfieart  ?*' 

^  No." 

"  Have  you  a  family  which — ^* 

^  I  am  an  orphan." 

*^  Have  yon  debte  ?" 

THE    ASHLAR.  67 

*•  No -wife,  ergo  no  chiliTen,  No  sweetheart,  ^^o  no  rivals.  No 
fimiily,  ergo  no  claims  upon  jou.  No  debts,  ergo  no  dnn&  In  fine, 
yott  are  exempt  from  all  the  plagues  of  humanity.  Therefore,  if  joa 
are  unhappy,  it  is  not  from  any  oanse  external  and  independent  of 
your  person.  Your  nnhappiness  oomes  from  an  internal  cause,  ii:^ 
herent  to  your  nature.     That  cause  is  enyy." 

'^  And  suppose  it  is,"  said  Biponneau,  *'  when  I  admit  that  I  envy 
the  happiness  of  those  around  me,  where's  the  harm,  pray  V* 

^  The  harm  is  in  your  suffering  from  what  is  foreign  to  you^whioh 
is  extravagantly  unreasonable." 

*'Bah!"  said  Biponneau,  ^^it  is  not  unreasonable  to  want  good 

^^  It  is  unreasonable  to  wish  for  grief,  despair,  incessant  torments 
and  perpetual  uneasiness,  which  always  accompany  wealth." 

''These  are  mere  common-place,  my  dear  neighbor.  Silly  con- 
solations, when  offered  by  one  poor  man  to  another— or  insolent  de- 
rision, when  from  the  rich." 

The  old  man  reflected,  and  after  a  short  silence  said  to  Mark  An- 
thony: "Well,  answer  frankly,  whom  do  you  envy  of  the  people  in 
the  same  house  with  you?     In  whose  place  would  you  be?" 

"In  whose  place?"  said  Mark  Anthony.  ''Why  there's  not  one 
but  is  better  off  than  I — and,  since  I  am  free  to  choose,  and  do  not 
rob  anybody  by  imagining  myself  in  their  place,  I  think  on  the  whole, 
that  I  like  the  position  of  the  Orivelins  beat  of  all" 


^  Yes.  Why  last  week  I  could  not  sleep  aU  night,  with  tiie  noise 
of  tiieir  fbte.  The  most  magnificent  carriages  filled  the  street,  the 
most  distinguished  names  were  announced  by  a  stentorian  voice  at 
the  door  of  their  saloons.  AU  who  went  in,  were  impatient  to  be  in  ; 
those  who  were  obliged  to  leave,  left  with  regret,  lind  on  the  stairs, 
which  I  went  up  and  down  a  dozen  times,  I  heard  every  moment : 
'  What  delightful  people  1  What  mijoyment  t  How  happy  they  are  I' 
And  then,  others  said:  'They  are  to  marry  their  daughter  to  the 
Count  of  Formont  What  a  splendid  match !  Youth,  beauty,  for- 
tune, position  on  both  sides,  they  are  happy,  and  they  deserve  to  be.'  ** 

^  Ah  1"  said  the  old  neighbor, "  did  you  hear  all  that  on  the  stairs  ?" 

"  Of  course,  I  did." 

"  Well,  if  you  had  been  in  the  saloons,  you  would  have  heard  more. 
Everywhere  enjoyment,  laughter,  congratulations;  on  the  faces  of 
the  hosts  the  satisfaction  arising  from  that  happiness  which  comes 

68  THE    ASHLAR. 

from  hi^piness  bestowed ;  on  all  sides  assarances  of  firieDdship ;  the 
delight  of  the  Count  of  Formont,  the  chastened  gladness  of  Adele  de 
Orivdin,  their  stolen  glances ;  the  soft  and  beaeyolent  smiles  of  the 
old  people,  who,  seeing  these  gUnces,  remembered  their  youth ;  the 
pride  of  the  father  and  the  love  of  the  mother,  both  triumphant  and 
proud  of  their  daughter's  success  in  society.  It  was  a  diarming 
tableau  till  five  o'clock  in  the  momii^.  Then,  the  curtain  went  down, 
the  play  was  finished,  and  the  invisible  drama  commenced." 

"  How,"  asked  If  ark  Anthony,  '*  is  Monsieur  de  Orivelin's  fortune 
compromised,  and  like  so  many  others,  does  he  conceal  his  ruin  by 
giving  parties  1" 

«  No." 

^  Is  his  wife  unworthy  of  him  ?" 

"  She  is  the  best  of  wives." 

^  Has  his  daughter  misconducted  herself?" 

^  She  is  an  angel  of  virtue  and  purity." 

"•  What  can  be  the  trouble  V 

« A  good  action — a  good  action  forgotten  for  fifteen  years,  aod 
which  now  rises  up  in  the  form  of  an  ugly  rascal,  with  a  yellow  and 
bilious  face— a  graceless  scamp  who  soiled  the  satin  of  their  gilded 
furniture  with  the  filth  of  his  rags,  one  hour  after  the  gauxy  dresses 
of  the  fair  dancers  had  rested  upon  it" 

"  I  do  not  understand  you." 

^*  Listen.  A  man,  dressed  in  a  dirty  livery,  stayed  all  night  in  the 
anti-chamber.  In  such  a  crowd  of  lacqueys,  be  eaosped  the  attei^toa 
of  the  household  domestics,  but  as  the  parlors  became  empty,  and  the 
anti-chambers  also,  be  was  observed,  and  with  suspicion ;  Iwit  Uie  clown 
only  made  himself  more  at  homei  and  stretcJied  himself  .out  kisarely 
on  the  louages.  At  last)  the  tardiest  guests  were  gone,  and  tiie  dirtj 
laoquey  still  held  his  pcMtt.    He  was  asked  why  he  staid. 

^<  I  am  waiting  for  my  master,  Monsieur  Bc^^e  Ligny." 

^  Sverybody  has  gone  home,*'  was  answered. 

"  I  tell  you  he  is  here-^esk  your  master,  he'll  find  him." 

The  domestics  were  going  to  got  angry.  The  rogue  raised  his  voioe^ 
and  M.  de  Orivelin  appeared  at  the  door  of  the  anti^room  and  aaked, 
^  what  was  the  aeaning  of  the  noise." 

'^  It  ia  this  man»"  said  the  valet  de  diiambre.  ^  He  will  not  go  out 
under  the  pretext  that  he  is  waiting  for  his  master." 

^  What  is  his  master's  name  ?" 

"  He,  whom  I  seek,"  said  the  unknown  groom,  ^is  named  Eocene 
Ligny,  and  I  shall  not  go  out  until  I  have  spoken  to  him." 

THB   A8HLAB.  69 

^  Scarcely  had  he  uttered  iheee  worde^  wheo  )£  de  CriTelm  looked 
at  him  with  terror  in  his  faee — he  tamed  pale — ^tottered — and  scarce- 
ly  able  then  to  control  the  terror  and  dismay  wllioh  he  ezperieneed, 
he  ordered  his  seryants  to  retire,  and  bade  the  man  to  follow  him." 

(7b  be  cofulvM  in  <mr  next,J 


In  »  Gommiuiicatiim  to  Bra  Morris,  of  the  Afnerican  Fnemasany 
Bro.  J.  B.  MoLeonard  Moore,  of  Ottawa,  0.  W.,  gives  the  following 
iofomatioa  respecting  Freemasonry  in  Malta : 

^  In  reply  to  yoar  qaestion,  I  must  say,  that  according  as  I  know 
yon  understand  Masonry,  I  fear  yon  wonld  be  mmoh  disappointed  with 
Masonry  in  Malta,  It  is  not  more  famons,  either  in  work  or  actSf 
than  any  other  place  in  England  possessing  a  Lodge.  The  Knights 
of  St.  John,  before  the  British  uovemment  took  possession  of  the 
Island,  were  opposed  to  Masonry,  though  a  Masonic  Lodge  was  held 
there,  which  I  found  after  some  research. 

^  When  I  left  the  Island,  in  1851 ,  there  were  three  Lodges,  of  the 
oldest  of  which  (St  John's  and  St.  Paul's)  I  was  Master.  This  was 
founded  in  1814  by  the  famous  Judge  Waller  Rodwell  Wright,  who 
lies  buried  on  the  Island.  He  was  Grand  Master  of  the  Enslish 
Tempkre,  I  think,  in  1812.  GThe  other  two  Lodges  were  '  The  Iniion 
of  Malta'  and  *  The  Zetland'*-4dl  three  had  Koyal  Arch  Chapters 
attached  to  them.  The  working,  howerer,  was  very  uncertab,  as  they 
were  principally  kept  up  by  the  officers  or  the  garrison,  the  fleet  and 
casual  visitors  to  the  Island.  There  is  one  Encampment,  '  The  Me- 
lita,'  which  I  believe  I  was  the  means  of  forming,  it  was  established 
under  the  Grand  Conclave  of  England. 

*'  I  had  the  pleasure  of  installing  the  United  States  Consul,  Wm. 
Andrews  Winthrcp,  Esq.,  formerly,  I  think,  of  Boeton,  who  took 
much  interest  in  Masonry. 

'^  The  Island  is  well  worth  a  visit,  and  would  repay  you«  I,  of 
course,  was  interested  in  it,  and  had  many  opportunities  of  obtaining 
information  on  subjects  to  my  tasta  The  most  curious  was  the 
Iklark  MasoTu'  marks  on  the  stones  in  some  of  the  mines ;  these 
were  published  some  time  ago  in  the  London  Fremiasxms^  Review 
by  my  friend  D.  JoinviUe,  who  made  the  search  with  me.  The 
heraldic  bearings  of  the  Knights  of  St  John,  with  theii  peculiar 
marks,  gave  me  great  pleasure.  I  had  access  to  the  old  Library  and 
Church  of  St  John,  where  I  perused  the  statutes  and  ordinances  of 
die  Order,  and  I  now  know  that  much  of  the  Scotch  Ritual  of  the 
Knights  of  Malta  in  my  possession  is  correct" 

70  THE    ASHLAR. 


It  is  not  to  be  expected,  perhaps,  that  everj  Mason,  or  that  the 
great  body  of  the  Craft,  will  quickly  acquire  a  correct  knowledge  of 
the  duty  and  authority  of  the  Master  of  a  Lodge.  His  duty  and 
authority,  however,  in  the  main  we  consider  to  be  well  settled.  The 
Worshipful  Master,  at  least,  should  be  familiar  with  them,  and  for 
ignorance  on  these  points  he  can  give  no  reasonable  excuse.  The 
means  of  information  are  at  hand — ^they  are  all  around  him.  It  is 
an  imperative  duty  for  him  to  examine  them,  study  them  and  get  the 
necessary  light  to  guide  his  footsteps  into  the  right  path. 

We  shall  refer,  at  this  time,  only  to  a  subject  which  appears  to  be 
but  little  understood,  and  to  be  entirely  misapprehended.  Not  un- 
frequently  a  clause  is  inserted  in  by-laws,  stating  that  on  questions  of 
order,  &c.,  an  appeal  may  be  taken  from  the  Master's  decision  to  the 
Lodge.  This  is  entirely  wrong  and  wholly  unmasonio.  No  member 
has  the  right  to  appeal,  and  in  case  an  appeal  were  called  for,  we 
believe,  the  Master  should  at  once  decline  to  entertain  it.  The  W. 
M.  is  a  representative  of  King  Solomon — he  is  supreme  in  his  Lodge 
as  far  as  any  action  there  is  concerned.  He  is  not  responsible  to  its 
members,  but  to  the  Grand  Lodge  for  his  conduct ;  and  as  far  as  the 
work  of  his  Lodge  is  concerned,  and  the  correctness  of  its  business 
proceedings,  he  alone  is  responsible  to  the  Grand  Lodge.  To  allow 
an  appeal  to  the  Lodge,  would  be  subverting  one  of  the  oldest  and 
most  substantial  principles  of  Masonry,  and  the  Worshipful  Master 
would  no  longer  be  Worshipful  Master,  but  a  mere  presiding  officer, 
to  carry  out  the  will  of  the  members,  and  act  entirely  under  their 
directions,  like  the  president  of  a  political  meeting.  Such  a  state  of 
things  would  at  once  revolutionize  Masonry,  and  by  introducing  an 
innovation,  materially  injure,  if  not  destroy  it.  Maokey,  in  his  prin- 
ciples on  Masonic  law,  says : 

The  Master  presides  not  only  over  the  symbolic  work  of  the  Lodge, 
but  also  over  its  business  deliberations,  and  in  either  case  his  decisions 
are  reversible  only  by  the  Grand  Lodge.  There  can  be  no  appeal 
from  his  decision,  on  any  question,  to  the  Lodge.  He  is  supreme  in 
his  Lodge,  so  far  as  the  Lodge  is  concerned,  being  aihenable  for  his 
conduct  in  the  government  of  it,  not  to  its  members,  but  to  the  Grand 
Lodge  alone.  If  an  appeal  were  proposed,  it  would  be  his  duty,  for 
the  preservation  of  discipline,  to  refose  to  put  the  question.  If  a 
member  is  aggrieved  by  t^e  conduct  or  decisions  of  the  Master,  he 
has  his  redress  by  an  appeal  to  the  Grand  Lodge,  which  will,  of 
course,  see  that  the  Master  does  not  rule  his  Lodge  **  in  an  unjust  or 
arbitral^  manner."  But  such  a  thing  as  an  appeal  from  the  Master 
of  the  Lodge  to  its  members  »  unknown  in  Masonry. 

THE    ASHLAR.  71 

This  may,  at  first  sight,  appear  to  be  ftTiBg  too  despotie  power  to 
the  Master ;  but  a  slight  reflecUon  will  eonviDce  any  or.e  that  there 
can  be  but  little  danger  of  oppression  from  one  so  guarded  and  con- 
trolled as  a  Master  is,  by  the  sacred  obligations  ofhis  office  and  the 
supervision  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  while  the  placing  in  the  hands  of  the 
€raft  so  pewerfiil,  and  at  times,  and  with  bad  spirits,  so  annoying  a 
priyilege  as  that  of  immediate  appeal,  would  necessarily  tend  to  im- 
pair t^  energies  and  lessen  the  dignity  of  the  Master,  while  it  would 
be  subversive  of  that  spirit  of  discipline  which  pervades  every  part  of 
the  Institution,  and  to  which  it  is  mainly  indebted  for  its  prosperity 
and  perpetuity. 

It  may  be  asked  wbether  the  W.  M.,  in  case  tbe  by-laws  of  his 
Lodge  allow  an  appeal^  should  be  governed  by  them  in  that  respect 
We  answer  emphatically,  No.  If  the  Master  were  bound  by  that 
provision,  he  would  be  bound  by  every  other ;  bis  action  might  be 
clugged  in  such  a  way  that  no  authority  would  be  left  him — that  he 
might  be  required  to  preside  as  a  mere  instrument.  It  is  tbe  duty 
of  the  Master  to  guard  and  preserve  the  dignity  and  authority  of  his 
office,  and  see  that  they  are  in  no  way  infringed  upon,  and  in  any  case 
such  as  we  have  referred  to,  the  provision  of  a  by-law  should  weigh 
no  more  with  him  than  a  straw. 

Every  Master  should,  of  course^  be  willing  to  consult  with  well  in- 
formed Brethren,  and  learn  the  wishes  and  desires  of  all  the  members 
of  his  Lodge,  and  give  their  suggestions  due  consideration ;  but  when 
it  oomes  to  the  period  of  making  decisions,  the  retponsibUity  rests  on 
his  shoidderSy  and  he  cannot,  if  he  would,  change  it  He  cannot  in 
accordance  with  Masonic  law  and  usage — in  accordance  with  the  great 
principles  of  our  Institution — ^permit  an  appeal  to  be  taken  from  his 
decision  to  his  Lodge,  when  that  appeal  may  reverse  his  decision. 

The  follovring  from  Dr.  Oliver  is  Tory  appropriate  in  the 
present  rage  for  Masonic  emblems: 

^  Masonry  does  not  expect  her  votaries  to  expose  her  to  the  gaie 
of  the  world ;  in  her  modesty,  she  shrinks  from  the  boast  of  her  exist- 
ence, preferring  rather  to  see  her  advertised  through  the  medium  of 
untold  benevolence  and  acts  of  hidden  charity.  Her  excellencies 
flourish  most  when  cherished  in  the  warm  bosom  of  charity  that 
vaunteth  not  itself,  rather  than  in  that  sort  which  bringeth  forth  the 
flower  without  the  fruit" 

10 — ^vOL.  XL  NO.  n. 

72  THE    ASHLAR. 


St.  John  the  Almoner,  patriarch  of  Alexandria,  C.  He  reeeired 
hia  aumame  from  his  profaae  almadeeda ;  was  nobly  deaoended,  very 
rieh  and  a  widower,  at  Amathna,  in  Gyms,  where,  having  honed  all 
his  ohildren,  he  employed  the  whole  inoome  of  his  estate  in  the  relief 
of  the  poor,  and  was  no  less  remarkable  for  hia  great  piety.  The 
repntation  of  his  sanctity  raised  him  to  the  patriarchal  chair  of  Alex- 
andria abont  the  year  608,  at  which  time  he  was  upwards  of  fifty  years 
of  age.  On  his  arriyal  in  that  city,  he  ordered  an  exact  list  to  be 
taken  of  his  masters.  Being  asked  who  these  were,  his  answer  was : 
^  The  poor,"  namely,  on  aoconnt  of  their  great  interest  in  the  court 
of  HeaTcn  in  behalf  of  their  benefactors.  Their  number  amounted 
to  seren  thousand  fiye  hundred,  whom  he  took  under  his  special  pro- 
tection and  furnished  with  all  necessaries.  He  prepared  himself  by 
Hob  action  to  receive  the  fullness  of  his  grace  in  his  consecration. 
On  the  same  day  he  published  severe  ordmances,  but  in  the  most 
humble  terms  conjuring  and  commanding  all  to  use  just  weights  and 
measures,  in  order  to  prevent  injustices  and  oppressions  of  the  poor. 
He  most  rigorously  forbade  all  his  officers  and  servants  ever  to  receive 
the  least  presents,  whidi  are  no  better  than  bribes,  and  bias  the  most 
impartial  Every  Wednesday  and  Friday  he  sat  the  whole  day  on  a 
bench  before  the  church,  that  all  might  have  free  access  to  him  to  lay 
their  grievances  before  him,  and  make  known  their  necessities.  He 
eomposed  all  differences,  comforted  the  afflicted,  and  relieved  the  dis- 
tressed. One  of  his  first  actions  at  Alexandria  was,  to  distribute  the 
eighty  thousand  pieces  of  gold,  which  he  found  in  the  treasury  of  his 
church,  among  hospitals  and  monasteries.  He  consecrated  to  the  ser- 
vice of  the  poor  the  great  revenues  of  his  see,  then  the  first  in  all  the 
East,  both  in  riches  and  rank.  Besides  these,  incredible  charities 
flowed  through  his  hands  in  continual  streams,  which  his  example  ex- 
cited every  one  to  contribute  according  to  their  abilities.  When  his 
stewards  complained  that  he  impoverished  his  church,  his  answer  was, 
that  Gh>d  would  {nrovide  for  them.  To  vindicate  his  0(mduct  and  si- 
lence their  complaints,  he  recounted  to  them  a  vision  he  had  in  his 
youth,  of  a  beantifol  woman,  brighter  than  the  sun,  with  an  olive 
garland  on  her  head,  whom  he  understood  to  be  charity,  or  compassion 
for  tiie  miserable,  who  said  to  him :  <<  I  am  the  eldest  dangter  of  the 
great  king.  If  yon  enjoy  my  favor,  I  will  introduce  you  to  the  great 
monarch  of  the  universe.    No  one  has  so  great  an  interest  with  him 

*  Bttfler's  JAvm  of  the  Saints. 

THE    A9HLAB.  7% 

18  myaedf  wko  was  tke  oeeasioa  of  Us  oosung  down  from  Hetim  to 
become  mui  for  iike  redemptioii  of  maiikiiid."  When  tlie  Peniaofl 
bul  plvndered  the  Sas^  and  saoiked  Jenmlem,  St  John  entertained 
«U  that  fled  from  their  swords  into  Bfirpt^  and  sent  to  Jemsalem,  for 
the  use  of  the  poor  there,  besides  a  hoge  sua  of  money,  one  thousand 
eaeks  of  eovn,  as  many  of  pwlse,  one  thousand  pouids  of  irooi  one 
tiionsaod  leads  of  fishbone  thoasattd  barrek  of  wine,  and  one  thousand 
Sgjrpiian  workmen,  to  assist  in  rebnilding  the  ehorehes;  adding,  in 
his  letter  ta  Modesiiu^  the  hishop,  that  he  wished  it  had  been  in  his 
power  to  have  gone  in  petson,  and  eei^biited  the  labor  of  his  hands 
towards  catrying  on  timt  holy  work.  He  also  sent  two  bishops  and 
«B  abbot  to  ransom  eaptiyes.  No  nwmber  of  neoessiioiis  objeots,  no 
losses,  no  straits  to  whidi  he  saw  himself  often  redneed»  diseouraged 
him,  or  made  him  lose  his  oonfidenoe  in  Pivine  Proyidenee*  and  r^ 
flonroes  nerer  fiiiled  him  in  the  end.  When  a  eertain  person  whom 
he  had  privately  relieved  with  a  most  bonatifdl  alms,  expressed  his 
gratitnde  in  the  strongest  terms,  the  sunt  cat  him  short,  saying : 
^  Brother,  I  h«ve  not  yet  spilt  my  Ueod  for  you,  as  Jesns  Christ,  my 
master  and  my  Gk>d,  commands  me.''  A  oertain  merchant,  who  had 
been  thrice  mined  by  shipwrecks,  had  as  often  found  relief  firom  the 
good  patriarch,  who  the  third  time  gave  him  a  ship  belonging  to  the 
ohoroh,  laden  with  twenty  thousand  measures  of  com.  This  vessel 
was  driven  by  a  storm  to  the  British  islands,  and  a  famine  niging 
there,  the  owners  sold  their  cargo  to  great  adyantage,  and  brou^t 
back  a  considerable  value  in  exchange,  one-half  in  money,  the  other 
in  pewter. 

The  patriarch  lived  himself  in  the  greatest  austerity  and  poverty, 
as  to  diet,  apparel  and  fumitive.  A  person  of  distinction  in  the  city 
being  informed  that  the  patriarch  had  but  one  blanket  on  his  bed,  and 
this  a  very  sorry  one,  sent  him  one  of  value,  begging  his  acceptance 
of  it,  and  that  he  would  make  use  of  it  for  ike  sake  of  the  donor. 
He  accepted  of  it  and  pat  it  to  the  intended  use ;  bat  it  was  only  for 
one  night,  and  this  he  passed  in  great  uneasiness,  with  severe  self- 
reproaches  for  being  so  richly  covered,  while  so  many  of  his  masters 
(his  familiar  term  for  the  poor)  were  so  ill  accommodated.  The  next 
morning  he  sold  it  and  gave  the  {Nrice  to  the  poor.  A  friend  being 
informed  of  it,  bought  it  for  thirty^siz  pieces,  and  gave  it  hm  a  see- 
ond  and  a  third  time ;  for  the  saint  always  disposed  of  it  the  same 
way,  saying  facetiously :  **  We  shall  see  who  shall  be  tired  first"  He 
was  yery  well  versed  in  the*Seriptures,  though  a  stranger  to  the  pomp 
ai  profane  eloquence*    The  fnnetiona  of  his  mmistry,  pnyer  and 


pious  reading  employed  his  whole  time.  He  studied  with  great  eir^ 
eamspection  to  avoid  the  least  idle  word,  and  never  ehose  to  speak 
aboat  temporal  affairs,  unless  compelled  by  necessity,  and  then  only 
in  very  few  words.  If  he  beard  any  detract  from  the  reputation  of 
their  neighbor,  he  was  ingenious  in  turning  the  discourse  to  some 
other  subject,  and  he  forbade  them  to  enter  his  house,  to  deter  others 
from  that  vice.  Hearing  that,  when  an  emperor  was  chosen,  it  was 
customary  for  certain  carvers  to  present  to  him  four  or  five  blocks  of 
marble,  to  choose  one  out  of  them  for  his  tombv  he  caused  his  grave 
to  be  half  dug,  and  appointed  a  man  to  eome  to  him  on  all  occasions 
of  pomp  and  say :  "  My  lord,  your  tomb  is  unfinished,'  be  pleased  to 
give  your  orders  to  have  it  completed,  for  you  know  not  the  hour 
when  death  will  seise  yoa"  The  remembranco  of  the  rigorous  ae- 
count  which  we  are  to  give  to  God,  made  him  often  burst  into  the 
most  pathetio  expressions  of  holy  fear.  But  humility  was  his  dis> 
tinguishing  virtue,  and  he  always  expressed  both  in  words  and  actions 
the  deepest  sentiments  of  his  own  nothingness,  sinfulness,  miseries 
and  pride.  He  often  admired  how  perfectly  the  saints  saw  their  own 
imperfections,  and  that  they  were  dust,  worms,  and  unworthy  to  be 
ranked  among  men. 


In  the  year  1850,  we  delivered  an  address  on  the  "  Objects,  Anti- 
quity and  Universality  of  Masonry,''  and  in  it  alluded  to  the  existence 
of  the  Institution  in  Turkey,  though  known  there  but  to  a  few.  Late 
events  in  that  country  will  in  all  probability  place  the  Order  in  a 
more  favorable  position,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  foUowing  letter : 

Belgrade,  July  20. 
.  More  than  a  year  ago,  I  communicated  to  you  the  fact  of  the  exist- 
ence of  Mahomraedan  Freemasons  in  European  Turkey,  whose  ten- 
dency, siffns  and  other  modes  of  recognition  are  identical  with  those 
of  the  Masons  in  other  countries  of  Europe.  These  Bektaschi  Der- 
vishes— ^as  they  are  called  in  Turkish — were,  however,  always  looked 
upon  by  the  Porte  as  a  non-recognized  religious  sect,  and  the  property 
belonging  to  the  Order  was  therefore  confiscated,  in  consequence  of 
which  they  have  continued  ever  since  to  act  with  great  caution,  and 
hold  their  Lodges  in  secret 

Among  the  nine  Lodges  of  the  Order,  there  happen  to  be  several 
members  of  high  rank  and  now  enjoying  great  influence  at  Constan- 
tinople. The  Grand  Master  of  the  Oi^der  in  European  Turkey  is 
Tsani  Ismael  Tsoholak  Mahomed  Saede,  who  resides  at  Belgrade, 


and  is  at  the  same  time  Master  of  the  Lodge  of  Alikotsoh  in  this  oitj. 
In  Gonaeqaence  of  the  new  order  of  things  in  Turkey,  and  especiaDj 
in  virtue  of  the  ktely  published  hatti  humayoun,  which  acknowledges 
the  legal  existence  of  all  religious  creeds  and  sects,  and  guarantees 
the  full  exercise  of  their  several  forms  of  worship,  the  above  named 
Orand  Master  left  this  port  yesterday  for  Constantinople  to  endeavor 
to  obtain  for  the  former  persecuted  Bektasehi  Dervishes  the  formal 
recognition  of  the  Turkish  Government,  and  if  he  succeeds,  he  will 
apply  for  a  restitution  of  the  property  formerly  belonging  to  the 
Order  and  confiscated.  The  religion  of  the  Bektasehi  is  decidedly 
the  most  enlightened  and  liberal  form  of  Mahommedanism,  with  the 
greatest  approach  to  civilisation  and  social  improvement— i^om  the 
Masonic  Mirror. 

Thb  Grand  LonoB  of  trb  District  of  Columbia  and  tbb  In- 
DBPENDENT  Grand  Lodgb  OF  Camada. — Bro.  B.  B.  French  writing 
from  Washington  City  to  the  Freemason^  Magazinej  under  date  of 
June  30tb,  says:  ''As  chairman  of  the  Committee  which  reported 
favorably  to  the  recognition  of  the  ^  Independent  Grand  Lodge  of 
Canada,"  it  becomes  me  to  say  a  few  words  in  explanation.  Our 
Grand  Lodge  does  its  business  at  a  single  sitting  of  three  or  four 
hours — the  manifesto,  if  I  may  so  term  it,  of  the  Independent  Grand 
Lodge  of  Canada  was  laid  before  the  Grand  Lodge  by  M.  W.  G.  M. 
Fraily,  early  in  the  semi-annual  sitting  of  May  last  It  was  referred 
to  a  Committee,  of  which  I  had  the  honor  to  be  chairman,  without 
reading,  or  explanation,  further  than  as  to  what  it  uhu.  The  Com- 
mittee retired,  and  after  a  very  rapid  perusal  of  the  document,  and 
without  that  deep  consideration  that  ought  to  have  been  given  to  a 
subject  of  such  vast  importance,  the  resolutions  recognising  that  Grand 
Body  were  hurriedly  drawn  and  reported  to  the  Grand  Lodge,  and, 
after  the  reading  of  the  manifesto  by  the  Grand  Secretary,  they  were 
unanimously  adopted,  without  debate.  I  do  not  hesitate  to  say,  that, 
had  I  known  what  I  now  know,  I  should  not  have  reported  as  I  did, 
without  very  much  more  consideration. 

In  consequence  of  the  receipt,  by  our  Grand  Master  of  a  statement 
of  facts  from  the  ^  Provmoial  Grand  Lodge  of  Canada  West,"  he 
deemed  it  proper  to  bring  the  subject  again  before  the  Grand  Lodge 
on  St  John's  day,  and  it  was  again  referred  to  the  same  Committee, 
who  will  now  give  it  such  attention  and  consideration  as  its  import- 
anoe  merits,  and  report  in  full  at  the  next  meeting  of  our  G.  Lodge.'* 

By  this  it  appears  that  the  action  of  the  Grand  Lodge  was  hasty, 
and  the  question  is  to  come  up  for  decision  again. 

76  THE    ASHLAR. 


B7  BKO.  WX.  K.  &MITB. 

Id  slnmbeis  of  darknefls  the  UniTene  lay. 

The  germs  of  true  knowledj^e  reposed  in  the  mind, 
When  order  prerailedl — and  reef^ndent  aa  daj. 

The  sna-beama  of  Maaoaiy  harat  on  MaakiiMll 
A  Temple  was  opened  to  brotherly  I0V& 

The  Altar  was  sprinkled  with  Com,  Oil  and  Wine; 
IftB  incense  ascended  to  HeaTen  above. 

And  Faith,  Hope  and  Charity  guarded  the  ahrinet 

This  Temple  once  erdtrtd,  'within,  all  was  light; 

Once  pMtfli  o'er  the  threshold,  tlie  Veil  was  remoVd; 
And  Man  stood  majestic  when  raited  to  the  heiffht» 

His  God  he  adored,  and  his  Brother  he  loy'dl 
How  grand  was  the  motive  that  urged  him  to  kneel 

At  Altars,  he  bnilt  to  Humanity  dearl 
The  Widow  and  Orphan  were  soon  taujp^ht  to  fieel. 

That  smiles  may  sneooed  to  the  griatspringiog  tear. 

Fxom  Rariooa  of  mom  to  the  closing  of  day> 

From  south  to  the  point  where  no  portal  is  known. 
Cemented  by  love,  mtat  ot  man,  was  the  stay, 

Aad  Masonry  held,  of  the  Arch,  the  Eeyatone! 
Sublime  in  the  East,  stands  the  Order;  how  bold 

And  grand  are  the  Fanes  reared  in  Liberty's  diniel 
And  here,  in  oor  far  Western  prairies,  behold. 

Our  Temple  is  opened  — tJbe  pride  of  our  time. 

Tried  Sons  of  the  Order— our  Landmarks  prestryed— 

UnriTaUed  in  aeal,  thous^  oor  anmbera  oe  few—- 
Our  labors  must  meet  wiu  the  wages  deserved — 

Our  Altars  be  sought  by  the  worthy  and  true. 
Qhl  then  let  the  Crufc  in  their  atrengtii  now  arias, 

Emb^sh  this  T^ple— as  worthy  its  name — 
So  work — ^that  its  avenues  lead  to  tiie  skies. 

And  agos  nnboni  ahall  rejoice  in  its  feme. 

CAimoira  Ssc&bot.— The  oaixtioiiB  seorecy  of  the  Graft  in  eadj 
tges  was  used  to  preyeut  the  great  jpnoiplee  of  soieooe,  by  whioh  their 
reputation  was  seoured  and  maintained,  from  being  publicly  known. 
Eyen  the  inferior  workmen  were  unacquainted  with  the  secret  and 
refined  mechanism  whioh  cemented  and  imparted  Ae  treasure  of  wis* 
dom.  They  were  profoundly  igaorant  of  toe  wisdom  whidb  planted, 
the  beauty  whioh  designed,  and  knew  only  the  strength  and  labor 
which  exeouted  the  work.  The  doctrine  of  the  pressure  and  counter- 
pressure  of  complicated  arches  was  a  mystery  which  they  neyer  at- 
tempted  to  penetrate.  They  were  blind  instruments  in  the  hands  of 
intelligent  Master  Masons,  and  completed  the  most  sublime  under- 
takings by  the  effect  of  mere  meohaaieal  skill  and  physical  power, 
wiUiout  being  able  to  eomjweb^  the  seovet  which  produoed  them; 
without  understanding  the  nice  adjustment  of  the  members  of  a  build" 
ing  to  each  other,  so  necessary  to  accomplish  a  striking  and  permanent 
effect ;  or  without  being  able  to  enter  into  the  science  exhibited  in 
the  complicated  details,  which  were  necessary  to  form  a  harmonious 
and  proportionate  whole. 





On  the  3d  of  Hay  1802,  Zion  -Lodge  met  as  usual  at  the  house  of 
Bro.  James  McDonnell,  and  there  was  present  at  this  meeting: 

Bro.  Wm.  M.  Soott,  in  Uie  Chair, 

**    Lee  Vinton,  8.  Vf.  pro  tem,j 

«    Bates,  J.  W^ 

^    McDonnell,  P.  M.  and  See.  pro  tem^ 

^    Askin,  Treasurer, 

^    Abbott,  8.  D.» 

*    Tattle,  J.  D., 

**    Freeman,  Tyler  pro  tern.,  and 
Bfos.  Harvey,  Baokingham  and  Campao. 

Lodge  opened  on  the  Entered  Apprentioe  degree,  and  minutes  of 
the  preceding  meetisg  read.  Bro.  Bowe,  not  appearing  agreeable  to 
■ommons,  fiurther  action  was  had,  and  ^e  Semtaiy  instructed  to 
write  to  Maiden  and  make  inquiry  into  his  conduct,  dee.  Petition  was 
raeeived  from  John  Wataon  for  the  benefits  of  Masonry,  wtnch  was 
kid  OTer  for  further  aotion  until  next  meeting.  A  Fellow  Grafts 
Lodge  was  then  opened,  and  Bra  Buckin^^m  was  passed  to  the 
second  degree.  The  dues  to  the  Ghrand  Lodge  was  ordered  to  be  paid 
by  the  Treasuiw.  The  Lodge  then  dosed  in  "perfect  lote  and  hai- 
mony,"  to  meet  again  the  first  Monday  in  June. 

June  7th.    Were  present  at  this  meeting  nearly  as  aboye.    The 

petition  of  Dennis  Dougherty  for  the  benefits  of  Masonry  was  received 

and  ordered  to  lay  over  with  that  of  John  Watson  until  the  next 

meeting.    At  this  meeting  £4  Tork  money  was  granted  for  the  relief 

of  a  distressed  Brother.    A  Master  Masons  Lodge  was  then  opened 

to  take  into  eonsideration  the  ^  irregular  conduct  of  Bro.  Freeman, 

and  finding  that  there  is  no  amendment  in  his  conduct,  but  continued 

intoxication,  the  Lodge,  although  extremely  reluctant,  proceeded  to 

take  a  ballot,  in  order  to  cast  the  stigma  which  would  rest  upon  the 

Order,  to  the  person  of  the  individual,  and  were  unanimous  in  his 

expulsion.**    The  Lodge  then  proceeded  to  Hie  election  of  officers  for 

the  ensuing  six  montiis  with  the  foUowing  result : 

Bto.  Abbott,  W.  M., 
«    Askin,  8.  W., 
«    TutUe,  J.  W., 
'<     Gampau,  Treasurer. 

«    gS;,J.D.   I  «^^d  Stewards, 
**    McDonnell,  Secretary. 

78  THB    ASHLAR. 

It  was  then  ordered  that  Bro.  McGregor  be  snmmoned  to  appear 
at  the  next  Lodge  night  After  receiving  and  accepting  the  excuses 
of  several  Brethren  for  their  non-attendaace  on  previous  meetings,  it 
was  unanimously  agreed  to  meet  on  St.  John's  Day,  the  24th  of  June, 
at  10  o'clock  A.  M.,  and  partake  of  a  dinner  which  was  ordered  to  be 
provided  by  the  stewards. 

June  24th.  Agreeable  to  the  above  resolution,  the  Lodge  con- 
vened ;  Bro.  Scott  in  the  chair  and  a  large  number  of  Brethren  in 
attendance.  Lodge  opened  on  the  Entered  Apprentice  degree,  and 
acted  upon  the  petitions  of  Dennis  Dougherty  and  John  Watson. 
Excuses  were  received  from  a  number^gf  Brethren  for  their  absence 
on  previous  meetings.  The  £.  A.  Lodge  then  dosed,  and  a  M.  M. 
Lodge  opened,  and  the  officers  elect  installed.  The  Treasure's  ac- 
counts were  then  examined,  and  £109.1 1.9  paid  into  the  hands  of  the 
new  Treasurer.  The  day  was  celebrated  by  the  dinner,  as  ordered 
above,  and  after  the  festivities  of  the  occasion,  the  Lodge  ordered 
that  Bro.  Ruland  should  make  an  apology  for  his  conduct,  and  the 
S.  W.  is  directed  to  instruct  Bro.  McGregor  in  the  principles  of  his 
duty,  ''  he  having  neglected  the  same  this  day,  but  for  the  want  of 
opportunity  of  knowing  better,  is  excused."  Bro.  Rob»  Abbott,  the 
W.  M.  elect,  having  been  called  on  business  to  the  "  Indian  Country," 
Bro.  Scott  was  requested  to  act  in  his  place.  The  Lodge  then  closed 
in  '^  perfect  love  and  harmony,"  to  meet  again  on  the  first  Monday  in 

On  the  5th  of  July  the  Brethren  again  met,  Bro.  Scott  in  the  chair, 
when  a  number  of  petitions  were  received,  and  Bro.  Dougherty  passed 
to  the  degree  of  Fellow  GrafL 

July  1 7th.  Nothing  done  at  this  meeting,  except  the  granting  of 
a  certificate  to  Bro.  Buckingham,  who  was  about  to  leave  for  Miehi- 

August  2d.  At  this  meeting  Bro.  Greggor  is  suspended  uatil 
December,  and  Bro.  Rabetaille  passed  and  raised.  The  sum  of  ei^t 
dollars  was  appropriated  to  purchase  a  bible. 

Sept  6th.  At  this  meeting  the  petition  of  Rich.  Smith  was  re- 
ceived, reported  on  and  initiated,  and  Bro.  James  Rowe  expelled. 

Oct  4th.  Bro.  Smith  passed  and  raised,  and  the  peUtion  of  J.  B. 
Comparet  received.  The  Stewards  not  having  provided  refreshments 
for  this  meeting,  it  was  ordered  that  the  Brethren  pay  nothing. 

Nov.  1  St.  At  this  meeting  J.  B.  Comparet  received  the  first  de- 
gree. The  petition  of  John  Connor  was  received  and  referred,  and  a 
petition  on  ballot  rejected. 


Nov.  28th.  There  was  a  large  attendance  at  this  meeting,  and 
after  the  necessary  business  in  the  Lodge,  the  Brethren  formed  in 
procession  and  attended  the  ftmeral  of  Bro.  Bell,  whom  thej  buried 
with  the  usual  Masonic  honors. 

Dec  6th«     John  Connor  received  the  first  degree,  and  the  Lodge 

proceeded  to  the  election  of  officers  for  the  ensuing  six  months  with 

the  following  result : 

Bro.  Wm.  M.  Scott,  W.  M., 

"  Robert  Abbott,  8.  W., 

"  Christopher  Tuttle,  J.  W.» 

''  Joseph  Campau,  Treasurer, 

"  Thos.  McCrea,  jr..  Secretary, 

"  Jno.  Harvey,  S.  D., 

"  Rich.  Smith,  J.  D., 

and  after  instructing  the  Secretary  to  communicate  with  the  Grand 
Lodge  and  ascertain  the  reason  of  their  long  silence  in  not  corres- 
ponding with  the  Lodge,  and  agreeing  to  meet  again  on  St  John's 
Day,  the  Lodge  closed. 

Dec.  27th.  Officers  installed  at  this  meeting,  and  it  being  Si 
John's  Day,  the  Brethren  of  Zion  Lodge,  together  with  Bros.  Pike 
of  Philadelphia  and  Rae  of  Winchester,  Va.,  proceeded  to  the  house 
of  Bro.  Dodameed,  where  a  repast  had  been  prepared,  ^  fared  sump- 
tuously" and  returned  at  5  o'clock  to  the  Lodge-room  and  made  a 
collection  for  the  repast  which  amounted  to  17s6d  each.  Zion  Lodge 
then  closed  her  labors  for  the  year  1 802  ''  in  perfect  love  and  harmony." 


Edttok  of  thk  Alhlab: — When  a  ballot  has  once  been  taken  opon  an  appli- 
catioD  for  tho  benefits  of  Masonry,  and  rejected,  can  the  applicant  apply  B|;ata 
to  the  same  Lodge,  or  another,  and  if  so,  when,  and  what  is  the  coarse  of  pro* 

Yours  Fraternally,  F. 

In  answer  to  Bro.  F.  we  wonld  say  that  there  ia  nothing  in  the 
constitntion  or  hy-laws  of  the  Orand  Lodge  to  prevent  the  rejected 
applicant's  making  an  immediate  application  to  the  same  Lodge ;  bnt 
he  cannot  apply  to  another  miless  he  gets  the  consent  of  the  three 
principal  officers  of  the  Lodge  in  which  he  was  rejected.  His  renewed 
application  must  be  made  in  the  same  manner  and  take  the  same 
course  as  the  first.  ^ 

1 1 — ^voL.  iL  NO.  n. 

so  THE   ASHLAR. 


Elkhart,  Ind^  Sept  13th,  1856. 

Mt  Dear  Ashlar  : — ^Another  week's  labors  are  ended,  and  I  will 
now  post  my  books  and  give  an  account  of  myself. 

Tuesday  morning,  the  9th  inst,  I  left  Detroit  in  the  good  steamer 
Dart  for  Monroe.  The  day  was  one  of  the  many  delightful  ones  with 
which  we  have  been  favored  this  season.  I  have  before  spoken  of  the 
beauty  and  grandeur  of  the  Detroit  river,  but  I  have  failed  to  convey 
a  tithe  of  the  fine  feelings  it  excites  in  the  mind,  when  one  beholds  it 
rolling  on  majestically  beneath  a  bright  spring  or  autumn  sun.  He 
must  indeed  be  dull  and  stupied,  who  can  look  upon  it  at  such  a  time 
without  emotion.  To  those  who  live  on  its  banks,  it  is  a  "  well-spring*' 
of  health  and  pleasure,  though  many  of  them  hardly  realize  the  fact 

Our  little  boat  darted  through  the  water  at  a  firm  rate  and  reached 
Monroe  pier  at  half  past  one  o'clock  P:  M.  A  ride  of  three  miles 
in  the  cars  carried  me  to  the  centre  of  the  city,  where  I  took  lodging 
at  the  Macomb  Street  House  which  is  very  pleasantly  located.  Mon- 
roe looked  better  than  ever.  Its  streets  are  wide,  have  good  side- 
walks and  are  lined  with  noble  trees.  Many  of  the  dwellings  are 
large  and  located  a  short  distance  from  the  streets  with  delightful 
grounds,  tastefully  laid  out  and  decorated.  No  other  place  in  Michi- 
gan, I  think,  will  present  so  many  advantages  for  a  summer  residence 
as  Monroe,  when  the  new  railroad  shall  be  completed  which  will  be 
next  spring,  and  probably  next  winter.  The  ride  between  Detioit 
and  Monroe  will  then  occupy  but  little  more  than  an  hour. 

Bro.  J.  M.  Oliver,  W.  M.,  was  absent  I  was  warmly  greeted  by 
Past  Master  Prentice  whose  acts  but  gave  me  greater  consent  of  his 
kindness  and  good  nature.  Bro.  Thomas  Norman — ^what  shall  I  not 
say  in  favor  of  his  kind  heart  ?  He  has  buf  one  fault — his  soul  is 
altogether  too  large  for  his  physical  frame,  although  that  is  a  good 
specimen  of  the  human  species. 

Wednesday  I  spent  roaming  among  the  Brethren,  and  left  Monroe 
in  the  afternoon  in  company  with  Bro.  Jas.  Darrah,  who  is  Grand 
Commander  of  the  new  Encampment  We  arrived  at  South  Bend, 
Ind.,  about  9  o'clock  at  night,  and  took  rooms  at  the  St  Joseph 
Hotel,  a  new  public  house  kept  by  Bro.  W.  R.  Butts.  It  is  very 
large  and  built  of  brick.  Its  rooms  are  spacious,  and  every  thing 
about  it  has  an  air  of  elegance.  On  our  arrival,  it  was  brilliantly 
lighted,  and  the  sound  of  lively  music  could  de  distbctly  heard. 
There  was  ne  mistaking  the  indieations — ^it  was  a  ^  house  wamiog." 


Bro.  Darrah  and  myself  were  ^  counted  in."  The  beauty  and  fashion 
of  South  Bend  graced  the  assembly,  and  ^  all  went  merry  as  a  mar- 
riage belP'  till  about  four  o'clock  in  the  morning,  when  I  went  to  bed 
and  took  a  ^  hasty''  nap. 

South  Bend  is  a  flourishing  town— it  has  few  superiors.  Pleasantly 
located,  it  gives  every  evidence  of  prosperity.  Its  people  are  busy 
and  bustling,  and  new  buildings  and  improvements  are  constantly 
springing  up.  The  Craft  prosper  here  also,  and  among  them  are  some 
fine  specimens  of  Masonic  timber.  Bro.  Alword  deserves  my  thanks 
for  his  kind  attention&  Bro.  W.  G.  George,  also,  I  would  partionlar- 
ly  mention. 

Thursday  evening  I  reached  Laporte.  This  is  located  about  sixty 
miles  south-east  of  Chicago  and  twelve  mUes  from  the  southern  part 
of  Lake  Michigan.  This  city  is  lively,  and  its  people  exhibit  much 
spirit  and  activity.  It  contains  about  six  thousand  inhabitants.  It 
has  two  Lodges ;  Bro.  J.  B.  Fravel  is  Master  of  one,  and  Bro.  C.  W. 
Mead  of  the  other.  Both,  I  am  told,  are  doing  well  I  visited  their 
Lodge-room.  It  is  a  very  convenient  and  neat  hall,  and  is  used  for 
the  Chapter.  Bros.  Fravel  and  Mead  laid  me  under  obligations 
which  I  shall  cheerfully  cancel,  when  an  opportunity  permits. 

About  twelve  miles  west  from  Laporte,  on  the  prairie,  lies  the 
little  town  of  Westfield.  It  has  sprung  up  within  two  years,  and  al- 
ready put  off  its  swaddling  clothes.  Energy  and  activity  are  every- 
where manifested.  The  buildings  are  new,  and  improvements  are 
rapidly  progressing.  Here,  too,  the  Order  flourishes.  The  Lodge 
here  is  of  course  young,  but  its  members,  in  their  zeal  and  labor,  put 
to  the  blush  the  Craft  in  many  larger  places.  It  has  seldom  been 
our  good  fortune  to  visit  a  place  which  impressed  us  so  fiivorably  in 
this  respect  as  Westfield.  Among  its  active  and  intelligent  Masons, 
I  may  mention,  Bros.  J.  M.  Warrock,  J.  W.  Foster,  John  Ross,  B. 
B.  Henton  and  C.  Q.  Powell.  I  was  much  disappointed  in  not  see- 
ing Bro.  Church,  W.  M.,  who  was  absent 

On  the  road  that  leads  to  Westfield,  ten  miles  further  west,  I  found 
the  enterprising  town  of  Valparaiso.  It  b  pleasantly  located  and 
has  a  beautiful  square  containing  the  new  county  buildings.  Bro. 
M.  L.  McLelland  extended  to  me  the  right  hand  of  fellowship.  By 
his  activity  and  well  directed  efforts  he  is  doing  much  to  advance  the 
interests  of  the  Fraternity.  May  his  labors  be  amply  rewarded,  and 
*^  may  his  shadow  never  be  less !" 

This  day  I  spent  in  Laporte  till  four  o'clock,  when  I  took  the  can 
for  New  Carlisle.     My  stay  here  was  very  short,  and  I  had  time  to 

82  THE    ASHLAR. 

see  only  Bro.  Baeon.    A  new  Lodge  has  just  been  started  here  and 
promises  to  do  well 

Such,  Dear  Ashlar,  are  my  labors  of  the  week.  How  pleased  is 
the  traveller,  when  Saturday  night  draws  near!  Sunday  to  him 
is  truly  a  day  of  rest  and  meditation,  and  affords  ample  opportunity 
for  him  "  to  contemplate  the  glorious  works  of  cieation  and  adore  his 
great  Creator."  Thus  is  it  with  me  at  this  time.  Sleep  is  heavj  on 
my  eyelids — fatigue  rests  like  a  load  upon  my  limbs — ^and  a  due  re- 
gard for  the  warnings  of  nature  causes  me  to  say,  good  night. 

A.  W. 

Goshen,  Ind.,  Sept.  17th,  1S56. 

My  last  letter  was  dated  at  Elkhart  I  spent  Sunday  and  Monday 
in  that  place  and  found  a  fine  set  of  Masons  as  well  as  same  other 
people,  of  whom  I  retain  the  most  pleasant  recollections.  Among 
the  active  members  of  the  Craft  there  are  Bros.  0.  H.  Main  and  S. 

Tuesday  morning  last  I  arrived  here.  The  same  evening  the  Lodge 
met,  and  although  there  was  no  work,  I  had  the  pleasure  of  commun- 
ing Masonically  with  the  members.  Bro.  C.  W.  Seely  is  one  of  the 
most  enterprising  Masons  in  this  section  of  the  country,  and  is  doing 
much  to  promote  the  interests  of  the  Crafi  The  same  may  be  said 
of  Bro.  L.  B.  Tornalee  who  has  paid  much  attention  to  the  work  and 
lectures  of  the  Lodge,  and  whom  I  was  gratified  to  see  in  the  East 

To-day  (Wednesday)  I  have  had  an  interesting  experience.  The 
Michigan  Southern  and  Northern  Indiana  Railroad  Company  is 
building  an  air  line  road  from  Elkhart  via  Goshen  to  Toledo.  The 
passenger  trains  run  from  tae  West  only  to  this  place,  the  track 
further  East  not  being  completed.  A  train  of  dirt  cars,  howeven 
runs  down  to  Ligonier  every  morning  and  returns  in  the  evening. 
This  morning  I  rose  early  ate  a  good  breakfast  and  took  passage 
on  the  dirt  cars  for  Ligonier.  The  train  had  been  in  motion  but  a 
few  minutes,  when  I  found  myself  in  the  midst  of  a  shower  of  cinders 
which  threatened  to  make  siege  of  my  coat  and  hat.  The  eonductor 
kindly  relieved  me  by  giving  me  a  standing  place  on  the  engine. 
The  engineer  and  fireman  did  not  like  to  have  a  visitor  thrust  into 
their  quarters  which  were  of  rather  limited  dimensions,  and  began 
immediately  to  devise  means  to  rid  themselves  of  my  company.  In 
a  few  minutes  the  train  stopped,  and  the  engineer  very  politely  in- 
formed me  that  he  would  give  me  ^  a  first  rate  seat,  cool  and  nice, 
and  out  of  the  way  of  the  cinders."    I  was  very  much  gratified  by 

THE    ASHLAR.  83 

his  kind  offer  and  followed  him  from  the  engine.  He  yerj  coolly  led 
the  way  to  the  frame  of  the  maehine,  and  putting  his  hand  on  the  top 
of  the  ^'  oow-oatcher"  said,  ^  there  ia  a  eapital  seat — you  could't  hate 
a  better  one."  At  first  I  was  inclined  to  think  ho  was  joking,  but 
after  a  little  debate  I  oonoluded,  joke  or  no  joke,  I  would  take  the 
assigned  position  and  run  the  risk.  So  I  mounted  the  ^*  oow-catcher/' 
Presently  the  great  iron  horse  began  to  breathe  slow  and  heayily 
within  a  foot  of  my  ear— -cha-a-a-w — cha-a-a>w.  Thus  snorting,  he 
started  off  each  moment,  breathing  more  rapidly  till  all  I  could  bear, 
was — oh-ch-ch-oh  in  quick  succession.  Now  the  music  began.  Away, 
away  I  went — a  breeze  sweeping  by  enough  to  take  the  hair  off  my 
head.  Trees,  stones,  ties,  birds,  insects  appeared  and  vanished— on 
the  iron  monster  swept  by  them — like  ghosts  they  came,  like  ghosts 
they  went.  On,  on  went  like  lightning — suddenly  I  spied  some  cows 
on  the  tracL  To  take  the  poor  animals  on  the  ^  cow-catcher''  and 
have  their  company,  was  more  than  I  desired;  but  on,  on  we  went. 
It  seemed  as  though  the  old  Nick  was  in  my  fiery  steed,  and  he  was  bent 
on  mischief — he  snorted  and  puffed  away  furiously,  and  dashed  along 
as  though  it  would  be  fine  sport  to  mash  a  poor  cow  and  throw  me  off 
at  the  expense  of  a  broken  neck  and  mutilated  limbe.  •  Suddenly  the 
monster  screamed  close  to  my  ear,  with  a  shrill  unearthly  tone  which- 
frightened  me  "  from  my  propriety"  and  my  seat  The  unfortunate 
dumb  beasts  listened  quietly  and  scarcely  moved  as  they  grazed  along 
the  track.  Nearer  and  nearer  we  approach — ^what  shall  I  do?  To 
jump  in  case  of  accident,  is  almost  certain  death ;  can  dn  nothing  but 
stt  still  and  trust  in  Providence.  This  wise  conclusion  I  arrived  at 
and  sat  still  awaiting  the  issue.  In  a  moment  we  are  by  the  cows — 
the  engine  just  clears  them  as  they  scamper  away. 

Strange,  indeed,  is  it,  how  quickly  we  suit  ourselves  to  new  situa- 
tions, and  how  quickly  we  become  accustomed  to  view  danger  with 
little  concern.  Each  moment  I  gained  courage,  and  in  a  short  time 
I  sat  on  the  ^  cow-catcher"  rushing  along  at  the  rate  of  twenty-five 
miles  an  hour,  as  unconcerned  as  though  I  was  in  a  velvet  cushioned 
car  of  the  first  class.  Once  on  starting,  we  ran  a  race  with  a  bumble- 
bee. The  lilliputian  kept  a  little  one  side  and  about  ten  feet  in  ad- 
vance of  us.  As  our  speed  increased,  so  did  his,  till  I  thought  it 
would  be  a  "  draw-game."  The  bee  did  well,  but  he,  finally,  wisely 
concluded  that  the  iron  horse  had  the  most  wind  and  the  most  bottom, 
and  as  we  began  to  gain  on  him,  he  uneeremoniously  left  the  track  in 
disgust  and  disappeared  in  a  twinkling. 

This  day  I  have  spent  very  pleasantly  in  Legonier  under  the  care 

84  THE    ASHLAR. 

of  that  generoas-hearted  MasoD,  John  C.  Riohmond.  Bro.  R.  is 
Master  of  the  Lodge  there,  and  is  devoted  to  the  interests  of  the 
Graft.  His  exertions  oannot  fail  to  produce  good  results.  May 
prosperity  and  happiness  attend  him  and  his. 

Legonier  is  a  very  pleasantly  situated  town,  containing  about  four- 
teen  hundred  inhabitants.  It  is  growing  rapidly  and  will  probably 
continue  to  increase  for  some  time.  It  is  surrounded  by  a  beautiful 
prairie  country  which  is  rich  and  fertile.  The  Masons  in  this  place 
are  a  fine  set  of  men — ardent  and  energetic  in  the  good  cause.  May 
they  continue  to  flourish.  A.  W. 


We  are  indebted  to  the  Hartford  Daily  Times  for  the  following 
account  of  the  festivities  at  the  banquet  given  by  the  Grand  Chapter 
and  Encampment  of  Connecticut  to  the  delegates  to  the  General 
Grand  Bodies.  The  lines  in  conclusion  were  written,  we  understand, 
by  our  distinguished  Bro.  Morris,  of  Ky. : 

A  banquet  was  spread  at  9  o'clock  at  the  United  States  Hotel, 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Masonic  Bodies  of  Connecticut,  at  which 
the  delegates  generally  were  invited.  About  two  hundred  plates 
were  set.  The  proceedings  opened  at  9,  and  closed  at  the  "  wee  short 
hour  ayont  the  twal,"  were  conducted  to  the  very  last  with  a  fire  and 
animation  worthy  a  society  which  of  all  others  is  supposed  best  to 
know  how  ^  to  call  from  labor  to  refreshment." 

Mayor  Deming,  of  this  city,  presided,  and  in  an  introductory  speech 
exceeding  even  his  usual  eloquence,  and  replete  with  the  finest  his- 
torical allusions,  alluded  to  the  striking  fact  that  in  the  circle  around 
him  were  the  men  beloved  of  Masonry,  from  nearly  every  State  and 
Territory  in  this  widely  extended  confederacy.  Indeed,  it  was  good 
to  look  around  that  circle.  Gray  hairs  and  black  were  contrasted  in 
startling  vividness.  The  furrowed  brow  and  the  smooth — the  manly 
voice  and  the  treble  of  old  age — the  experience  of  thirty  years  and 
the  inexperience  of  three — ^the  swarthy  hue  of  the  far  Soutb  and  the 
ruddy  red  of  the  extreme  North — these  were  the  themes  provocatives 
of  an  eloquence  rarely  equalled,  and  were  used  with  a  force  and  dis- 
tinctness which  wiU  be  remembered  by  the  numerous  guests  to  the 
end  of  life. 

The  following  were  the  regular  toasts : 

1.  The  General  Grand  Encampment  of  the  United  States  of  Ame- 
rica— a  chivalrous  defender  of  the  Masonic  Faith.  Response  by  Hon. 
Wm.  B.  Hubbard,  of  Columbus,  Ohio,  the  G.  G.  M.  of  that  Illustrious 
Corps.  The  response  embraced  a  succinct  sketch  of  the  reason  and 
necessity  of  this  Order  at  and  since  its  formation.  It  was  most  favor- 
ably received. 


2.  The  General  Orand  Chapter  of  the  United  States  of  America — 
a  Eojal  Arch  that  spans  eyery  section  of  our  heloved  conntr j.  Res- 
ponse by  Gov.  R.  P.  Dnnlap,  of  Maine,  the  retiring  Q.  G.  H.  P. 

3.  The  several  Grand  Chapters  and  Grand  Encampments  here  re- 
presented— ^unbroken  links  of  an  everlasting  chain.  Response  by  CoL 
Andrew  Neill,  of  Texas,  an  effdsion  sui  generis  which  defied  the 
reporter  to  note  it.  Its  hilarious  reception  proved  its  perfect  adapted- 
ness  to  the  occasion. 

4.  The  Masonic  Press,  a  sleepless  sentinel  upon  our  walks  and  an 
ever  watchful  guardian  of  our  ancient  landmarks.  Response  by  Rob. 
Morris,  of  Kentucky,  editor  of  the  American  Freemtison. 

5.  The  illustrious  dead  of  our  Order — Washiugton,  Franklin,  La- 
fayette, Clinton,  Livingston,  Warren,  Poinsett,  Wooster,  Putnam  and 
a  host  of  others.  Their  memory  will  never  fade  from  our  hearts  until 
the  last  leaf  of  the  Acacia  shall  wither.  Drank  standing  and  in  so- 
lemn silence.  Response  by  Philip  C.  Tucker,  Esq..  of  Vt,  the  only 
representative  present  of  that  self-sacrificing  band  which  through  all 
the  trials  of  1826  to  1836  upheld  the  banners  of  the  G.  G.  Chapter 
and  the  honor  and  interest  of  Masonry  throughout  its  widely  spread 

6.  The  black  ball — the  grand  conservative  power  of  Freemasonry. 
Response  by  Cbas.  Gilman,  Esq.,  of  Maryland,  the  presiding  officer 
elect  of  the  6.  G.  Chapter. 

7.  The  American  Union — ^who  will  dare  to  say  that  the  cement  of 
Freemasonry  has  not  made  its  walls  and  bulwarks  stronger.  Response 
by  Th.  S.  Gourdin,  of  S.  C.  The  loud  and  reiterated  cheers  pro- 
longed and  echoed  from  every  part  of  the  Hall,  which  followed  the 
reading  of  this  patriotic  sentiment,  will  give  little  encouragement  to 
those,  if  any,  who  deem  that  through  Freemasonry  may  be  struck  a 
blow  against  the  perpetuity  of  our  Union.  There  is  no  treason  within 
the  tyled  precincts  of  a  Masonic  Lodge. 

8.  Masonic  Science — the  solid  foundation  on  which  the  super- 
structure should  rest.  Response  by  Dr.  A.  G.  Mackey,  of  S.  C, 
author  of  many  and  popular  works  upon  the  history  and  jurisprudence 
of  Masonry. 

9.  The  retiring  officers  of  thd  Grand  Bodies  here  assembled — 
though  we  reluctantly  consent  to  their  withdrawal  from  labor  to  re-^ 
freshment,  we  will  follow  them  with  the  prayers  and  benedictions  of 
faithful  hearts.     Response  by  Hon.  W.  T.  Gould,  of  Ga. 

10.  Our  guests  from  the  North,  the  South,  the  East  and  the  West 
of  OUT  beloved  Union.  We  have  met  you  on  the  Level^  and  we  will 
part  upon  the  Square, 

We  meet  upon  the  LeTel,  and  we  part  upon  the  Sqtare-^ 
What  words  of  precious  meaning  those  words  Masonic  arel 
Come  let  ns  contemplate  tbem~4hey  are  worthy  of  a  thought — 
With  the  highest  and  the  lowest  and  the  rarest  they  are  fraught. 

We  meet  upon  the  Level  tho'  from  every  station  come» 
The  King  from  out  his  palace,  the  poor  man  from  his  home; 
For  the  one  must  leave  nis  diadem  outside  the  Msson's  door. 
And  the  other  finds  his  true  respect  upon  the  checkered  floor. 

86  THE    ASHLAR. 

We  part  upon  the  Square,  for  the  wh<de  world  roust  haTe  itB  dae; 
We  minc^le  with  its  multitude  a  cold  unfriendlj^  crew; 
But  the  influence  of  our  gatherings  la  memory  is  greesy 
A.nd  we  long  upon  the  lierel  to  renew  the  happj  scene. 

There's  a  world  where  all  are  equal;  we  are  hurrying  towards  it  fast. 
We  shall  meet  upon  the  Lerel  tnere,  when  the  gates  of  death  are  past; 
We  shall  stand  before  the  Orient,  and  oar  Master  will  be  there 
To  try  the  blocks  we  offer  with  his  own  an^ ring  Square. 

We  shall  meet  upon  the  Level  there  but  never  thence  depart; 
There's  a  Mansion — 'tis  all  ready  for  each  trusting  faithful  heart; 
There's  a  Mansion,  and  a  welcome  and  a  multitude  is  there 
Who  have  met  upon  the  Level  and  been  tried  upon  the  Square. 

Let  us  meet  upon  the  Level,  then,  while  laboring  patient  here; 
Let  us  meet  and  let  us  labor,  tho'  the  labor  be  severe; 
Already  in  the  Wuetern  Sky  the  si^na  bid  us  prepare, 
To  gather  up  our  working  tools  ana  be  tried  upon  the  Square. 

Hands  round  ye  faithful  Masons  all,  the  bright  Fraternal  chain; 
We  part  upon  the  Square  below  to  meet  in  Heaven  again. 
Oh!  what  words  of  precious  meaning  those  words  Masonic  are: 
We  meet  upon  the  Level  and  part  upon  the  Square. 


Wc  have  receiYcd  the  proceedincrs  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Indiana 
for  the  year  1856,  a  neat  volume  of  9 1  pages.  The  officers  composing 
this  Grand  Lodge,  are :  Alexander  0.  Downey,  of  Rising  Sun,  M.  W. 
G.  M. ;  Solomon  D.  Bayless,  of  Fort  Wayne,  D.  G.  M. ;  Frank  Emer- 
son, of  Brownstown,  8.  G.  W. ;  Mahlon  D.  Manson,  of  Crawford sville, 
J.  G.  W. ;  Charles  Fisher,  of  Indianapolis,  G.  Treas. ;  Francis  King, 
of  Indianapolis,  G.  Sec. 

185  Lodges  were  represented,  and  the  Craft  in  that  jnrisdiotion  is 
represented  bj  the  G.  M  to  be  in  a  prosperous  and  floorishing  con- 
dition, as  wOl  appear  from  the  following  extract  from  his  address  : 

*'  A  retrospect  of  the  past  year  is  well  catcolated  to  fill  the  heart  of 
the  true  Mason  with  emotions  of  gratitude.  Little  will  be  found  in 
the  view  which  indicates  anvthing  but  peace  and  advancement  It 
may  emphatically  be  said  to  have  been  a  year  of  quiet  and  of  progress. 
I  doubt  whether  there  has  ever  been  a  year  in  the  history  of  the  In- 
stitution in  our  State,  when  there  were  fewer  indications  of  disquiet^ 
or  stronger  evidences  of  prosperity.  There  has  been  scarcely  a  ripple 
on  the  surface,  to  indicate  any  disturbance  of  the  universal  quiet.  In 
point  of  numbers,  there  has  been  about  the  usual  increase  of  Lodges, 
and  I  presume  of  members  also. 

The  past  has  been  to  us  full  of  interest  and  success.  The  present 
is  joyous.  We  have  come  together  under  favorable  circumstances. 
Our  hearts  have  been  made  to  leap  with  joy,  as  we  have  again  ex- 
changed our  Fraternal  greetings. 

THB    ASHLAR.  87 

The  future  is  before  us,  and  if  we  are  spared  by  the  Great  Arohiteot, 
it  is  ours  for  improvement.  Let  us  take  courage  from  what  we  have 
done,  and  renew  our  efftirta  in  the  cause  of  Masonry  for  the  time  to 
come.  When  I  was  first  a  member  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  which  was 
only  eleren  years  ago,  there  were  but  thirty  chartered  Lodges  repre- 
sented, and  eight  under  dispensations.  Let  any  Brother  whose  heart 
is  desponding,  if  any  such  there  is,  contrast  that  time  with  the  pre- 
sent. Why  shall  there  not  be  the  same  favorable  ooDirast  between 
the  present  and  eleven  years  from  this  time  V* 

^'Univbrsal  Masonic  Libra&y." 

The  Grand  Lodge  appear  to  have  a  proper  appreciation  of  tbis 

work  which  is  being  published  by  Bro.  Morris,  and  have  adopted  the 

following  very  appropriate  resolution : 

Resolved,  That  the  Universal  Masonic  Library,  published  by 
Bro.  Rob.  Morris,  of  Lodse,  Fulton  County,  Ky.,  is  an  enterprise  of 
great  importance  to  tho  Masonic  Fraternity,  and  it  is  recommended 
to  the  Lodges  and  Masons  of  Lidiana,  as  eminently  worthy  of  their 


The  attention  of  the  Grand  Body  is  directed  to  this  important 

subject,  and  they  desire  to  accomplish  the  object  by  adopting  one  of 

the  following  projects : 

The  I  St  is  the  establishment  of  a  College  or  University  for  the 
education  of  pupils  in  the  higher  academic  and  collefi;iate  branches. 

The  2d  is  the  establishment  of  an  Institute  or  Polytechnic  School, 
in  which  children  and  youth  may  be  conducted  from  the  rudiments 
through  the  common  and  higher  studies  of  the  school  and  the  academy. 

The  3d  is  that  of  furnishing  aid  to  the  needy  children  of  indigent 
and  worthy  Masons,  and  others,  in  securing  a  competent  education  in 
the  institutions  of  learning  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the  respective 

The  8d  proposition  seems  to  meet  with  the  most  favorable  con- 
sideration of  the  Committee,  and^he  following  resolution  was  adopted : 

Resolved^  That  a  select  committee  of  three  be  appointed  to  take 
the  whole  imbject  in  advisement  during  the  recess  of  the  Grand  Lodge, 
devise  a  specific  plan  for  the  accomplishment  of  the  object,  and  report 
at  the  next  communication  of  the  Grand  Lode ;  and  that  the  respect* 
ive  Lodges  in  this  jurisdiction  be  directed  to  take  definite  action  on 
the  subject,  in  order  to  ascertain  the  views  and  wishes  of  their  mem- 
bers in  relation  to  the  wlio)e  matter  during  the  monttis  of  October 
and  November  ensuing,  and  report  forthwith  to  the  Grand  Secretary 
ihe  result  of  their  action ;  and  that  the  Grand  Secretary  be  directed 
to  put  those  reports  into  the  hands  of  the  chairman  of  that  committee 
at  the  earliest  opportunity. 

This  Grand  Body  was  in  session  five  days,  and  transacted  much 

important  business. 

12 — ^VOL.  II.  NO.  II. 



[OommoBicated  bj  Bro.  Qmo.  W.  Knafp.] 

Died  at  Waahingtonj  Maoomb  County,  Mioh.,  on  the  22d  of  Angosi 
1856,  of  typhoid  feyer,  Bro.  H.  Clat  Chapman,  aged  twenty-fonr 
years  six  months  and  nineteen  days. 

In  the  death  of  this  person  the  public  haye  sustained  a  severe  loss. 
He  was  a  young  man  of  rare  promise  and  abilities,  possessed  of  a 
strong  and  weU  cultivated  mind;  his  manner  easy  and  agreeable; 
his  natural  disposition  kind  and  generous.  He  had  endeared  himself 
to  a  large  circle  of  friends,  and  was  a  general  fiivorite  in  the  circle 
with  whom  he  associated.  In  short,  he  was  loved  and  esteemed  by 
all  who  knew  him.  He  has  left  an  aged  father  and  mother  to  mourn 
the  loss  of  one  on  whom  they  had  depended  in  the  decline  of  life,  and 
circle  of  brothers  and  sisters  who  feel  very  deeply  the  loss  of  an  affec- 
tionate brother. 

There  is  one  circumstance  connected  with  the  death  of  this  young 
man,  so  peculiarly  afflictive  that  the  writer  does  not  feel  at  liberty  to 
pass  it  unnoticed  in  this  brief  memoranda. 

The  deceased  was  a  native  of  this  place.  There  is  another,  also  a 
native  of  the  same  neighborhood,  about  three  years  his  junior,  with 
whom  he  was  about  to  blend  his  earthly  hopes  for  life — a  lovely  and 
amiable  pattern  of  meekness  and  true  Christianity.  They  had  long 
been  congenial  spirits.  Reared  together  from  early  childhood,  they 
fully  appreciated  each  others  virtues,  and  ardently  reciprocated  each 
others  affections.  But  she  is  left  to  lament  in  silence  and  alone. 
God  of  our  Fathers,  hast  thou  not  promised  to  be  the  widows^  God  1 
May  not  our  peculiarly  afflicted  young  friend  lay  claim  to  the  pro- 
mise with  full  confidence  ? 

His  funeral  was  attended  on  Sunday  the  24th,  at  the  M.  S. 
Church  in  this  place,  by  the  largest  concourse  of  people  ever  assem- 
bled here.  The  large  church  edifice  was  crowded  to  its  utmost  capa- 
city, and  not  one  third  of  the  people  could  gain  admittance 

The  Fraternity  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons  accompanied  the 
remains  of  our  Brother  to  the  grave,  and  there  deposited  them  in 
their  final  resting  place  with  Masonic  honors.  The  obsequies  were 
oonducted  by  A  P.  Burtley,  W.  M.  of  Macomb  Lodge,  No.  64. 

At  a  special  communicaticm  of  Macomb  Lodge,  No.  64,  held  at 
their  hall  on  the  evening  of  August  22d,  A.  L.  5856,  the  following 
preamble  and  resolutions  were  unanimously  adopted : 

TH£    ASHLAR.  89 

Wksrmt,  it  has  pleaaed  the  Supreme  Architect  of  the  UBiTene  in  the  dia- 
penflation  of  hie  providence,  to  remove  from  hie  labon  od  earth  onr  vrerthy 
young  Brother  Hxzolt  Olat  Oratuajk  in  the  early  theatre  of  his  naefiiliieea  aa 
«  member  of  thia  Lod^;  therefore 

Reidvei,  That  in  this  afflictive  diapenntion  the  Graft  have  been  deprived 
of  a  beloved  Brother  who  had  endeared  himaelf  to  all,  not  leaa  by  hia  manlineaa 
and  amiability  of  deportment,  than  b^  hia  ardent  attachment  to  the  ^nciplea 
of  our  Order,  and  hia  well  directed  efltorta  for  the  auooefla  and  prosperity  of  the 
Fraternity  and  the  ^ood  of  hia  fellow-men. 

Re$olvM,  That  in  the  death  of  Bro.  CnAPicAir  his  aged  parenta  have  loat  a 
devoted  and  beloved  aon,  hia  brothers  and  sistera  an  aifoctionate  relative,  so- 
ciety haa  been  deprived  of  aa  honorable,  npright  and  high-minded  yoong  man, 
and  that  we  moat  sincerely  sympathiae  with  the  &mily  in  thia  afflictive  dis- 
pensation, which  has  cast  the  "dark  shadow  of  the  valley  of  death"  over  their 
home,  and  we  tmly  feel  and  bewail  the  leas  they  and  we  have  all  snatained. 

JUioived,  That  we  will  (aa  a  Lodge)  attend  the  fnneral  of  omr  deeeaaed 
Brother,  and  pay  onr  last  tribnte  of  respect  for  hia  memory  by  intering  hia 
body  with  the  ntoala  of  oar  Order  and  wear  the  nsnal  badge  of  mooming. 

Ruoiffed,  That  the  Secretary  of  this  Lodge  transmit  a  copy  of  these  resolu- 
tions to  the  parents  of  the  deceased,  and  to  Tu  AsHLAa  for  pnblicatkm;  alao 
to  the  papers  pabliahed  at  Mt  Clemena. 


At  Greenyille,  Mioh,  Sept  15,  1856,  by  Bev.  Henry  JaduKm — 
Bro.  John  Smith,  of  Me-she-min-ne-kou'ing,  MicL,  to  Hiss  Sneui 
Kab-bash-bifa-mo-qnoy,  of  Qreenyille. 



CAinxon  LoDGB,  WKBiPonrr,  Lowms  Ca,  Mi8a»  Jane  19, 1856. 

Rdtdv^  Unanimonaly,  that  A.  J.  G.  Wxstbeook,  a  member  of  Cannon  Lodge, 
No.  159,  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  be  expelled  trom  said  Lodge  and  all 
the  privileges  of  Masonry,  for  gross  nnmaaonic  conduct. 

Retohnd,  That  the  Secretarr  of  said  Lodge  be  directed  to  cause  the  said  re- 
solution to  be  published  in  Moore'a  Mofdjuy  Magaeme,  published  in  Boston, 
and  in  the  MemphU  Appeal  dt  ^n^rtr,  with  a  request  that  all  editors  friendly 
to  Masonry  give  the  above  resolutions  one  insertion. 


To  GoKEESPONDENTS. — Owiog  to  the  necessary  absence  of  the 
Editor  for  much  of  the  time  daring  the  past  month,  lie  most  daim 
the  indulgence  of  many  of  his  conreepondents,  and  if  his  answers 
haye  not  reached  them,  they  mil  please  attribute  it  to  the  above 
cause,  and  content  themselves  with  the  promise  that  they  shall  be 
promptly  attended  to  in  their  regular  order. 


During  tbe  preparation  of  a  portion  of  ihia  number  ire  have  been  called 

away  from  the  editorial  chair  by  business.    We  trust,  therefore,  our  patroxk» 
will  excuse  any  defieiencies  arising  therefrom. 

The  engraving  of  Grand  Master  Munro  delayed  the  issue  x>f  our  first 
number  a  few  days  after  the  first  of  September.  We  shall  endearor  to  have 
our  subsequent  numbers  issued  punctoally  on  or  before  the  first  of  each  month. 

Macxet's  Lexicon. — Messrs.  Mors  tfe  Brother,  of  Philadelphia,  have  just 
issued  a  new  edition  of  this  work  which  needs  no  recommendation.  It  should 
be  in  the  poeseasion  ef  every  Lodge  and  every  Kason. 

EiroLisH  Traits,  bv  Emkbson. — Althoagh  often  pleased  with  Emerson's 
thoughts,  we  have  never  been  an  admirer  ot  his  tiyh,  nor  thought  his  efforts 
deserved  the  praise  bestowed  upon  them  by  his  friends.  There  is  generally  a 
want  of  perspicuity  and  simplicity  in  his  writings  which  renders  them  un- 
profitable. He  affects  much,  where  he  acctimplishes  little.  His  compositions 
have  an  air  of  originality,  and  yet  one  detects  imitations  of  the  worst  portions 
of  Carlisle.  We  are  pleased  to  say  that  the  work  before  us  is  in  a  great  meas- 
ure free  from  the  faults  to  which  we  have  alluded.  In  fact,  the  book  is  quite 
well  written  and  intelligible,  and  withal  instructive  and  interesting.  It  gives 
thu  details  of  English  character  and  habits,  and  draws  some  Y^ry  just  and  wise 
conclusions.  It  is  not  writ  en  in  the  spirit  which  hns  been  manifested  by  some 
English  travelleTB,  who  have  visited  the  United  States.  It  is  divided  into 
chapters  under  appropriate  headings,  such  as  Aridocracy,  Wealth,  Ac  We 
cheertuUy  recommend  this  work  to  all ;  it  is  worth  purchasing  and  worth  read- 
ing.   Kerr,  Morley  A  Co.,  of  Detroit,  have  it  for  sale. 

Graxd  ComroiL  or  Con ifsonouT. — The  annual  assembly  of  the  Grand  Counoil 
of  Select  Masters  of  the  State  of  Connecticut  was  held  at  New  Haven  Tuesday, 
May  i3th,  T.  1.  Wm.  L.  Brewer.  D.  P.  G.  M.,  presiding.  111.  Comp.  Wm. 
Storer  submitted  the  report  of  the  Committee  on  Foreign  Correspondence.  He 
briefly  reviewed  the  reports  of  the  proceedings  of  eleven  Grand  Councils  of 
other  States — Alabama,  G<K>rgia,  IllinoiB»  Indiana,  Kentucky,  Louisiana,  Maine, 
Mississippi!  New  York,  Ohio  and  Vermont.  The  following  ofiScers  were  elected 
f.>r  the  ensuing  year:  T.  I.  Alexander  Hamilton,  M.  P.  G.  M.;  Wm.  L.  Brewer* 
D.  P.  G.  M.;  George  F.  Daskam,  G.  T.  I.;  Hiram  Willey,  G.  P.  C;  James  E. 
Bidwell,  G.  0.  G.;  Horace  Goodwin,  G.  T.;  E.  G.  Storer,  G.  R. 

THE    ASHLAR.  91 

BaYPTXAir  AROHiCOLOGT. — Mr.  Gliddon,  Ube  famous  Bgyptologist^  in  Iub  k«- 
tnreB  before  the  Lowell  Institute  in  1843,  spoke  of  symbols  only  used  by  the 
priests,  which  to  the  ignorant  were  Indicrous,  bat  to  the  knowing  were  of  great 
moral  worth.  He  declared  that  the  stones  of  the  Pyramids  and  other  stupen* 
dons  structures  on  the  Kile  bear  Masons'  marks  as  fresh  as  though  chiseled 
yesterday.  Similar  traces  have  lately  been  diseoyered  on  the  monuments  of 
Nineveh  and  Babylon  that  undoubtedly  have  reference  to  the  Masonic  mys- 
teries, and  among  them  to  the  occult  name  of  Jehovah.  In  regard  to  the  "fiook 
of  the  Dead/*  which,  in  whole  or  part,  is  contained  in  a  papyrus  roll  laid  up 
with  the  Egyptian  mummy  in  the  Sarcophagus,  he  stated  that  there  were  many 
symbols  and  names,  probably  Masonic,  and  more  especially  the  occult  name  of 
Deity  among  the  Egyptian  writings,  which  may  have  an  important  bearing 
upon  Masonic  history.  His  explanation  of  the  Urim  and  Thummim,  the  lights 
and  perfections,  and  of  the  breastplate  of  Aaron,  was  remarkable.  The  initial 
letters  of  the  Hebrew  names  of  the  twelve  stones  in  that  breastplate,  and  also 
of  the  twelve  tribes,  (by  the  application  of  a  key  discovered  by  Lanci,>  con- 
veyed a  meaning  which  the  exegcsi  of  a  learned  linguist  would  oerer  have 
reached.  The  explanation  of  the  Urim  is:  "I  will  cause  the  oracular  spirit  to 
rise  at  my  will"^f  the  Thummim:  "  And  of  the  Seers  it  will  manifest  the 
%eer(i"  and  by  putting  the  first  two  letters  in  Hebrew  together  the  ineffable 
name  is  made  out. 

RsGULAnows. — ^Without  such  regulations  as  Solomon  had  derived  for  the 
government  of  his  servants,  without  such  artificers,  and  a  superior  wisdom  orer- 
ruling  the  whole,  we  should  be  at  a  loss  to  account  for  the  beginning,  carrying 
on  and  finishing  that  great  work  in  the  space  of  seven  years  and  six  months, 
when  the  two  succeeding  temples,  though  much  inferior,  employed  so  much 
more  time ;  and  then  we  have  good  authority  to  believe  that  the  temple  of 
Diana,  at  Ephesus,  a  structure  not  comparable  to  the  temple  of  Jerusalem,  was 
two  hundred  and  twenty  years  in  building. — Hidehinvm, 

Merit. — At  the  building  of  King  Solomon's  temple  merit  alone  entitled  to 
preferment,  an  indisputable  instance  of  which  we  have  in  the  Deputy  Grand 
Master  of  that  great  undertaking,  who,  without  eitber  wealth  or  power,  without 
any  other  distinction  than  that  of  being  a  widow's  son,  was  appointed  by  the 
Grand  Master  and  approved  by  the  people,  for  this  singular  reason,  because  he 
was  a  skilful  artificer. —  Whitmath. 

We  have  received  official  notice  of  the  existence  of  a  spurious  Masonic 
Body  in  New  Orleans,  under  the  title  of  «St.  Andrew's  Chapter  of  R.-.  0.-., 
No.  5,"  and  are  requested  to  caution  all  persons  and  bodies  of  the  grade  in- 
dicated, against  its  acts  and  pretensions.  The  crowded  state  of  our  pages  leave 
us  little  room  to  do  more  than  announce  the  fact  the  present  month.  In  our 
next  we  will  refer  to  the  subject  again. — FrMmaaon»^  Monthly  Magazine. 

Freemasonry  is  flourishing  in  the  new  Territory  of  Nebraska,  and  in  a 
few  years  tbere  will  be  a  large  number  of  the  Craft  there. 

The  Masonic  Hall  at  Naahville,  Tenn.,  has  been  destroyed  by  fire. 

92  THE    ASHLAR. 

Gevsbal  Graxo  Enoavpment  axd  Chapter  of  the  United  States. — These 
General  Grand  Bodies  met  in  triennial  se&sion  at  Hartford,  Cosq.,  at  the  9th 
inst  The  attendance  was  very  large,  and  nearly  erery  State  and  Territory  in 
the  Union  was  represented.  The  session  was  continued  until  the  16th  inst., 
when  both  Grand  Bodies  adjourned  to  meet  in  Chicago  in  1859,  unless  sooner 
called  together  by  some  emergency.  Among  the  more  important  measures  acted 
upon  was  the  adoption  by  the  G.  G.  Encampment  of  a  new  constitution.  By  this 
instrument  the  names  of  State,  Grand  and  Subordinate  Bodies  are  changed 
from  "  JEneampnunt**  to  "  Commandery"  There  is  also  a  proTision  for  an  appeal 
from  the  decision  of  the  G.  G.  Commander  by  a  two-thirds  vote,  but  is  is  ex- 
pressly stated  that  this  regulation  is  on  tiie  ground  of  the  G.  G.  Body,  being  a 
legislatiye  body  and  supreme,  and  that  it  shall  not  serve  as  guidance  for  Sub- 
ordinate Bodies.  The  title  and  designation  of  the  Commander  of  a  Subordinate 
Commandery  is  *'SminenL" 

The  following  are  the  officers  elected  to  serve  the  ensuing  three  ysars:  Wm. 
B.  Hubbard,  of  Ohio,  G.  G.  M.;  Henry  C.  Domingo  of  Conn.»  D.  G.  G.  M.;  David 
8.  Goodloe,  of  Ky.,  G.  G.  Gen.;  James  Sorley,  of  Texas,  G.  G,  C.  Gen.;  H.  0. 
Lawrence,  of  Ind.,  G.  G.  S,  W.;  Henry  Buist,  of  8.  C,  G.  G.  J.  W.;  E,  A.  Ray- 
mond, of  Md.,  G.  G.  Treas.;  B.  B.  French,  of  D.  C,  G.  G.  Rec.;  Abner  B. 
Thompson,  of  Va.,  G.  G.  Standard  Bearer;  Vf.  P.  Coleman,  of  La.,  G.  G.  Sword 
Bearer;  Ira  A.  W.  Buch,  of  111.,  G.  Q.  Warden. 

Among  the  most  important  transactions  of  the  G.  G.  Chapter  was  the  passage 

of  the  following  resolutions,  after  a  long  and  able  debate: 

Betolved,  That  it  is  the  sense  of  this  G.  G.  Chapter,  and  it  is  declared  to  be  a 
law  of  Royal  Arch  Masonry  and  of  its  own  powers  and  prerogatives: 

Ist.  That  the  6.  G.  Royal  Arch  Chapter  derives  all  its  powers  by  grant  and 
delegation  from  the  respective  Grand  Moyal  Arch  Chapters  which  are  its  con- 
stituents; and  it  is  therefore  hereby  solemnly  declared  that  it  can  never  exercise 
or  assume  any  other  or  greater  powers  than  such  as  haye  been  or  naay  be  dele- 
gated to  ana  conferred  upon  it  by  such  Grand  Royal  Arch  Chapters;  nor  can 
claim  or  exercise  any  doubtful  power  or  powers  by  imputation  merely. 

2d.  That  an  appeal  does  tie  in  all  cases  from  the  decision  of  the  G.  G.  High 
Priest  to  the  G.  G.  Chapter,  which  alone  can  in  the  last  resort,  by  vote  of  tm»- 
thirds  of  the  members  present,  determine  what  is  the  Masonic  law  or  custom, 
provided,  that  this  resolution  as  a  rule  operating  in  the  decisions  of  this  G.  G. 
Body,  shall  only  operate  and  have  effect  in  mis  body,  and  shall  not  be  con- 
sidered as  operating  or  having  any  effect  in  State  G.  Chapters  or  Subordinates. 

The  following  are  the  officers  elected  for  the  ensuing  three  years:  Chas.  Gil- 
man,  of  Md.,  G.  G.  H.  P.;  Philip  C.  Tucker,  of  Vt,  D.  G.  Q.  H.  P.;  Amos 
Adams,  of  La.,  G.  G.  K.;  Jno.  L.  Lewis,  Jr.,  of  N.  Y.,  ^^.  G.  S.;  Edw.  Raymond, 
of  Mass.,  G.  G.  Jr.;  Benj.  B.  French,  of  D.  C,  G.  G.  Rec.;  J.  R.  Hartstock,of 
Iowa,  G.  G.  C.  H.;  Henry  C.  Doming,  of  Conn.;  G.  G*  R.  A.  C. 

Charters  for  the  establishment  of  Chapters  are  ordered  to  be  issued  at  St. 
Pauls,  Minn.,  San  Francisco,  CaL,  Jersey  City,  N.  J.,  Burlington,  N.  J.,  Salem, 
Oregon,  and  Eatontown,  N.  J.;  and  for  Encampments  in  Michigan  at  Hillsdale, 
KalanuuBoo,  Monroe  and  Grand  Rapids. 

The  delegates  in  attendance  from  this  State  were:  Horace  S.  Roberts,  D.  G. 
M.,  to  the  G.  G.  Encampment;  Michael  Shoemaker,  G.  H.  P.,  and  F.  Booher, 
G.  K.,  to  the  G.  G.  Chapter. 

We  shall  look  for  the  official  record  of  the  proceedings,  from  which  to  publish 
other  matters  of  interest  to  the  Craft. . 

The  delegates  evidently  enjoyed  their  visit  at  Hartford,  and  the  many  atten- 
tions showed  them  by  the  people  of  that  city. 

We  give  in  another  place  an  account  of  a  banquet  given  to  the  delegates 
dnring  the  session. 



VOL.  II.     DETROIT,  NOVEMBER,  1856.       NO.IIT. 


While  the  prosperity  of  %  Lodge  depends  in  a  great  degree  upon 
the  faitbfdf  atteDdanee  and  the  proper  aetioa  of  ita  members,  its  sae- 
ceas  is  very  materiallj'  advanced  or  impeded  by  the  mamwr  in  which 
thote,  clothed  with  official  honors,  disehargs  their  respective  duties. 
No  governmeat — not  even  a  republican  or  democratic  in  which  offioera 
are  clothed  with  comparatively  little  authority— can  be  well  adminis- 
tered, if  those,  whose  duty  it  is  to  see  that  the  laws  are  faithfully 
executed,  are  remiss  in  their  duty.  An  army — be  it  ever  so  well 
manned  and  equipped — if  led  by  nnshilhl  offioerSj  or  a  drunken  or 
inexperienced  general,  may  be  defeated  by  a  far  inferior  force  and 
put  to  flight,  after  having  suffered  terrible  osmage  and  loss  of  life. 
The  principle  involved  in  these  remarks,  applies  with  equal  foree,  to 
the  Lodge.  The  officers  of  tiiat  body  have  it  in  their  power,  nine 
hundred  and  ninety-nine  times  out  of  a  thousand,  to  create  an  interest 
in  its  proceedings,  to  awaken  enthusiasm,  to  check  wrong  practices) 
13 — VOL.  11,  NO.  in. 


allay  contention  and  promote  harmony.  This  subject  is  one  of  tspe- 
cial  interest  at  this  time,  as  in  the  covrse  of  five  or  six  weeks  the 
subordinate  bodies  will  elect  officers  for  the  next  current  year.  We 
will  briefly  allude  to  the  powers  and  duties  pertaining  to  the  different 
official  positions. 

First  and  foremost,  and  standing  far  above  all  others,  is  the  Wor- 
shipful Master  of  the  Lodge.  In  the  body  over  which  be  presides, 
he  is  supreme.  His  powers  and  duties  differ  from  those  of  every 
other  presiding  officer  in  this  country.  '  He  is  responsible  for  the 
work  done,  and  for  the  correctness  of  business  transaetiobs ;  he  is 
obliged  to  instruct  members  and  prevent  any  action  in  his  Lodge 
which  tends  to  subvert  the  landmarks  of  the  Order,  to  violate  ancient 
usages  or  to  promote  injustice.  At  the  time  of  his  installation,  he 
must  assent  to  the  following  charges  and  regulations : 

You  agree  to  be  a  good  man  and  true,  and  strictly  to  obey  the 
moral  law.  Ton  agree  to  be  a  peaceable  citizen,  and  cheerfully  to 
conform  to  the  laws  of  the  country  in  which  you  reside.  You  pro- 
mise not  to  be  concerned  in  plots  and  conspiracies  against  govern- 
ment, but  patiently  submit  to  the  decisions  of  the  supreme  legislature. 
You  agree  to  pay  a  proper  respect  to  the  civil  magistrates,  to  work 
diligently,  live  creditably,  and  act  honorably  by  all  men.  You  agree 
to  hold  in  veneration  the  original  rulers  and  patrons  of  the  Order  of 
Masonry,  and  their  regular  successors,  supreme  and  subordinate,  ac- 
eording  to  their  stations,  and  to  submit  to  the  awards  and  resolutions 
of  your  Brethren,  when  convened  in  every  case  consistent  with  the 
constitutions  of  the  Order.  You  agree  to  avoid  private  piques  and 
quarrels,  and  to  guard  against  intemperance  and  excess.  You  agree 
to  be  cautious  in  carriage  and  behaviour,  courteous  to  your  Brethren 
and  faithful  to  your  Lodge.  You  promise  to  respect  genuine  Breth- 
ren, and  to  discountenance  imposters  and  all  dissenters  from  the 
original  plan  of  Masonry.  You  agree  to  promote  the  general  good 
of  society,  to  cultivate  the  social  virtues,  and  to  propagate  the  knowl- 
edge of  the  art.  You  promise  to  pay  homage  to  the  Grand  Master 
for  the  time  being,  and  to  his  officers  when  duly  installed ;  and  strict- 
ly to  conform  to  every  edict  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  or  general  assembly 
oif  Masons,  that  is  not  subversive  of  the  principles  and  ground-work 
of  Masonry.  You  admit  that  it  is  not  in  the  power  of  any  man.  or 
body  of  men,  to  make  innovations  in  the  body  of  Masonry.  You 
promise  a  regular  attendance  on  the  committees  and  com muoicat ions 
of  the  Grand  Lodge,  on  receiving  proper  notice,  and  to  pay  attention 
to  all  the  duties  of  Masonry,  on  convenient  occasions.  You  admit 
that  no  new  Lodge  shall  be  formed  without  permission  of  the  Grand 
Lodge,  and  that  no  countenance  be  given  to  an  irregular  Lodge,  or 
to  any  person  clandestinely  initiated  therein,  being  contrary  to  the 
ancient  charges  of  the  Order.  You  admit  that  no  person  can  be 
regularly  made  a  Mason  in,  or  admitted  a  member  of,  any  regular 

THB    ASHLAR.  95 

Lodge  without  previons  notice  aud  dne  inquiry  into  his  eharacter. 
Ton  agree  that  no  visitors  shall  he  received  into  jonr  Lodge  ^thont 
dae  examination,  and  prodocing  proper  vouchers  of  their  having  been 
initiated  in  a  regular  Lodge. 

For  the  performance  of  the  duties  pertaining  to  his  position,  the 
Worshipful  Master  is  necessarily  clothed  with  great  power,  and  is  not 
responsible  to  his  Lodge  for  the  exercise  of  it ;  he  can  be  called  to 
account  only  before  the  Grand  Lodge.  He  must  exercise  his  dis- 
cretion in  regulating  the  action  of  the  body  over  which  he  presides, 
and  materially  influence,  by  his  decisions,  its  course.  He  has  entire 
control  of  the  work,  and  can  say  what  shall  be  done  and  when  it  shall 
be  done.  He  can  close  and  open  his  Lodge  when  he  pleases,  and  can 
take  its  charter  into  his  own  keeping. 

It  is  obvious  from  this  brief  recital  of  the  authority  and  duties  of 
tne  Master,  (which  no  intelligent  Mason  will  gainsay,)  that  his  office 
is  one  of  vast  importance  and  should  be  filled  only  by  those  best 
fitted  to  assume  the  responsibility.  The  qualifications  required  in 
the  presiding  officer  of  a  Lodge,  are  of  the  highest  order.  He  should 
be  thoroughly  familiar  with  the  ritual  and  possess  a  thorough  knowl- 
edge of  the  well  established  usages  and  laws  of  the  Institutioik 
Without  such  information,  he  cannot  guide  his  Brethren  aright  and 
cannot  properly  protect  the  interests  of  the  Fraternity  intrusted  to 
his  care.  These  facts  should  be  well  considered  and  guide  the  action 
of  members  in  electing  their  Master. 

Next  to  the  Master  is  the  Senior  Warden.  It  is  his  duty,  in  the 
absence  of  the  Master,  to  govern  the  Lodge,  and  in  his  presence  to 
assist  him.  He  therefore  should  be  a  well  informed  Mason,  as  he  is 
liable  at  any  moment  to  be  called  to  discharge  the  most  important 
duties  which  can  devolve  upon  a  member  of  our  society. 

The  same  remarks  will  apply  with  much  force  to  the  Junior 
Warden.  In  the  absence  of  the  W.  M.  and  the  Senior  Warden, 
he  presides  over  the  Craft  and  directs  their  labors.  He  should  be 
perfectly  competent  to  examine  visitors  and  to  instruct  candidates. 
Upon  him  properly  devolves  the  duty  of  preferring  charges  and  see- 
ing that  ^hey  are  properly  sustained.  His  office,  therefore,  is  a  very 
important  one  and  should  not  be  under  estimated. 

The  Treasurer  and  Secretary  should  be  members  competent  for 
their  respective  places.  The  manner  in  which  the  latter  discharges 
his  duty,  is  of  material  importance  to  the  Lodge.  His  records  should 
be  legibly  written,  plain  and  unambiguous  in  terms,  and  should  con- 
tain a  full  account  of  all  business  transacted  at  communications. 

96  THE    ASHLAB. 

Otberwbe,  the  aiain  of  the  Lodge  will  soon  beoome  lo  nixed  wpf 
and  its  bosmese  so  eoofuBed,  thai  obaoa  will  reigo  where  order  ehoald 
preTaiL  We  look  upon  the  office  e€  Secretary  a»  one  of  gveat  ii»- 
porianoe,  which  ia  perhaps  aa  wach  alighted  as  any  ether. 

It  IB  hardly  aeeessary  to  dwell  upon  ^  iiaportenoe  whieb  necessa- 
rily attadiea  to  the  office  of  Senior  IteaooD.  All  Masons  know  that 
vpon  the  asanner  in  whicb  he  peilbrms  his  part,  the  saecess  of  the 
work  is  a  great  degree  depends.  In  this  Tiew  of  his  position,  wo 
place  him  next  to  the  Worshipful  Master.  Unless  he  possess  a  cor- 
rect knowledge  of  the  ritual,  he  cannot  discharge  his  duties  eredilably 
to  hi»self  or  his  Brethren.  His  part^  divkg  the  eerenenits  of  con- 
ferring degrees^  requires  as  much  abDity  apd  discretion,  as  dees  thai 
of  the  presiding  officer;  and  in  one  portion  of  the  rites  in  which  he 
is  conspiciioiis,  th^re  is  greater  scope  for-  displayiog  intelligenee  anci 
imparting  solid  information  than  in  almost  any  other. 

We  need  not  enumerate  the  duties  of  the  Jonier  Deacon,  the 
Stewards  and  the  Tyler.  They  are  sucb  as  cannot  be  slighted  with- 
out injury  to  the  Lodge  and  injustice  to  ^e  Order. 

Viewing  the  nature  of  onr  Institution  and  the  importance  attached 
to  the  Tarioos  offices  of  a  Lodge-— especially  to  '^  three  principal' 
ones — ^we  cannot  too  strongly  vrge  Brethren,  to  consider  well  belore 
they  select  members  who  are  to  premde  orer  them  and  materially  in- 
fluence the  destinies  oi  the  subordinate  body  to  which  they  belong. 
They  should  elect  those  who  are  best  qualiied  to  ill  the  stations,  and 
■lost  competent  to  discharge  the  duties.  No  one  should  be  chosen 
merely  because  he  is  in  the  regular  fiae  of  promotion,  L  e.  no  one 
should  be  placed  in  the  East  merely  because  he  has  sat  in  the  Westf 
no  one  should  be  placed  in  the  West  merely  because  he  has  been  in 
the  South ;  and  a  member  should  not  be  elected  Senior  Deacon  mere- 
ly because  he  has  been  Junior  Deacon.  Some  Lodges,  by  following 
the  rule  which  we  deprecate,  haTC  Tery  materially  injured  their  inter- 
ests and  dampened  their  prospects.  "  AH  preferment  among  Masons,'' 
say  the  Charges,  "  is  grounded  upon  rep\  worth  and  personal  merit 
only ;  that  so  the  lords  may  be  weQ  serred,  the  Brethren  not  put  to 
shame,  nor  the  Royal  Craft  despised ;  therefore  no  Master  or  Warden 
is  chosen  by  seniority,  but  for  his  merit"  Let  this  injunction,  which 
is  one  of  the  ^  leges  aoripto"  of  Masonry,  not  be  oyerlooked,  and 
at  the  approaching  election.  Brethren,  elect  members  to  office  for 
their  ^  coal  worth  and  personal  merit,"  and  not  for  their  ^  seniori- 
ty." Thus  only  c^  you  obey  the  law  and  insure  prosperity  and  suc- 
cess for  your  Lodge,  and  promote  the  best  interests  of  the  Fraternity. 

THE    ASHLAR.  07 

For  the  AsUar. 


BT  Bmo.  B.  o.  corrarBumr. 

The  winter  winds  ahriek'd,  and  the  ntorm  whittled  hj, 

Ab  a  beggar  girl  stood  at  the  gate; 
With  a  shiT'ring  form  and  a  tear  in  her  eye. 
With  cold  blue  lips  and  a  pitioos  erj. 

She  begg*d  for  a  morsel  to  eat. 

The  lord  of  the  mansion  came  harrying  home. 

All  mnffled  in  wool  and  fur, 
Plungine  thro'  snow-drifts  towards  his  dome. 
His  steed  all  ooTer'd  with  frost  and  foam, 

ITrg'd  on  by  the  whip  and  the  spur, 

**  O  hear,  my  hind  Sirl"  the  beggar  girl  cried* 

"  Pray  g[ive  me  a  cmst  of  bread. 
And  I'll  give  yon  this  fern,  'twas  my  hind  Other's  pride; 
On  his  b^om  ne  wore  it  to  the  day  that  he  died; 

For,  AlasI  my  poor  Either  is  dead  I" 

"  Great  God  I**  iaid  the  lord  of  that  princely  dome. 

And  press'd  the  poor  child  to  his  breaitt; 
**  No  more  shall  a  Brother's  poor  orphan  child  roam, 
She  shall  share  of  my  bonnty  and  dwell  in  my  home. 
With  me  shall  the  weary  find  reet" 

What  magical  charm,  that  jewel  possessing. 
Could  hare  melted  that  proud  man  there, 

To  breathe  on  the  orphan  oeggar  a  blessing. 

And  to  carry  her  in  with  fond  caressing 
Out  of  the  freeaing  air? 

Full  well  did  that  prond  man  recognize 

That  jewel  so  j^recious  and  rare; 
Full  well  did  its  import  bring  to  hil  eyes 
The  big  bright  teare  'mid  the  tender  sighs — 

Twas  the  mystic  Compau  and  Sqwiret 

CoicsTA!fTixE,  Mich.,  September  1856. 

From  the  Htnor  and  Keyvtone. 


In  by-gone  times  morality  had  not  attained  the  high  atandard  it 
baa  at  the  present  A.  L.  5856,  and  games  of  ehanees  were  looked 
upon  by  almost  eyery  elass  as  innoeent.  Gambling  with  cards,  dice 
and  kindred  modes  of  risk  was,  bowever,  frowned  down  by  right 
thinking  men»  and  banished  from  respectable  commanitt^s,-  and  made 
penal  by  legislatiye  action.  Such  has  been  the  coarse  adopted  in 
reference  to  Lotteries.  There  was  a  time  when,  in  the  Keystone 
State  as  well  as  other  places,  Lotteries  were  made  use  of  by  beneyo- 


lent  and  other  associations,  as  a  means  to  raise  money  to  aid  and 
assist  in  promoting  the  object  of  the  institutions ;  and  the  goodly  city 
of  Penn  was  a  theatre  where  the  blind  goddess  exhibited  in  every 
prominent  location  in  bold,  glaring  figures  $10,000,  $20,000,  and  up 
to  $100,000,  which  on  any  day  the  poor  dupe  might  be  invested  with 
who  would  divest  himself  of  only  one,  five  or  ten  dollars.  The  temp- 
tation to  many  was  irresistible,  and  much  suffering  was  endured  in 
consequence  of  the  hard  earnings  of  laboring  men,  instead  of  being 
applied  to  the  use  of  their  families,  being  invested  in  the  purchase  of 
tickets.  Thank  God,  however,  that  day  is  past  Lotteries  have  been 
declared  illegal  in  nearly  every  State  of  the  Union  ;*  yet  there  are 
persons,  if  the  press  is  reliable  authority,  who  in  secret  evade  the 
law ;  others,  more  bold,  have  invented  planff  to  dispose  of  property 
and  merchandise,  equally  ofiiensive  to  morality  and  in  violation  of  the 
statute.  We  did  not  think  that  such  a  course  would  ever  be  resorted 
to  by  any  member  of  the  Fraternity  for  the  purpose  of  making  mer- 
chandise of  Masonry,  and  we  believe  that  the  baneful  influences  of 
such  a  policy  has  been  overlooked  by  Bro.  Brennan.  The  scheme 
which  he  presents,  will  take  one  dollar  out  of  the  pockets  of  nine 
thousand  eight  hundred  Brethren,  making  nine  thousand  eight  hun- 
dred dollars,  in  order  that  two  hundred  fortunate  ones  may  each  come 
into  the  possession  of  thirty  volumes  of  the  ^Universal  Masonic 
Library.''  This  is.  indeed,  a  progressive  age ;  but,  in  the  name  of 
Heaven,  for  the  sake  of  all  that  is  good,  let  us  progress  in  morality, 
and  not  vice.  Do  not  pollute  or  contaminate  the  Masonic  mind  with 
a  species  of  gambling,  so  considered  by  every  really  good  and  true 
man.  Its  influences  may  be  most  injurious,  and  the  Institution  be 
contemned  in  the  opinion  of  the  reflecting  moral  man  of  the  outer 
woi:ld.  Bro.  Brennan,  do  not  do  it.  The  world  is  wide,  and  energy 
such  as  you  possess,  need  not  resort  to  objectionable  plans,  in  oider 
to  secure  you  a  living. 

'•  The  majority  of  every  particular  Lodge,  when  congregated, 
shall  have  the  privilege  of  giving  instructions  to  their  Master  and 
Wardens,  before  the  assembling  of  the  Orand  Chapter  or  Lodge,  at 
the  three  quarterly  communications  hereinafter  mentioned,  and  the 
annual  Grand  Lodge  too ;  because  their  Master  and  Wardens  are 
their  representatives,  and  are  supposed  to  speak  their  mind."  Thus 
say  the  General  Regulations. 

*  Stich  is  the  case  in  Michigan,  where,  as  we  understand  the  law,  it  is  il- 
legal to  sell  tickets  for  lotteries  projected  and  drawn  out  of  the  State. 

THE    ASHLAR.  99 


We  have  recently  reoeiyed  two  or  three  letters  reqaesting  informa- 
tion respecting  the  power  of  Lodges  to  punish  members  for  the  non- 
payment of  dues.  The  subject  is  a  very  important  one  and  merits 
more  consideration  than  it  has  generally  reoeiyed  among  the  Graft 

Formerly,  as  our  readers  are  aware,  the  custom  of  leyying  annual 
contributions  on  members  of  Lodges  was  unknown.  It  was  adopted 
in  modern  times  for  the  support  of  new  bodies.  The  right  of  a  Lodge 
to  exact  dues  is  now  so  well  settled,  that  it  need  not  to  be  yindicated. 
It  is  exercised  to  promote  the  prosperity  of  the  Lodge,  and  perhaps 
to  continue  its  existence,  and  is  a  matter  of  internal  regulation  in 
which  the  Grand  Lodge  or  Craft  in  general  haye  no  interest.  This 
is  now  well  established. 

MorQ  serious  and  important  is  the  consideration  respecting  the 
power  of  Lodges  to  punish  delinquents  for  non-payment  of  dues.  It 
is  a  custom,  too  preyalent,  to  suspend  or  expel  a  member  in  arrears 
''from  all  the  rights  and  benefits  of  Masonry."  Can  this  be  legally 
or  properly  done  1  We  think  not.  The  right  to  exact  dues  rests 
upon  an  implied  private  contract  between  the  tnember  and  his  Lodge, 
and  viewing  the  nature  of  that  particular  contract,  (which  is  not  re- 
quired by  the  Institution  and  is  of  modern  origin,)  we  regard  its  violation 
as  merely  effecting  the  relations  which  exist  between  the  two  parties 
immediately  interested.  Indeed,  it  is  thought  by  some,  and  with 
reason,  that  a  member  may  withdraw  from  a  Lodge,  because  he  is 
unwilling  to  pay  dues ;  that  he  may  take  his  choice  of  being  a  non- 
affiliated Mason  subject  to  the  disabilities  pertaining  to  such  condition, 
or  of  paying  annual  leyies.  Whether  this  ground  be  tenable  or  not, 
it  is  evident  to  every  reader  that  the  requirement  of  dues  is  for  the 
benefit  and  support  of  the  particular  Lodge  to  which  they  are  paid, 
and  may  be  regulated  or  abolished  by  that  Lodge  at  any  moment. 
It  is  a  matter  which  is  adjusted  by  each  subordinate  body  as  it  deems 
best,  and  is  governed  by  no  ancient  usages  or  general  customs  of  thb 
Craft  Each  Lodge  fixes  the  amount  of  its  dues,  and  the  amount  in 
different  bodies  differs  very  materially.  Such  being  the  case,  if  a 
member  of  one  Lodge  who  is  in  arrears  a  certain  amount,  may  be  ex- 
pelled from  all  the  rights  and  benefits  of  Masonry,  he  may  be  expelled 
although  he  has  actually  paid  more  than  a  Brother  of  another  Lodge 
whose  dues  are  much  lower.  There  is  an  inequality  in  this  which  is 
not  recognized  by  the  principles  of  Masonry. 

The  proper  disability  to  be  placed  on  a  member  for  non-payment 

100  THE    ASHLAR. 

of  doofl,  we  belieTe  to  be  fluspension  or  ezpulsion  from  the  rights  of 

membership.    By  this,  he  becomes  s  non-affili&ted  Mason,  and  his 

relations  to  the  Craft  in  general  are  not  changed.    The  punishment 

which  he  incurs  under  such  oiroumstances,  is  certainly  seyere  enough. 

The  views  which  have  been  presented,  are  sustained  by  Mackey  in 

his  "  Principles  of  Masonic  Law."    He  says : 

The  system  of  payment  of  Lod^i^e-daes  does  not  by  any  means  be- 
long to  die  ancient  usages  of  the  Fraternity.  It  is  a  modem  custom, 
established  for  purposes  of  conTenience,  and  arising  out  of  other  mo- 
difications, in  the  organization  of  the  Order.  It  is  not  an  obligation 
on  the  part  of  a  Mason  to  the  Institution  at  large,  but  is  in  reality  a 
special  contract,  in  which  the  only  parties  are  a  particular  Lodge  and 
its  members,  of  which  the  Fraternity,  as  a  mass,  are  to  know  nothing. 
It  is  not  presented  by  any  general  Masonic  law,  nor  any  universal 
Masonic  precept  No  Grand  Lodge  has  ever  yot  attempted  to  con- 
trol or  regulate  it,  and  it  is  thus  tacitly  admitted  to  form  no  part  of 
the  general  regulations  of  the  Order.  Even  in  that  old  charge  in 
which  a  Lodge  is  described,  and  the  necessity  of  membership  in  is 
enforced,  not  a  word  is  said  of  the  payment  of  arrears  to  it,  or  of  the 
duty  of  contributing  to  its  support.  Hence  the  non-payment  of  ar^ 
rears  is  a  violation  of  a  special  and  voluntary  contract  with  a  Lodge, 
and  not  of  any  general  duty  to  the  Craft  at  large.  The  corollary 
from  all  this  is,  evidently,  that  the  punishment  inflicted  in  such  a  ease 
should  be  one  affecting  the  relations  of  the  delinquent  with  the  par- 
ticular Lodge  whose  by-laws  he  has  infringed,  and  not  a  general  one, 
affecting  his  relations  with  the  whole  Order. 

Certain  it  is  in  our  mind  that  the  usual  method  of  expelling  a 
member  from  all  the  rights  and  benefits  of  Masonry  for  the  non- 
payment of  dues  is  radically  wrong.  No  Mason,  according  to  the 
the  principles  of  our  Order,  can  be  deprived  of  all  its  rights  and 
benefits,  except  on  charges  preferred,  and  after  an  impartical  trial 
and  an  opportunity  of  defense.  This  is  not  usually  given  in  the 
cases  under  consideration,  but  members  are  expelled  by  a  vote  of  the 
Lodge,  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  some  by-law.  Where 
this  merely  affects  a  member's  relation  with  his  own  Lodge,  this  may 
be  right,  but  ought  pot  to  extend  any  further. 

To  prevent  difficulty  and  insure  justice  as  well  9fi  to  conform  to 
what  we  believe  to  be  Masonic  law,  we  would  recommend  Lodges  to 
adopt  a  clausdB  in  their  by-laws,  like  the  following :  ^^  Every  member 
who  shall  be  in  arrears  for  Lodge  dues  three  months,  shall  be  sus- 
pended from  the  privilege  of  voting  on  any  question  and  from  hold- 
ing office,  until  he  shall  have  paid  said  arrears ;  and  any  member  who 
ahall  be  in  arrears  for  dues  one  year,  without  any  satisfactory  reason 
appearing,  may  be  suspended  fiom  all  the  rights  of  membership^  and 
so  reported  to  the  Grand  Lodge." 




Habtforo,  Oovn.,  September  18,  1856. 

••••••    Among  the  rnvDj  itUe  sod  distingiiuhed  men 

who  aotiyely  participate  in  the  proceedings  of  onr  Grand  Bodies, 
perhaps  none  would  attract  the  attention  of  a  looker  on,  sooner 
than  Albxrt  Pikx,  of  Arkansas.  With  a  massiye  head  adorned  by 
«  profosion  of  long  eorlj  locks,  wearing  a  patriarehial  beard — joa 
would  select  him  among  a  thousand  as  one  upon  whom  nature  had 
placed  the  stamp  of  nobility.  He  kis  no  superior  here  as  a  debater, 
and  none,  I  imagine,  in  those  qualities  Aat  render  a  man  beloved  in 
the  social  circle.  He  is  Past  Grand  High  Priest  of  the  Grand  Ohapter 
t>f  Arkansas. 

€k>vemor  Bunlap,  of  Maine,  General  Grand  High  Priest,  presides 
oyer  the  deliberations  of  the  Ohapter  with  great  dignity,  courtesy  and 
ability.  He  is  a  man  well  advanced  in  years,  whom  we  shall  probab* 
ly  never  again  meet  in  General  Convention.  He  reminds  me  of 
Gen.  Cas6;  whom  he  resembles  in  more  ways  than  one.  His  opening 
address  was  a  very  fine  one,  and  the  allusions  to  the  death  of  Gomps. 
Ellis,  of  Conn.,  and  Haswell,  of  Yt,  very  eloquent 

Sir  Wm.  B.  Hubbard,  of  Ohio,  General  Grand  Commander,  has 
occupied  that  exalted  station  for  nine  years.  He  is  a  small,  nervous 
man,  remarkably  prompt  and  decided  as  a  presiding  oiBoer,  and  pos- 
sesses the  confidence  of  his  Brethren-in-^rms,  as  his  repeated  election 
to  his  office  testifies.  He  takes  much  pride  in  the  discharge  of  his 
duties,  and  when  you  reflect  that  during  the  whole  interim  of  three 
years  between  the  sessions  of  the  General  Grand  Encampment  he  has 
the  entire  and  sole  supervision  of  Knighthood  in  this  country,  you 
will  realize  how  much  we  all  owe  him. 

I  know  of  no  one  in  attendance  upon  these  General  Grand  Bodies, 
of  whom  I  had  formed  a  higher  estimate  before  meeting,  than  Albxrt 
G  Macket,  of  South  Carolina.  I  have  always  looked  to  his  works 
for  instruction  and  have  considered  him  as  good  authority  upon  Ma- 
sonic law  as  ift  to  be  obtained.  A  personal  acquaintance  with  him 
has  only  strengthened  me  in  my  opinions.  He  is  an  able,  strong- 
minded  man.  You  recognize  the  fact  at  a  glance.  He  has  a  large 
head  and,  when  speaking,  a  very  expressive  face.  He  is  very  plain 
in  appearance,  of  unassuming  manners,  and  appears  to  me  of  a  gene- 
rous, social  nature.    I  like  Dr.  Mackey  much  and  hope  to  meet  him 

firequenily  hereafter. 

14 — ^voL.  iL  NO.  m. 


Following  close  sftor  Miokey,  I  widi  I  oould  walk  with  yon  into 
No.  3  City  Hotel,  and  introdnce  yoa  to  Bob.  Mo&bib,  of  Kentucky. 
A  Brother  of  the  qoill,  he  would  receiye  yon  with  the  warm  hospitali- 
ty eharacteriBtio  to  the  awn.  Unpretending,  qniet  and  gentlemanly^ 
Ids  Booial  qualities,  as  weU  as  his  deservedly  hi^  reputation  as  a 
Masonic  writer,  draw  around  him  a  galaxy  of  bright  Masonic  lighta 
Morris  is  a  fine  looking  man  far  an  editor ,  of  an  aotiye,  nervous  tem- 
perament»  small  built,  with  mor^  brain  than  body.  He  is,  as  you  are 
aware,  something  of  a  poet  If  he  ever  visits  your  sanctum,  send  for 
me,  and  together  we  will  try  to  entertain  him,  as  he  is  wont  to  enter^ 
tain  his  friends.    Long  life  and  prosperity  to  you,  Morris ! 

GiLMAK,  of  Maryland,  now  Deputy,  will  probably  be  chosen  General 
Grand  High  Priest  He  is  peculiarly  fitted  for  that  position,  on  ac- 
count of  having  been  for  nearly  twenty  years  closely  identified  with 
the  transactions  of  the  Chapter.  He  is  a  dignified  gentleman  and  a 
weU  informed  Mason.  He  will  grace  the  station  which  I  have  as- 
signed him. 

Oomp.  TuoxEE,  of  Vermont,  is  one  of  the  oldest  of  the  Craft  here. 
He  looks  back  to  the  trying  period  in  the  history  of  United  States^ 
Masonry,  and  rejoices  over  its  present  prosperity.  He  is  beloved  and 
respected  by  his  Brethroa  for  his  long  services  as  well  as  for  his 
virtues  and  ability. 

There  are  many  here  whom  I  should  like  to  sketch  for  yon — ^many 
from  the  North  and  the  South,  from  the  East  and  the  West — to 
Masonry  dear.  Worthy  they  are  to  sit  for  a  likeness ;  worthy  they 
are  of  the  distinguished  Masonic  positions  they  occupy.  But  I  shall 
have  to  leave  them  now,  promising  you,  when  we  meet,  to  pass  them 
all  in  review.  •••*••••» 

Yours  Fraternally,  B. 

A  SiKOTTLAB  Faot. — Is  it  not  singular  the  name  of  God  should  be 
spelled  with  four  letters  in  so  manv  different  languages?  In  Latin 
it  isDeus;  French,  Dieu;  Old  Ghreek,  Zeus;  German,  G^tt;  Old 
German,  Odin;  Swedish,  Gode;  Hebrew,  Aden;  Dutch,  Herr;  Sy- 
rian, Adad;  Persian,  Syra;  Tartarian,  Ed^;  Slavonian,  Belg  or 
Boog;  Spanish,  Dias;  Hindoo,  Esgi  or  lleni;  Turkish,  Abdi; 
E^^ptian,  Aumn  or  Zent;  Japanese,  Zain;  Peruvian,  Liau;  Wal- 
lachian,  Zene;  Etrurian,  Chur;  Tyrrhenian,  Eber;  Irish,  Dieh; 
Croatian,  Doha ;  Margarian,  Oesc ;  Arabian,  Alia ;  Duialtaam,  Bogt 
There  are  several  other  languages  in  which  the  word  is  marked  with 
the  same  peculiarity.— -iirae/it& 



AoorrxD  rioK  thb  vrikoh  op  booxjb. 

(OotuMed  ftum  pogt  69  J 

As  uBinil — ^little  disorder  assiflted  a  great  oatattrophe.  A  hoiue 
where  a  ball  <»f  ire  knndred  people  is  ghren,  is  genenUy  somewhat 
ont  of  order ;  the  doors  between  the  diferent  apartments  of  the  suite 
being  taken  down,  left  the  apartments  open  to  aU  eyes.  Monsieur 
and  Madame  de  Criyelin  had  only  reserved  the  apartment  of  their 
daughter  and  their  own  from  invasion.  All  the  ether  rooms  were 
<>pened.  Madame  de  Orivelin  wis  in  the  hands  of  her  femme  de 
chambre,  when  her  hnsband  came  to  beg  her  to  go  to  her  dangfater's 
room  and  leave  her  room  to  him  for  a  eonversation  of  the  utmost  im- 

^  Ah,"  said  she  langhing,  ^  I  wager  it  is  M.  de  Formont  who  por^ 
sues  yon.  It  is  amusing  to  see  how  lovers  behave;  they  go  without 
rest.     Send  him  away  till  to-inorrow." 

"  No,  it  is  not  he.    For  i»^'s  sake  go  out  untOl  I  send  for  you." 

*^  What  is  the  matter?''  exclaimed  Madame  de  Orivelin — ^^yoa  are 
pale,  your  fkee  is  livid.    What  is  the  matter?" 

*^  Nothing,  my  dear  wife,  nothing ;  only  leave  us." 

Madame  de  Crivelin  yielded,  but  took  away  with  her  an  anxiety 
which  soon  communicated  itself  to  her  daughter,*  for  Adele  was  not 
yet  asleep,  and  seeing  her  mother  come  into  her  room  she  questioned 
her,  and  ^e  fright  of  Madame  de  Orivelin  affeoted  her  so  much  that 
she  too  began  to  tremble.  There  were  the  two  poor  terrified  women, 
shut  up  in  the  narrowest  comer  of  dieir  splendid  mansion,  waiting 
with  impatience  for  the  issue  of  so  strange  a  conference,  and  one 
which  so  much  troubled  Monsieur  de  Orivelin.  With  whom  was  he 
shut  up?  What  was  he  saying?  What  powerful  interest  cansed 
him  to  hold  converse  with  such  a  ereaiure  at  sudi  an  hour  %  Adele 
imagined  Bertrand  de  Formont  expiring.  Madame  de  Orivelin 
imagined  a  tiiousand  impossibilities. 

Meanwhile,  this  was  what  was  passing  in  the  room  where  M.  de 
Orivelin  was  shut  up  with  the  lacquey. 

^  Tou  know  me,  then,  Eugene?"  said  this  man  to  de  OriveUn. 

<<  Tou  here  V  said  M.  de  Orivelb ;  << you  alive?" 

"^  When  you  thought  I  was  dead  1  It's  fbmiy,  isn't  it  ?  It  is  true, 
too.  Get  me  a  glass  of  wine  and  a  dice  of  l^m,  sad  you'll  see  that 
Fm  no  ghost" 


^  Come,  Jules,  this  is  not  what  yon  oame  for;  speak,  wretdi." 

^  For  six  hours  I  have  been  waiting  in  this  ante«room,  hungry  ancE 
thirsty.     I  want  to  eat  and  drink" 

«  What  do  you  say  ?" 

'^  I  want  to  eat  and  drink.  Come,  go  get  me  something  yourself; 
if  you  are  afraid  it  will  soil  your  waiter's  hands  to  wait  on  me." 

Criyelin  bent  down  his  head  and  went  out ;  a  moment  afterwarda 
he  oame  in  with  a  plate,  which  he  set  before  the  miserable  fellow, 
and  said :  ^  Now  spesk^  what  do  you  want  ?" 

The  person  named  Jules  began  to  eat  and  spoke  thus  at  the  same 
time :  '^  Liisten,  Eugene,  this  is  what  you  wrote  to  me  eighteen  years 
ago.  *  You  see,  Jules,  your  fellies  have  resulted  as  I  predicted.  Fnmi 
recklessness  you  have  passed  to  error,  from  error  to  crime,  and  now  a 
disgraceful  condemnation  is  upon  your  head.  Since  you  have  escaped 
from  your  prison,  profit  by  your  liberty  to  fly  and  fly  alone.  Do  not 
drag  with  you  a  child  which  scarcely  yet  has  breathed,  to  make  her 
share  the  wandering  life  which  you  must  seek  in  a  new  world.  Leave 
me  your  daughter.  At  the  moment  when  the  law  reached  you,  mis- 
fortune reached  me ;  my  daughter  is  dying.  If  Ood  does  not  take 
her,  my  daughter  shall  be  a  sister  to  yours ;  if  she  is  taken  from  me, 
your  Marie  shall  take  her  place  with  us.  Herewith  is  gold  enough 
for  you  to  be  enabled  in  your  flight  to  make  an  honorable  fortune.' 
Is  not  that  what  you  wrote  me?" 

^  It  is,"  said  Monsieur  de  Crirelin. 

'^  Bight  days  afterwards,"  resumed  the  man,  ^  you  sat  out  with  the 
two  children  for  Italy.  Neither  child  had  more  than  completed  two 
years,  you  went  to  rejoin  your  wife,  who  was  forced  to  leave  you,  to 
go  and  reoeive  the  last  adieu  and  the  pardon  of  her  mother,  who  was 
dying  at  Naples.  Your  marriage  with  her  halving  been  ccmtraxy  te 
the  wish  of  her  family,  that  noble  family  forbade  your  presence  at  this 
reconoiliation.  Your  mother-in-law  being  dead,  you  w^e  returning 
to  your  wife.  As  for  me,  in  order  the  better  to  secure  my  flighty  I 
placed  on  the  margin  of  a  river  a  letter,  in  which  I  said  that  I  did 
not  wish  to  survive  my  shame ;  and  a  month  after  your  departure, 
you  received  the  intelligence  of  my  death.  At  the  same  moment, 
your  daughter  died  at  Ancona,  and  you  made  a  public  deposition  to 
that  effect,  under  the  name  wiiich  you  then  bore.  Then  you  continued 
your  journey,  allowing  all  the  strangers  whom  you  encountered  to 
call  the  child  who  aooompanied  you,  by  your  daughter's  name. 
Charmed  with  her  grace,  beauty  and  affection  for  yourself^  you  also 
called  her  by  your  child's  name ;  and,  travelling  slowly,  you  looked 

TJSE    ASHLAR.  105 

forward  with  terror  to  the  moment  when  yon  would  be  obliged  to  tell 
your  wife  that  her  daughter  was  dead.  Then,  an  idea  suddealy  struok 
you.  Your  wife,  in  company  with  her  brother,  Monsieur  de  Oriveliu, 
having  gone  to  her  dying  mother,  had  left  your  Adele  at  three  mouths 
after  her  birth — at  that  age  when  a  child's  face  changes  with  every 
succeeding  year.  Marie,  (the  daughter  of  Jules  Marsilly,  whom  you 
thought  dead,)  might,  you  thought,  replace  this  lost  Adele  iu  her 
mother's  eyes.  Your  wife  was  ill ;  the  news  of  her  daughter's  death 
might  kill  her;  you  resolved  to  deceive  her.  Marie  Marsilly  became 
Adele  Ligny." 

''  Since  you  know  so  well  the  feeling  which  dictated  my  conduct, 
why  do  you  attempt  to  make  it  appear  a  crime  1"  asked  M.  de  Crivelin. 
'^  I  am  not  blaming  "  answered  the  drunkard, "  I  am  relating." 
He  drank  two  glasses  of  wine  and  continued  thus : 
''Your  ruse  succeeded  marvellously;  it  succeeded  beyond  your 
expectations.     Not  only  was  your  wife  enchanted  with  this  girl,  so 
beautiful  and  charming,  her  uncle,  M.  de  Crivelin — ^who  could  not 
forgive  you  for  being  his  brother-in-law — became  very  much  attached 
to  this  child ;  and  eight  years  after,  he  left  all  his  fortune  to  her, 
naming  you  her  guardian,  on  condition  that  you  would  assume  his 
name.     That  is  the  way  you  came  to  return  to  France,  under  the 
name  of  Eugene  Ligny  de  Crivelin." 
^  But  I  did  not  deceive  any  one.     I  did  not  forswear  my  name." 

^  You  were  incapable  of  that.  Only  the  habit  grew  upon  you  of 
suppressing  the  Ligny,  and  of  calling  yourself  M.  de  Crivelin;  and  as 
I  never  heard  that  name  mentioned  much  in  my  youth,  I  never  should 
have  thought  that  the  rich  Monsieur  de  Crivelin  was  my  old  college 
comrade  Eugene  Ligny,  had  I  not  seen  posted  up  at  the  door  of  the 
mayor's  office  in  my  quarter  of  the  town  the  marriage  banns  of  Made- 
moiselle  Adele  Ligny  de  Crivelin  with  Count  Bertrand  de  Formont 
Seeing  this,  I  wondered  how  Adele,  dead  at  Anoona,  was  alive  at 

'^  It  is  a  falsehood,"  said  M.  de  Crivelin,  who  thought  he  saw  iu  this 
assertion  a  hope  of  escape  from  his  horrible  situation. 

"  My  good  fellow,"  said  the  brigand  to  him, ''  do  not  attempt  a  part 
which  you  are  not  up  to.  I  passed  through  Ancona  the  day  after  your 
daughter's  death,  and  everybody  was  talking  of  your  despair.  Be- 
sides, if  needlul,  the  act  of  burial  might  be  found.  Listen  to  me, 

The  scoundrel  finished  a  second  bottle  and  resamed : 

"^  You  oomprehend  that^  once  ou  this  track,  the  histoiy  of  your 

106  THE    ASHLAR. 

romance  is  as  easy  to  finish.  Tou  pnt  my  datighier  in  the  place  of 
yonrs,  and  now  yon  have  arriyed  at  the  conyiotion,  perhaps,  that  she 
is  yowr  child  ?" 

"  Tes  P*  cried  M.  de  Orivelin.  "  She  is  my  child — ^my  daughter — 
my  hope — my  happiness !    What  will  yon  ?    What  do  yon  ask  ?" 

<<  Let  ns  make  the  question  clear,  in  order  to  answer  it,"  answered 
the  rowdy.  "  First,  yon  stole  my  chfld  from  me — a  crime  provided 
against  by  law.  Then,  in  order  to  take  the  inheritance  left  by  the 
nncle;  yon  produced  a  certificate  of  birth,  which  you  applied  to  my 
daughter,  while  the  proof  of  your  daughter's  death  is  to  be  now  had 
at  Ancona.  Thirdly,  in  order  to  have  the  banns  of  the  pretended 
Mademoiselle  Ligny  de  Griyelin  published,  you  used  a  title  equally 
false.  This  is  incontrovertible.  .  Now,  let  us  reason.  For  having 
put  another  signature  than  my  own  at  the  bottom  of  a  bit  of  paper,  I 
was  condemned  to  fifteen  years  in  the  galleys.  I  am  miserable  and 
dishonored,  and  I  only  owe  not  being  at  the  treadmill  to  the  belief 
that  I  am  dead.  You,  on  the  contrary,  by  having  used  falsely  an 
authentic  certificate,  and  by  depriving  other  heirs  of  an  immense  pro- 
perty, by  means  of  this  act  are  rich,  honored  and  surrounded  by  opu- 
lence and  festivity.     This  is  not  just" 

'^  What  do  you  mean,  rascal?  Do  you  want  to  take  Adele  from 
me  ?  Oh,  wretch  1  But  her  mother — ^my  poor  wife  is  her  true  mother ! 
Do  you  wish  to  kill  her  ?  Oh,  I  prefer  to  tell  the  truth,  and  the  tri- 
bunals will  leave  her  to  me,  I  am  sure." 

^  That  remains  to  be  seen.  But  the  question  is  not  yet  put.  The 
will  of  M.  de  GriveUn  is  made  in  fkvor  of  Mademoiselle  Adele  Ligny. 
If  I  prove  that  the  heiress  is  not  Mademoiselle  Ligny,  I  ruin  her — 
I  ruin  you  alL  This  is  a  piece  of  folly  which  I  have  no  intention  of 
committing.  Besides,  I  am  too  good  a  father  to  commit  such  an  act 
of  cruelty — ^for  nothing.  But  you  know  that  moral  people  say  that  a 
good  deed  is  never  lost ;  in  consequence  of  this  maxim,  I  constitute 
myself  your  benefactor.  This  fortune,  which  I  might  deprive  you 
all  of,  I  leave  to  you.  It  is  the  same  as  if  I  gave  it  to  you.  This 
happiness,  which  I  might  annihilate  with  a  word,  I  repeat,  it  is  the 
same  as  if  I  had  bestowed  it  Your  wife,  who  would  die  of  this  dis- 
covery, I  sufier  to  live.  It  is  llie  same  as  if  I  saved  her  firom  drown- 
ing or  being  burned  up.  This  cherished  daughter,  whom  I  shall  thus 
lose  without  hope,  I  sufier  to  marry  her  lover.  What  do  I  do  then? 
I  make  you  rich  and  happy.  I  save  your  wife's  life ;  I  marry  your 
daughter  to  a  man  of  honorable  name,  of  noble  family.  One  cannot, 
in  good  sooth,  be  more  of  a  bencifaotor  than  I  am,  or  more  virtuous. 


I  OTenrhdm yoa  with  gpod  deeds,  and  m  itis  s«]4  that  a  kiadiieas  is 
nerer  lost,  yon  will  give  me  s  million.'* 

^  A  million — just  hesTen !"  cried  Monsieur  de  Criyelin. 

''A  good  deed  is  never  loBt^''  repeated  the  yiUaxn. 

"  But  you  forget,"  a^d  M.  de  Orqrelin,  '^  tbat  I  might  send  yon  to 
to  the  galleys," 
At  tiiis,  MarsiUy  rose,  his  mondi  foaming,  his  eyes  bloodshot 

"  No  menaces  of  that  sort^  or  I  will  force  yon  to  ask  my  pardon 
on  yonr  knees,  and  will  make  your  wife  and  daughter  come  here  and ' 
kiss  ^e  dust  at  my  feet    I  give  you  two  hours— in  two  hours  I  will 
return  for  your  answer.**    And  the  man  went  out 

^  This  is  a  sad  story,"  said  Biponneau. 

^  It  is  but  the  beginning,"  said  the  old  man,  ''for  close  to  this  room 
were  the  mother  and  daughter,  whom  one  of  those  devoted  domestics 
who  never  fail  to  tell  every  thing  disagreeable,  had  informed  that  M, 
de  Crivelin  was  shut  up  with  a  man  who  had  the  face  of  a  assassin, 
and  that  the  other  servants  were  alarmed.  This  charitable  newsi 
added  to  the  distress  evinced  by  her  husband,  induced  Madame  de 
Crivelin  to  listen  at  the  door  of  the  neighboring  room.  The  shudder- 
ing of  Madame  de  Crivelin — her  smothered  cries — caused  Adele  to 
listen  too,  and  both  at  once  learned  the  horrible  secret  which  struck 
them  both — the  secret  which  cried  out  to  the  mother :  '  This  is  not 
thy  daughter  I' — ^to  the  daughter:  '  This  is  not  thy  mother  I' " 

'<  This  is  why,  when  M.  de  Crivelin  re-entered  the  room,  he  found 
them  both  weeping,  on  their  knees,  sobbing  and  convulsively  embrac- 
ing each  other;  for  already  Madame  de  Crivelin  had  ceased  to  weep 
for  the  dead  child,  which  she  had  scarcely  known — ahe  wept  for  the 
child  she  had  raised,  whom,  in  her  holy  maternal  power,  ^e  had,  so 
to  speak,  modelled  into  her  own  likeness — ^the  child  she  had  loved 
with  passion,  and  who  loved  her  with  a  sacred  affection. 

^  It  was  then  that  the  invisible  drama  commenced,  with  its  tears, 
sobs  and  transports  of  grid  And  that  has  endured  for  eight  days. 
Sir,  all  is  terror  and  despair  in  this  house.  Nevertheless,  on  Ae 
morrow  of  the  first  day  they  were  all  obliged  to  be  present  at  a  mag- 
nificent dinner  at  the  house  of  M.  de  Formont's  mother ;  and  in  order 
that  their  seoret  mi^t  not  trani^ire  without,  these  three  happy  people 
whom  you  envy,  went  to  the  dinner.  As  they  were  all  more  serious 
than  usual,  and  very  pale,  they  were  pursued  with  joyous  coogratula- 
tienSy  on  the  success  of  their  splendid  party.  They  had  toasts  drank 
to  their  health,  to  the  unalterable  happiness  of  the  filturs  cy^fises — 


they  had  to  smile  with  team  in  their  eyea^  robe  in  their  throats  and 
death  in  their  hearts." 

<' What  oan  they  do?"  demanded  Riponneau. 

"  An  immense  sum  of  money  has  sent  Marsilly  away ;  bnt  he  may 
retom.  In  a  few  years,  he  will  be  free  to  return,  for  he  will  then 
have  aoqnitted  his  term  of  years,  as  if  at  the  galleys,  and  he  will  not 
then  speak  with  the  restraint  of  a  man  who  fears  for  himself— he  will 
be  the  absolute  master  of  that  family.  In  the  meantime,  Gonstraioed 
by  the  fatality  of  their  preTious  existence,  they  live  through  the  day 
as  they  should,  in  order  that  oothing  should  be  suspected — but  they 
weep  at  night  Then,  at  the  hearth  where  they  all  sit  up,  they  pass 
long  conferences  in  tears,  utteriug  sad  tows  never  to  leaye  each  other. 
This  is  not  all  Sir,  Adele  loves  M.  de  Formont — she  loves  him  be- 
cause he  is  brave,  generous,  full  of  elevated  feelings,  and  because  she 
is  proud  of  being  beloved  by  him ;  and  precisely,  because  she  loves 
him  with  this  noble  and  chasty  love.  She  does  not  wish  to  deceive 
him ;  she  does  not  wish,  that  some  day  this  man,  so  pure,  of  so  noble 
and  honorable  a  family,  should  behold  that  miserable  wretch,  who  is 
her  father,  able  to  destroy  all  his  happiness.'' 

^  Adele  will  not  wish  to  marry  Count  de  Formont  ?" 

''  What  will  you  do  ?"  exclaimed  Monsieur  and  Madame  de  Grive- 
lin,  when  she  announced  this.  This  child,  admirable  in  all  things, 
answered :  "  As  it  is  for  me  that  you  suffer  thus,  it  is  I  who  will  take 
all  the  blame  of  this  rupture.''  She  kept  her  word.  Sir.  For  eight  days, 
this  ch.irming  and  enchanting  creature  has  made  herself  appear  im- 
pertinent, cold  and  capricious.  She  embitters  with  sarcasm  the  anger 
she  excites  by  her  coldness ;  she  laughs  at  the  tears  which  she  causes 
Monsieur  de  Formont  to  shed;  she  laughs  at  her  lover's  tortures 
from  despair.  But.  as  I  told  you,  the  hour  comes  when  the  visible 
play  ends  and  the  invisible  drama  commences,  and  then  there  is  not 
a  torture  sbe  has  inflicted  which  she  does  not  endure  more  bitterly 
and  more  hopelessly.  Through  the  day  she  suffers  by  inflioting  pain; 
at  night  the  suffers  from  the  pain  she  has  inflicted.  This  is  not  alL 
Monsieur  and  Madame  de  Grivelin  see  their  daughter  failing,  day  by 
day,  before  their  eyes  This  morning  the  physician  found  her  in  a 
raging  fever.  In  the  eyes  of  the  world,  this  is  a  passing  indisposition. 
Oh  !  how  soon  would  the  family  whom  you  envy,  exchange  their  rich 
apartments,  their  equipages,  their  millions,  for  your  garret  and  your 
eighteen  hundred  fituncs !" 

<<  Well,  if  they  are  not  happy,  I  don't  believe  any  one  is,"  said  Ri- 
ponneau obstinately. 

THBA8HLAB.  109 

Th»  old  man  stepped  into  the  entry  to  speak  to  the  phyaimaOy  aa 
lie  passed  down  the  stairs.  He  reentered,  saying:  "  Adele  de  Orive- 
Kn  is  dead  f  There  are  some  persons,"  added  he, "  whom  yon  eannot 
envy,  who  feel  nothing  and  love  nothing — who  suffer  nothing." 

^  Whom  meao  yon  ?" 

'^  The  dead  I"    And  the  old  man  went  away. 



Thanks  he  to  God  for  Hig  bottnty 

To  this  earthly  home  of  om  1 
He  bath  made  so  fair  and  lovely 

The  wayin^  gndn  and  floiren; 
The  joyoofl^  smgiag  lirer. 

And  the  merry,  sparklUg  fount; 
The  smiling,  bnght-green  Talleys, 

And  the  anow-<xrtiwiied»  hoSry  mount 

Thanks  be  to  God  lor  His  boontyr 

For  the  tall,  nugestic  trees; 
For  the  shadows  and  Uie  sunshine. 

The  dews,  the  rains,  tike  breeze; 
For  the  rainbow — ^His  own  signet — 

The  moon  and  her  gentle  light; 
For  the  stars  in  their  wondrons  splendor. 

The  gloiy  of  the  nightl 

Thanks  be  to  God  for  His  boantrl 

E'en  the  rocks  have  a  beauty  high. 
And  the  deserts,  hot  and  arid. 

Hare  an  oasis  oyer  nigh — 
And  the  ^^reat,  broad,  solemn  ocean. 

In  its  silence  and  its  storms. 
Hath  a  fearful,  mighty  beauty, 

That  the  gazer's  spirit  warms. 

Thanks  be  to  God  for  His  bounty! 

E'en  the  cayem's  chambers  dark 
Are  in  gorgeousness  arrayed, 
.  And  ulumed  by  the  diamond's  spark; 
And  gems  of  untold  richness. 

And  silyer  and  gold  abound. 
Where  the  foot  of  man  hath  stopped  not» 

Nor  his  busy  fingers  found. 

Thanks  be  to  God  for  His  bounty 

To  this  earthly  home  of  oural 
For  filled  unto  oyerfiowing 

With  beauty  glide  on  the  hours. 
And  we  know  it  is  all  an  emblem — 

But  a  ty^  in  ito  best  array. 
Of  our  glorious  home,  etemat 

In  tlM  kingdom  of  perfect  day  I 

15— .VOL.  n.  NO.  m. 

110  THB   AiHLAB. 


The  uuragaration  of  a  large  faro&ie  atatne  of  Benjamin  Franklin 
took  place  in  Boston  on  the  eeyenteenth  daj  of  September  last,  with 
a  magnificent  pomp  and  display  which  has  seldom  been  equalled  on 
any  occasion  in  this  conntry.  Preparations  were  projected  on  a  Tery 
extensive  scale,  and  were  admirably  carried  oat.  <'  The  inangoration/' 
says  a  daily  paper,  '^  of  the  statue  in  honor  of  Boston's  favorite  son 
was  an  event  ever  to  be  remembered,  not  more  by  those  who  were 
active  participants  in  the  affair  than  by  the  assembled  thousands  of 
onr  own  people  and  those  from  all  sections  of  New  England  who  wit- 
nessed the  display.  The  day  dawned  brightly,  and  at  snnrise  then- 
sands  from  the  suburbs  began  to  arrive,  and  every  train  from  the 
several  railroads  brought  fresh  accessions,  till  soon  the  streets  were 
ihroDged  with  persons.  Never  was  there  a  more  beautiful  day  or  a 
combination  of  circumstances  more  aui^ieious  for  a  grand  exhibition 
of  a  people's  tribute  to  greatness  and  worth.  The  streets,  the  avenues, 
the  balconies,  the  house  tops  and  eVery  available  spot  aloug  the  entire 
route  of  the  procession  was  crowded  by  eager  spectators,  and  we  are 
happy  to  present  to  our  readers  a  full  and  complete  account  of  the 
whole  affair.  The  procession  was  estimated  to  be  seven  miles  in 
length,  and  was  two  hours  and  fifty  minutes  passing  a  given  point." 
In  the  procession  every  trade  and  employment,  and  many  societies 
were  represented.  There,  very  apprq>riatoly,  was  a  delegation  ef  the 
Masonic  Fraternity,  comprising  members  of  all  the  degrees  from 
Entered  Apprentice  to  the  Knights  Templars. 

Our  readers.are  aware  that  Benjamin  Franklin  was  a  Mason.  In 
1734,  he  was  one  of  the  petitioners  for  a  dispensation  to  hold  a  Lodge 
in  Philadelphia,  which  was  granted  by  the  Orand  Lodge  of  Massachu- 
setts. Franklin  was  the  first  W.  M.  of  the  new  body.  He  subsequent- 
ly held  the  title  of  Orand  Master.  From  the  term  of  his  initiation 
till  his  death,  he  was  an  ardent  lover  of  the  Institution,  and  during 
most  of  that  time  an  active  member.  Anything  pertaining  to  this 
great  printer,  philosopher ^  statesman,  diplomatist,  philanthropist, 
and — ^last  not  least— O&xat  Mason,  should  interest  every  member  of 
the  Order.  Truly  appropriate  was  it  for  the  city  of  his  birth  to  pay 
a  tribute  to  his  genius  and  worth  by  erecting  in  one  of  the  most  con- 
spicuous of  its  public  thorough  fares,  a  statue  which  shall  endure  till 
the  eyes  of  remote  generations  rest  upon  it — ^a  testimony  to  those  who 
shall  then  behold  it,  that  their  iNrefEUhers  held  in  due  estimation  the 
mental  and  moral  worth  of  the  gr^at  original.    Fitting  and  right  is 


It — aye,  m  duty  is  it — for  vm  to  Mite  upon  tlM  aot  to  remind  Iktthren 

and  the  pro&ne,  that  the  man  of  whom  Boston  u  proud  as  a  natiye 
son — of  whom  the  United  States  is  proud  as  a  native  and  a  citizen — 
of  whom  the  whole  world  is  proad  as  a  philosopher  and  philanthropist 
— ^that  this  man — ^the  immortal  Fnuiklin  whom  all  delight  to  honor-* 
was  an  ardent  lover  and  an  able  advocate  of  the  principles  of  Free- 
masonry, and  an  active  and  sealons  member  of  the  Institution.  While 
the  printer,  the  machinist,  the  merchant,  the  agriculturalist,  the  man 
of  letters,  the  man  of  science,  the  statesman,  and  the  philosopher  pay 
tribute  to  his  memory  and  claim  that  he  was  particularly  connected 
with  their  various  callings  or  professions.  Masons  should  pay  tri- 
bute to  bim  as  a  br%ht  example  of  the  virtues  and  moral  tea^iings 
of  our  society.  It  has  been  said  that  Masonry  contains  nothing  of 
value — ^that  its  forms  aro  frivolous,  its  ceremonies  unmeaning,  and  its 
structure  is  not  worth  preserving.  To  refute  such  false  assertions, 
we  proudly  point  to  Franklin.  Who  among  those  thus  slandering 
our  Institution,  has  a  tithe  of  the  talent,  the  genius— -aye  the  moral 
worth  of  that  immortal  man  ?  His  mind  saw  worth  and  beauty  in 
our  Order,  in  its  principles  and  its  forms  and  ceremonies.  Let  our 
opponents  consider,  when  they  attack  Masonry,  that  they  are  at  the 
same  time  attacking  some  of  the  greatest  and  best  men  the  world 
ever  saw. 

The  oration,  at  the  time  of  the  inauguration,  was  delivered  by  Hon. 
Robert  0.  Winthrop.  It  was  a  fine  literary  production,  as  is  every 
thing  from  the  pen  of  that  gifted  scholar.  As  it  contains  a  sketch 
of  the  life  of  Franklin,  we  propose  to  make  some  extracts. 

•  •  •  •  The  life  of  Fsanklin  presents  him  in  four 
several  and  separate  relations  to  society,  in  each  one  of  which  he  did 
enough  to  have  filled  up  the  full  measure  of  a  more  than  ordinary  life, 
and  to  have  secured  for  himself  an  imperishable  renown  with  posteri- 
ty. As  we  run  over  that  life  ever  so  cursorily,  we  see  him  first  as  a 
mechaniCy  and  the  son  of  a  mechanic,  aiding  his  father  fDr  a  year  or 
two  in  his  humble  toil,  and  then  taking  upon  himself,  as  by  a  Pro- 
vidential instinct,  that  profession  of  a  printer ^  in  which  he  delighted 
to  class  himself  to  the  latest  hour  of  his  life.  You  all  remember,  I 
doubt  not,  that,  when  in  the  year  1788,  at  the  age  of  eighty-two  years, 
he  made  that  last  will  and  testament  which  Boston  apprentices  and 
Boston  schoolboys  will  never  forget,  nor  ever  remember  without  gra- 
titude, he  commenced  it  thus :  ^  I,  Benjamin  Franklin,  of  Philadel- 
phia, Printer^  late  Minister  Plenipotentiary  from  the  United  States 
of  America  to  the  Court  of  France,  now  President  of  the  State  of 
Pennsylvania,  do  make  and  declare  my  last  Will  and  Testament  as 
follows."  Before  all  other  titles  he  placed  that  of  his  chosen  craft, 
and  deemed  no  designation  of  himself  complete,  in  which  that  was 

112  THE    ASHLAB. 

not  foremost.  In  the  midit  of  his  highest  distinotions,  and  whik 
associated  with  statesmen  and  courtiers,  at  home  or  abroad,  he  wa» 
proud  to  be  found  turning  aside  to  talk,  not  merely  with  the  Basker- 
yilles  and  Strahans  who  were  so  long  his  chosen  friends,  but  with  the 
humbler  laborers  at  the  press— "  entering  into  their  schemes  and 
suggesting  or  aiding  improTements  in  their  ari"  In  the  last  jear 
but  one  of  his  life,  he  writes  to  his  sister:  "  I  am  too  old  to  follow 
printing  aeain  myself,  but  loving  the  business,  I  have  brought  up  my 
grandson  [Benjamin  to  it,  and  have  built  and  furnished  a  printing- 
house  for  him,  which  he  now  manages  under  my  own  eye."      *        * 

It  was  as  a  printer  that  he  instituted  those  clubs  for  discussion 
and  mutual  improTement  which  eleyated  the  character  and  importance 
of  the  working  classes  whercTer  they  were  introduced.  It  was  as  a 
printer  that  he  displayed  such  extraordinary  mechanical  ingenuity, 
in  making  for  himself  whatever  articles  he  needed  in  his  own  pro 
fession,  founding  letters  of  lead,  carving  ornaments  and  cuts  of  wood, 
engraving  vignettes  upon  copper,  mixing  his  own  printer's  ink,  and 
manu&cturing  his  own  plate  press.  It  was  as  a  printer^  that  he  set 
on  foot  the  first  subscription  Oironlating  Library,  **•  the  mother  of  aU 
in  North  America."  It  was  as  t^printery  that  he  did  so  much  to  im- 
prove the  character  of  the  Newspaper  Press  of  the  American  Colonies, 
asserting  its  liberty,  discouragiug  its  licentiousness,  protesting  against 
its  being  employed  as  an  instrument  of  scandal,  de&mation  and  de- 
traction, and  exhibiting  it  as  the  worthy  and  chosen  vehicle  of  infor- 
mation, entertainment  and  instruction.  It  was  as  a  printer,  that  he 
commenced  and  continued  that  series  of  delightful  essays,  sometimes 
political,  sometimes  historical,  sometimes  moral,  sometimes  satirical 
or  playful,  which  are  hardlv  inferior  in  wit  and  wisdom  to  the  best 
papers  of  Johnson  or  of  Addison,  of  the  witty  Dean  of  St  Patrick's, 
or  the  genial  Oanon  of  St.  Paul's,  and  which  would  have  secured  and 
established  the  permanent  literary  reputation  of  their  author,  had  no 
other  monument  of  his  labors  existed.  It  was  as  sprinter,  above  all, 
that  he  prepared  and  published  for  bo  many  years  his  immortal  Al- 
manac, under  the  name  of  Richard  Saunders^  with  those  inimitable 
proverbs,  only  second  to  those  of  Solomon,  of  which  so  many  millions 
of  copies,  in  almost  every  language  and  toDgue  known  beneath  the 
sun,  have  been  scattered  brofMLcast  throughout  the  world,  for  the 
entertainment  and  instruction  of  young  and  old,  rich  and  poor,  wise 
and  simple.  When  will  ever  Poor  Richard  be  forgotten  ?  Or  when 
will  he  ever  be  remembered  without  fresh  admiration  for  the  shrewd, 
sagacious  common  sense  which  he  poured  forth  with  such  charming 
good  humor  and  in  such  exhaustless  profusion  1    •        •        •        • 

But  the  ingenuity  and  invention  of  Franklin,  while  they  stooped 
to  supply  not  merely  every  want  which  he  encountered  in  his  own 
profession,  but  every  want  which  he  observed  in  his  relations  with 
others,  could  not  be  confined  within  any  mere  mechanical  limits,  but 
demanded  nothing  less  than  the  whole  circle  of  art  and  nature  for 
their  display.  If  nothing  was  too  low  for  his  care,  neither  was  any- 
thmg  too  lofty  for  his  contemplation ;  and  as  we  run  over  his  life,  he 


fltsnds  before  us  in  ihe  oharaoter  of  a  philosopher,  not  lees  diafcinetly 
or  less  proudly  than  we  haye  jnst  seen  him  in  the  character  of  a 

{7b  be  continued,) 


It  has  been  our  strenuous  endeayor  since  the  commencement  of 
the  publication  of  The  Ashlab  to  throw  its  influence  against  all  in- 
novations upon  the  body  of  Masonry,  against  all  new  inyentions  which 
designing  men  or  misguided  friends  haye  attempted  to  attach  to  the 
Institution,  aod  against  all  attempts  to  peryert  its  symbols  or  its 
ceremonies  for  local  or  sectarian  purposes.  We  haye  endeayored  to 
preserye  it  in  its  purity — ^to  make  its  universality  a  reality  and  not 
a  mockery.  When  a  Mason  is  out  of  the  Lodge-room,  we  care  not 
what  religious,  political  or  social  yiews  he  may  entertain — ^he  may  be 
a  Catholic,  a  Protestant,  a  member  of  the  Jewish  Synagoge,  a  Ma- 
hommedan,  or  a  follower  of  Confusius.  But  when  he  enters  an  as- 
sembly of  Masons,  he  must  lay  aside  his  peculiar  yiews  for  the  time 
being,  and  meet  his  Brother  on  the  level.  We  see  no  difficulty  in 
this.  Suppose  a  Catholic,  an  Unitarian,  a  Jew,  a  Mahommedan  and 
a  Swedenborgian  should  be  placed  in  a  position  where  they  behold  a 
ship-wrecked  seaman  cast  by  the  furious  wayes  upon  a  rock  far  dis- 
tant from  the  shore.  Their  sympathies  are  excited,  and  after  con- 
sultation they  came  to  the  conclusion  that  their  suffering  fellow-being 
can  be  sayed  only  by  united  efforts  of  all  of  them,  and  they  agree  to 
act  in  unison.  Accordingly,  they  procure  a  boat— each  one  steps  in 
and  mans  an  oar — each  pulls  with  all  his  might  against  the  wind  and 
wayes,  till  the  rock  is  reached — ^the  man  is  taken  into  the  boat  and 
borne  safely  to  the  land.  The  Catholic,  the  Unitarian,  the  Jew,  the 
Mahommedan  and  the  Swedenborgian,  united  for  a  common  purpose 
without  regard  to  their  religious  and  political  faith,  and  by  so  doing, 
each  realizes  that  he  has  done  a  human  and  noble  act,  which  the  Ruler 
of  the  Uniyerse  approves.  The  same  reasoning,  we  think,  applies  to 
Masonry.  The  members  of  the  Order  unite  for  a  common  purpose, 
and  it  is  not  necessary  for  that  purpose,  that  they  should  agree  in 
their  sectarian  or  political  creeds. 

We  are  averse  to  placing  any  interpretation  upon  ceremonies,  or 
attaching  any  significance  to  symbols,  that  gives  Masonry  a  local  or 
sectarian  character.    At  the  present  time  in  this  country  Lodges  are 

114  THBA8HLAB. 

dedicated  to  8t  John  the  Evrageliet  and  St  John  the  Baptist  We 
have  personally  no  objection  to  this,  when  those  men  are  regarded 
merely  as  great  and  good  men ;  and  there  seems  to  be  no  authority 
in  claiming  that  Lodges  are  dedicated  to  them,  because  they  were 
eminent  Christians.  The  propriety,  however,  of  dedicating  to  the 
two  Saints  has  been  yery  often  questioned,  and  with  force  and  ability. 
An  article  of  this  nature  we  give  below  from  the  Mirror  Sf  Key- 
stone and  commend  it  to  the  attention  of  our  readers : 

In  our  last  we^*s  paper  we  stated  in  our  ^  History  of  Freemason* 
ry,"  that  Masonic  Lodges  never  were,  at  any  time,  dedicated  to  Solo- 
mon or  Zerubbabel,  that  the  dedication  of  Lodges  was  a  modem 
usage,  that  dedicating  them  to  St.  John  or  the  St  Johns  was  an 
imitation  of  a  Romish  custom,  and  that  Freemasonry  was  the  only 
Institution  in  the  world  which  had  adopted  the  custom  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  Church  in  dedicating  its  Lodges  to  departed  Saints.  We 
have  no  hesitation  in  saying  that  the  assertion  that  Lodges  were 
"'  originally  dedicated  to  Solomon  and  subsequently  to  Zerubbabel," 
was  made  as  a  pretext,  or  to  afford  an  excuse  for  the  violation  of  one 
of  the  principle  landmarks  of  the  Institution,  and  to  satisfy  the  con- 
sciences of  the  Brethren  who  might  be  opposed  to  the  innovation  of 
dedicating  Lodges  to  the  Saint  Johns. 

The  more  we  investigate  the  subject,  the  more  are  we  convinced 
that  we  are  right  We  have  examined  Anderson's  Constitutions — 
the  1723  and  1736  editions — the  subsequent  publication  ordered  by 
the  Grand  Lodge  of  England,  Dermott's  Ahiman  Rezon,  Preston's 
Illustrations,  and  in  none  of  them  do  we  find  any  allusion  to  the  St 
Johns  in  the  constituting,  oonseerating  or  dedicating  of  Lodges.  If 
anything  can  be  conclusive  upon  the  subject,  it  is  the  fact  that  no 
allusion  whatever  to  the  St  Johns  is  to  be  found  in  any  of  these 
publications,  which  are  the  only  authentic  and  reliable  works  upon 
the  subject  of  Freemasonry  published  during  the  last  century. 

The  oldest  book  in  which  the  name  of  St  John  appears  as  con- 
nected with  the  ceremonials  of  the  Order,  is  the  Constitutions  of  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  Massachusetts,  published  in  the  year  1798.  In  that 
book,  in  the  article  referring  to  the  constituting  of  Lodges,  the  Lodge 
is  dedicated  to  St  John,  but  no  allusion  is  made  to  St  John  in  the 
ceremonies  of  dedicating  a  Masonic  Hall,  or  any  other  edifice.  It  is 
a  singular  fact  that  the  first  Ahiman  Rezon  published  by  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Pennsylvania  (1783)  has  no  allusion  whatever  to  St  John« 
the  ceremony  of  dedicating  Lodges  is  similar  to  that  used  by  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  England ;  but  in  the  Ahiman  Rezon,  published  by 
the  Grand  Lodge  of  Pennsylvania,  in  1825,  the  innovation  of  Massa- 
chusetts is  introduced.  In  the  dedication  of  Masonic  Halls,  however, 
the  St.  Johns  are  not  mentioned.  A  pertinent  question  here  suggests 
itself.     The  dedication  of  Lodges  is  conducted  in  private,  and  so 

also ,  but  the  dedication  of  Halls  is  often  done  in  publia     The 

ceremonies  of  dedication  are  in  most  respects  similar.  Was  it  for 
fear  of  derision  by  the  public  that  the  dedication  to  departed  Saints 

THS   ASHLAB.  115 

or  the  nsag^  of  a  Romish  ciuitom  was  not  wwd  in  publio?  07,  why 
adopt  it  in  one  case  and  not  in  another  % 

There  can  be  no  donbt  that  Webb  and  his  co-laborers  were  instru- 
mental in  propogating  and  extending  the  innovation  introduced  into 
the  MassaohoMtts  book  of  Constitutions;  but  that  Pennsylvania 
should  have  adopted,  it  is  indeed  an  anomaly.  That  the  Orali  in  the 
Keystone  State  did  make  a  chai^  is  evident  from  a  oomparison  of 
the  two  editions  of  the  Ahiman  Bezon  referred  to ;  and  yet  the  gene- 
ration of  to-day  will  continue  a  usage  introduced  by  those  who liave 
just  passed  away  from  earth,  who,  without  due  reflection,  adopted  the 
innovation,  believing  themselves  to  be  wiser  than  their  fiithers.  We 
are  not  surprised  that  the  non-reading  Hason  should  ^  oleave"  to  the 
innovation,  and  believe  it  to  be  an  ancient  usage ;  but  we  cannot  see 
how  it  is  possible  for  intelligent  Brethren,  who  are  known  to  be  read- 
ing and  thinking  Masons,  can  persist  in  so  glaring  an  inconsistency, 
unless  it  never  occurred  to  them  that  it  was  as  it  really  is,  a  custom 
of  the  Bomanist  Church,  introduced  at  a  period  when  the  sentiments 
of  that  Church  were  not  so  closely  seann^  as  they  are  at  the  present 


The  General  Grand  Encampment  and  the  General  Grand  Chapter 
of  the  United  States  have  just  held  their  triennial  sessions  at  Hart- 
ford, Connecticut.  The  result  of  their  labors  is  known  and  will  soon 
be  placed  before  the  public  in  an  official  form.  Our  conclusions  re- 
specting their  proceedings  are  drawn  from  the  accounts  given  us  by 
several  Sir  Ejiights  and  Companions  who  attended  the  meeting& 
We  must  oonfess  that  we  are  disappointed  in  the  result  of  the  delibe- 
rations of  the  members  composing  the  General  Grand  Bodies.  Much 
time  was  consumed,  but  little  appears  to  have  been  accomplished; 
and  with  the  light  which  has  been  given  us,  we  doubt  whether  any 
substantial  benefit  has  been  conferred  on  the  Craft  Heretofore,  we 
have  regarded  favorably  the  establishment  of  a  Gen^^  Grand  Lodge, 
but  the  recent  action  of  the  G.  G.  E.  and  G.  G.  0.  have  not  strength- 
ened our  proclivities  in  that  respect.  There  is  something  wrong 
somewhere ;  there  is  no  need  of  National  Masonic  Bodies,  or  there  is 
some  defect  in  the  manner  in  which  their  proceedings  are  conducted. 

What  was  the  result  of  the  recent  deliberations?  A  new  con- 
stitution was  reported  in  the  Encampment,  which  did  not  give  satis- 
faction to  a  large  portion  of  the  Sir  Knights  present,  but  which  they 
fi^aally  adopted  83  it  is,  because  there  was  not  time  to  form  a  better 
on^*    In  ^  Chapter  fk  resolution  was  adopted,  deolaiing  that  aa 


appeal  might  be  had  from  the  dedsioii  of  the  Grand  High  Priest 
Two  or  three  questioiiB  of  Masonic  jnrispradenoe  were  decided,  and 
it  was  dedared  that  no  mode  of  work  had  been  decided  upon.  This 
is  about  the  snbstanoe,  as  we  are  informed,  of  the  proceedings.  At 
any  rate,  Tcrj  little  was  accomplished  after  the  ezpenditore  of  much 
money  and  the  consumption  of  much  time.  It  would  not  be  pleasant 
to  see  the  General  Grand  Bodies  dissolyed,  but  it  is  a  serious  question 
for  Sir  Knights  and  vOompanions  to  consider  whether  some  plan  may 
not  be  proposed  to  remove  the  existing  difficulties.  Ought  not  tiie 
meetings  to  be  held  once  a  year,  or  once  in  two  years?  The  late 
proceedings  seem  to  have  shown  the  necessity  of  such  change.  We 
expect  to  receive,  in  a  short  time,  a  copy  of  the  official  reports  of 
the  recent  ccmventions,  when  we  shall  have  a  word  more  to  say  on 
this  subject. 

The  following  resolution,  referred  to  above  and  printed  in  our  last 
number,  we  again  lay  before  our  readers,  as  we  deem  it  one  of  much 
importanca  It  is  not,  as  its  terms  assert,  a  precedent  for  subordinate 
bodies : 

Resolved,  It  is  the  sense  of  the  G.  G.  0.,  and  it  is  declared  the  law 
of  Boy^^  Arch  Masonry,  its  powers  and  prerogatives — 

1.  The  G.  G.  Royal  Arch  Chapter  derives  all  its  powers  by  grant 
and  delegation  from  the  respective  G.  B.  A  Chapter,  which  are  its 
constituents ;  and  it  is,  therefore,  hereby  solemnly  declared  that  it 
can  never  exercise  or  assume  any  other  or  greater  powers  than  such 
as  have  been  or  may  be  delegated  to  and  conferred  upon  it  by  such 
G.  B.  A.  Chapters,  or  its  constituents ;  nor  can  claim  or  exercise 
any  doubtful  powers,  jot  powers  by  implication  merely ;  and  that  any 
constitution  of  the  G.  G.  R.  A  Chapter,  and  any  future  additions  to 
the  changes  in  the  present,  any  such  future  constitution  can  become 
operative  and  be  enforced  only  when  they  shall  be  formally  approved 
l)y  two-thirds  at  least  of  the  G.  B.  A.  Chapter,  and  when  such  ap- 
proval shall  be  formally  promulgated  by  proclamation  of  the  G.  G. 
High  Priest. 

2.  That  an  appeal  does  lie,  in  all  cases,  from  the  decision  of  the 
G.  G.  High  Priest  of  the  G.  G.  Chapter,  which  alone  can,  in  the  last 
resort,  by  a  two*thirds  vote  of  the  members  present  determine  what 
is  Masonic  law  or  custom,  provided  that  this  resolution,  as  a  rule 
operating  in  the  decisions  of  this  G.  G.  Body,  shall  only  operate  and 
have  effect  in  this  body,  and  shall  not  be  considered  as  operating  or 
having  any  effect  in  State  Grand  Chapters  or  Subordinates. 

That  there  is  no  established  work  of  the  General  Grand  Chapter, 
is  now  settled  by  the  following  resolution,  which  was  adopted  at  the 
late  session : 

Reserved,  That  the  G.  G.  Chapter,  having  failed  to  determine  on  a 
specific  mode  of  work,  it  is  urgently  recommended  to  the  officers  of 


the  State  Grand  Ohaptera,  that,  by  dfl^ant  investigation  and  oarefnl 
study,  they  acquire  the  ancient  work  ofthe  Order  and  disseminate  it 
among  their  several  Subordinates. 

In  Michigan,  work  has  been  established  by  the  Grand  Ohapter,  and 

Subordinates  are  bound  to  observe  it 



It  would  be  a  pleasing  task  to  trace  it  in  its  various  windings  from 
that  time  to  the  present  day,  but  time  would  Ml  us  in  the  attempt 
here ;  suffioe  it  to  say,  it  was  preserved  by  the  children  qfUu  eapHvUy 
and  enriched  at  the  building  of  the  second  temple  under  the  direction 
of  Jeshua,  Zerubbabel  and  Haggai.  In  the  Jewish  nation,  as  ab 
<<  Essemian  Fraternity,"  we  trace  it,  in  after  years,  through  all  PaleS" 
tine,  and  under  the  name  of  ^  Thenepeutiso,"  follow  it  back  to  Egypt 

The  113,600  workmen  of  the  ^r^  temple  travelled  into  almost 
every  country  in  search  of  work,  and  as  the  propagandists  of  genuine 
Temple  Maeonry.  Many  of  these  workmen  of  the  temple  were 
Tyrians ;  they  distributed  it  in  their  own  land.  The  Tyrians  settled 
a  colony  in  Africa  (the  Garthagenians)  and  sent  it  there.  They  sent 
colonies  to  different  parts  of  Europe  and  planted  it  there.  They 
founded  Gadix  in  Spain  and  introduced  it  there.  They  possessed 
themselves  of  the  islands  of  the  Mediterranean  and  scattered  it  there. 
At  Babylon,  Pythagoras  was  initiated  by  the  chQdren  of  the  captivity, 
and  with  his  followers  diffused  its  principles  through  Greece,  Gaul 
and  Britain.  Thus,  like  a  mighty  and  mysterious  Banyan^  springing 
on  Moriah's  Mount,  it  has  spread  to  the  North  and  to  the  Son^,  to 
the  East  and  to  the  West,  through  every  land  and  in  every  cKme. 

'*  O'er  Libya's  deserts  and  through  Zembla's  Snows,"  from  Ddphus* 
steps  to  the  distant  seas,  from  Albion's  chalky  olifis  to  the  fertile 
valleys  of  the  Western  world — ^in  every  soil  it  has  taken  root ;  over 
every  sea  its  foliage  waves;  beneath  its  shade  in  every  realm  the 
stranger  Brother  finds  retreat,  whUe  around  its  btanckes  safikftwne 
the  tendrils  of  the  tender  fair.  No  chilling  blast  of  political  per- 
secution nips  its  buds — ^no  simoom  of  religious  fanaticism  withers  its 
bough — no  poisoned  breath  of  calumny  impedes  its  spread.  Its  roots 
are  watered  by  that  pure  stream  that  flows  from  the  Fountain  of 

*  From  the  Signet  and  Joaraal. 
16— VOL.  IL  NO.  m. 

118  THE   ASHLAR. 

Eternal  TYuthy  and  it  will  llaariBb  on  and  fioorish  ever,  despite  the 
■torms  of  time  and  bring  forth  in  abundance  iU  fruit  in  season. 

Bttt  is  is  Qiged  againat  na  that  we  came  from  ^  the  land  of  dethtese 
and  idolatry, ^^  True ;  but  we  left  her  idola  there,  and  with  them  lefK 
alaa  I  too  much  of  her  lore.  In  a  religions  point  of  tiew,  Egypt  has 
OTor  been  reckoned  ''a  land  of  darkness"— -bat  torn  to  her  scienee, 
to  her  arts,  and  the  well-informed  Mason  will  never  be  ashamed  to 
acknowledge  his  connection  with  this  gloomy  people.  The  enlightened 
world  owes  to  Egypt  a  debt  of  gratitnt^e  it  has  never  yet  acknowl- 
edged. Yes,  to  ^'  dark  Egypt?'  as  the  cradle  of  science — once  the 
home  of  philosophy  and  the  lair  of  learning.  Look  for  a  moment 
and  say,  to  whom  is  the  httshandman  indebted  for  the  first  principles 
of  hydraulic  engineering  and  the  art  of  agriculture,  but  to  her  ?  To 
whom  is  the  "  republic  of  letters"  indebted  ibr  the  first  alphabet  and 
the  art  of  writing  but  to  her?  To  whom  is  the  literary  world  in- 
debted for  the  first  schools  and  colleges,  but  to  her  ?  From  whence 
did  Gkeece,  classic  Greece,  derive  her  learning,  but  from  this  ^'  dark 
landr    And 

"  Rome  heneli^  proud  iiiiitren  now  no  more. 
Of  arts,  but  thunderiag  against  heathen  lore/' 

mnst  trace  her  knowledge  to  its  true  source,  on  the  banks  of  the  dis- 
tant Nile. 

Though  the  prophecy  be  fulfilled  and  Egygt  shall  not  ^'  exalt  itself 
any  more  among  the  nations,"  her  remains  prove  the  proficiency  of  her 

people  in  the  usefull  as  well  as  the  ornamental  arts.  "•  Vast  masses 
of  cyanite,  nine  hundred  tons  in  weight,  used  in  the  c(»)8truction  of 

edifices,  devoted  to  our  mysteries,  (were  by  them)  transported  long 
distances  on  land  and  water  by  means  (we)  cannot  (now)  command,** 
and  there  remain  fit  subjects  for  the  speculation  of  the  antiquarian 
and  to  be  numbered  among  the  "  wonders  of  the  world."  In  seulp- 
ture,  for  accuracy  in  delineation,  these  people  have  never  been  sur- 
passed, while  their  fresco  painting,  after  resisting  the  band  of  time 
for  five  thousand  years  in  freshness  and  brilliancy,  put  to  shame  the 
coloring  of  a  Baphael,  a  Michael  Angelo  or  a  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds. 

Think  of  all  this — and  thinking,  chide  her  no  longer  as  "  ^  land 
if  darkness."  She  is  now  no  more,  save  in  relics  and  mouldering 
remains,  but  when  her  "  sceptre  departed,"  the  tears  of  sorrow  trickled 
down  the  cheeks  of  science,  and  the  arts  wept  over  the  fall  of  their 
foster  mother. 

I  trust  you  will  eaccuse  this  apparent  digression.  As  the  Christian 
with  mdanbholy  interest  explores  the  LapidarianhaUs  of  the  Vatican 

THB   ASHLAR.  119 

lad  winds  kis  way  with  feeliqgs  of  awe  and  reTerenoe  through  the 
Bttbterranean  vaults  and  catacombs  of  ancient  Bonae,  gleaning  from 
the  relics  of  his  primitiye  Brethren,  much  to  prove  the  truth  of  his 
doctrine  and  establish  his  faith, — so  the  light-loving  Mason,  with  oom- 
mingled  feelbgs  of  joj  and  regret,  will  turn  to  this  far  off  land  to 

gather  relics  of  his  early  ancestry. 

•        •••••         •#         #         ••• 

Bat  we  must  bring  this  to  a  close.  In  pointing  oat  to  yea,  thus 
briefly,  oar  early  foot-prints^  we  have  not  done  it  so  mnoh  to  prove 
CO  you  our  <mtiquiUy^  as  to  show  that  our  Order  haseverheen  an  art 
promoting^  science  loving^  education  fostering^  God  worshipping 

Masonry  is  no  '^  Babd-hahbley^  and  he  who  rightly  understands  its 
mysteries,  can  never  be  "  a  stupid  atheist  or  an  irreligious  libertine," 
but  its  votaries,  if  they  praotioe  its  preoepts,  must  become  ^unserj 
better^  happier  men^* — of  such  ioere  our  andent  Brethren^  and  their 
tporks  do  foUow  them. 

Brethren  oj  the  Mystic  Tve: — ^We  are  taught  that  these  ^ancient 
Brsthren"  wrought  ^  with  freedom,  fervency  and  seal"  in  both  ''  ope- 
rative and  speculative  Masonry."  They  are  now  '^  gathered  unto 
their  fathers,"  hut  their  badge  and  their  working  tools  they  haee  bs' 
queathed  to  y&u.  While  you  wear  the  one,  throw  not  the  others 
idly  by.  The  one  is  no  honor  unless  worthily  worn ;  the  others  are 
worthless,  if  not  properly  used.  You  have  been  too  well  and  too 
often  instructed  in  their  symbolism  around  that  altar  where  Masons 
love  to  meet,  to  require  a  rehearsal  here;  Take  them,  and  with  them 
that  greatest  of  all  treasureSj  that  religious^  moral  and  Masonic 
trestleboardj  which  our  ancient  Brethren  preserved  so  mysteriously 
from  the  unhallowed  and  destructive  hancb  of  Amon  and  Menasseh, 
and  transmitted  ^  in  tharg^^  to  you.  In  it  the  Supreme  Grand  Master 
has  drawn  all  necessary  designs.  Treasure  these  as  the  ridiest  fra- 
ternal relics  of  the  worthy  dead  and  the  most  "  inestimable  gifb  of 
God  to  man."  With  these  to  guide  you,  there  is  no  need  of  eonfusion 
and  no  reason  why  your  labors  should  cease.  Over  the  broad  face 
of  nature  is  everywhere  written  in  unmistakeable  symbolio  eharaeters, 
work !  work  !  toork  !  Then  stand  not  idly  as  drones  in  the  Masonie 

You  have  materials  to  prepare ;  you  have  burthens  to  bear ;  yoa 
have  rubbish  to  remove  and  a  temple  to  rear.  Let  me  admonish 
you,  then,  to  resume  your  labors  with  renewed  energy  and  redoubled! 
efforts.    ^'Work  while  it  is  yet  dsy,"  and  <^when  the  night>tima 


Cometh,"  may  your  specimen  of  skill  pass  the  Grand  Master  Over- 
seer's square^  and  each  Craftsmafi  receive  and  he  content  with  his 
wages.  To  this  end  *'  may  the  light  of  the  seraphic  world  inspire 
fraternal  exceUenoeV 



Secret  societies,  partiealarly  when  eztcDsiye  and  powerfal  as  the 
Ufasonic,  are,  to  freemen  tenaoioiis  of  their  liherties,  objects  of  jealousy 
and  suspicion.  This  has  ever  been  the  case ;  it  is  right  that  it  should 
be,  and  it  always  will  be.  How,  then,  it  may  be  asked,  has  the  Ma- 
sonic Institution  existed  in  republics,  without  any  material  interrup- 
tion for  BO  great  length  of  time?  We  answer,  because  the  great,  the 
wise,  the  learned,  the  pious  statesmen  and  partisans  of  opposite  po- 
litical sentiments — divines  of  different  religious  beliefs — sovereigns 
and  rulers — men  to  whom  the  people  freely  and  confidently  entrust 
their  rights  and  most  sacred  and  dearest  interests — ^men  of  tried  in- 
tegrity and  uncorruptible  honesty,  have  been  its  patrons  and  ad- 
vocates, and  have  borne  unequivocal  testimony  to  its  purity  and 
flooduess  of  intention.  If,  then,  such  men  have  been  of  so  much 
importance  to  the  existence  and  well  being  of  our  Institution,  it  is 
necessary  that  we  should  use  every  honest  endeavor,  not  particularly 
to  retain  those  we  now  have  amongst  us,  for  they  know  the  intrinsic 
worUi  of  our  society,  and  the  blasts  of  uoatioism  cannot  move  them ; 
bot^  by  a  candid  declaration  of  our  principles,  a  dispassionate  defence 
of  those  principles,  when  unrighteously  attacked,  and  by  a  correct 
deportment,  to  make  it  honorable  for  others  to  connect  themselves 
with  us  and  shield  us  from  the  unjust  reproaches  of  the  captious  and 
bigoted.  But  let  us,  on  the  contrary,  remain  silent;  let  the  accusa- 
tions of  our  opponents  h»ve  their  full  weight  in  public  opinion,  and 
if  they  do  not  gain  for  themselves  implicit  credit,  they  will  create 
euch  a  doubt  iu  the  minds  of  the  judicious  part  of  community,  as 
shall  cast  a  blot  on  the  character  of  the  Institution  that  many  years 
shall  be  insufficient  to  eradicate.  Honorable  men  vnU  not  hazard 
their  reputations  in  suspidaus  matters^  and  if  we  would  have  the 
patronage  of  such,  we  must  first  remove  the  grounds  on  which  suspi- 
oion  is  predicated,  or  satisfy  them  that  no  just  cause  of  apprehension 
does  exist;  there  must  not  be  left  a  loop  on  which  to  hang  a  doubt 
This  can  be  done,  and  very  easily  done,  by  meeting  manfully  and 
firmly,  and  in  truth,  the  charges  preferred  against  us.  No  accusation, 
derogatory  to  the  character  of  the  Institution,  can,  in  justice^  be 
prrferredy  nmA  less  supported  by  testimony  and  argufnent.  What 
then,  is  there  to  apprehend  from  the  moat  scrupulous  inquiry?  what 
from  candid  and  impartial  discussion? 


It  may  be  said  that  it  will  avail  nothing  to  oontend  with  men  who 
are  obstinately  ignorant  and  perversely  stnpid ;  men  predetermined 
not  to  be  diverted  from  the  career  they  have  commenced,  however 
nn righteous,  however  unholy  it  may  be,  either  by  evidence  or  reason. 
We  think  differently.  Did  the  matter  rest  wholly  with  them,  were 
their  publications  confined  to  their  own  limited  circle,  we  would  be 
the  last  to  interfere  with  or  interrupt  them ;  but  the  case  is  other- 
wise :  their  publications  spread  wide  over  the  country,  and  their  in- 
fluence is  in  proportion  to  the  extent  of  circulation ;  and  in  the  same 
ratio  they  operate  to  our  prejudice.  It  is  public  opinion,  formed  on 
the  misrepresentations  and  base  falsehoods,  industriously  circulated 
by  our  enemies,  that  we  have  to  fear,  and  not  our  revilers  themselves, 
nor  those  to  whom  they  are  known — and  unfortunate  it  is  indeed  for 
us,  that  they  are  not  better  known.  Should  it  be  objected  that  the 
people  are  too  intelligent  to  be  deceived  by  anti-masonic  ribaldry  and 
declamation,  we  reply,  a  portion  of  them  are,  but  there  is  a  very  large 
portion  who  are  not,  who  had  rather  admit  the  correctness  of  an  ao- 
surd  position,  than  trouble  themselves  with  the  investigation  requisite 
to  a  just  conclusion.  It  is  on  these  and  many  of  the  opposite  sex, 
and  consequently  on  the  coming  generation,  that  the  sophistry  of  our 
assailants  will  have  a  powerful  influence,  if  no  counteractive  measures 
be  adopted. 


We  have  in  a  previous  number  given  a  sketch  of  Bro.  Dr.  Kane. 
The  following  are  extracts  from  his  forthcoming  work : 

October  10,  Monday. — Our  depot  party  has  been  out  twenty  days, 
and  it  is  time  they  were  back ;  their  provisions  must  have  run  very 
low,  for  I  enjoyned  them  to  leave  every  pound  at  the  depot  they  could 
spare.  I  am  going  out  with  supplies  to  look  after  them.  I  take  four 
of  our  best  Newfoundlanders,  now  well  broken,  in  our  lightest  sledge, 
and  Blake  will  accompany  me  with  his  skates.  We  have  not  hands 
enough  to  equip  a  sledge  party,  and  the  ice  is  too  unsound  for  us  to 
attempt  to  ride  with  a  large  team.  The  thermometer  is  still  four 
degrees  above  zero. 

I  found  little  or  no  trouble  in  crossing  the  ice,  until  we  passed  be- 
yond the  north-east  headland,  which  I  have  named  Cape  William 
Wood.  But,  on  emerging  into  the  channel,  we  found  that  the  spring 
ddes  had  broken  up  the  great  area  around  us,  and  that  the  passage 
of  the  sledge  was  interrupted  by  fissures  which  were  beginning  to 
break  in  every  direction  through  the  young  ice. 

My  first  effort  was  of  course  to  reach  the  land;  but  it  was  un- 
fortunately low  tide,  and  the  ice-belt  rose  up  before  me  like  a  wall. 
The  pack  was  becoming  more  and  more  unsafe,  and  I  was  extremely 
anxious  to  gain  an  asylum  on  shore  ]  for,  though  it  was  easy  to  find 
a  temporary  refuge  by  retreating  to  the  old  noes  which  studded  the 

122  THE    ASHLAR. 

more  recent  ice,  I  knew  that  in  doing  so  we  should  risk  being  carried 
down  by  the  drift 

The  dogs  began  to  flag,  bat  we  had  to  press  them.  We  were  only 
two  men,  and,  in  the  event  of  the  animals  failing  to  leap  any  of  the 
rapidly  maltiplying  fissures,  we  could  hardly  expect  to  extncate  our 
laden  sledge.  Three  times  in  less  than  three  hours  my  shaft  or  hinder 
dogs  went  in,  and  John  and  myself,  who  had  been  trotting  alongside 
the  sledge  for  sixteen  miles,  were  nearly  as  tired  as  they  were.  This 
state  of  things  could  not  last,  and  I  therefore  made  for  the  old  ice  to 

We  were  nearing  it  rapidly^  when  the  dogs  failed  in  leaping  a  chasm 
that  was  somewhat  wider  thau  the  others,  and  the  whole  conc<*rn  came 
down  in  the  water.  I  cut  the  lines  instantly,  and,  with  the  aid  of  my 
companion,  hauled  the  poor  animals  out  We  owed  the  preservation 
of  the  sledge  to  their  admirable  docility  and  perseverance.  The  tin 
cooking  apparatus  and  the  air  confined  in  the  India-rubber  coverings, 
kept  it  afloat  until  we  would  succeed  in  fastening  a  couple  of  seal- 
skin cords  to  the  cross-pieces  at  the  front  and  back.  By  these  John 
and  myself  were  able  to  give  it  an  uncertain  support  from  the  two 
edges  of  the  opening,  till  the  dogs,  after  many  fruitless  struggles, 
carried  it  forward  at  last  upon  the  ice. 

Although  the  thermometer  was  below  zero,  and  in  our  wet  state 
we  ran  a  considerable  risk  of  freezing,  the  urgency  of  our  position  left 
no  room  for  thoughts  of  cold.  We  started  at  a  run,  men  and  dogs, 
for  the  solid  ice ;  and  by  the  time  we  had  gained  it,  we  were  steaming 
in  the  cold  atmosphere  like  a  couple  of  Nootka  Sound  vapor-baths. 

We  rested  on  the  floe.  We  could  not  raise  our  tent,  for  it  had 
frozen  as  hard  as  a  shingle.  But  our  buffalo-robe  bags  gave  us  pro- 
tection ;  and,  though  we  were  too  wet  inside  to  be  absolutely  comfort* 
able,  we  managed  to  get  something  like  sleep  before  it  was  light 
enough  for  us  to  move  on  again. 

The  journey  was  continued  in  the  same  way,  but  we  found  to  our 
great  gratification  that  the  cracks  closed  with  the  change  of  the  tide, 
and  at  high-water  we  succeeded  in  gaining  the  ice-belt  under  the 
cliffs.  This  belt  had  changed  very  much  since  my  journey  in  Sep- 
tember. The  tides  and  frosts  together  had  coated  it  with  ice  as 
smooth  as  satin,  and  this  glossy  covering  made  it  an  excellent  road. 
The  cliffs  discharged  fewer  fragments  in  our  path,  and  the  rocks  of 
our  last  journey's  experience  were  now  fringed  with  icicles.  I  saw 
with  great  pleasure  that  this  ice-belt  would  serve  as  a  highway  for 
our  future  operations. 

The  nights  which  followed  were  not  so  bad,  as  one  would  suppose 
from  the  saturated  condition  of  our  equipment.  Bvaporation  is  not 
so  inappreciable  in  this  Arctic  region,  as  some  theorists  imagme.  By 
alternately  exposing  the  tent  and  furs  to  the  air  and  beating  the  ice 
out  of  them,  we  dried  them  enough  to  permit  sleep.  The  dogs  slept 
in  the  tent  with  us,  giving  it  warmth  as  well  as  fragrance.  What 
perfumes  of  nature  are  lost  at  home  upon  our  ungrateful  senses  I 
How  we  relished  the  companionship ! 

THE    ASHLAR.  123 

We  had  ayeraged  twenty  miles  a  day  sinoe  leaviDg  the  hng,  and 
"were  within  a  short  march  of  the  cape  which  I  haye  named  William 
Woody  when  a  broad  chasm  hronght  ns  to  a  halt  It  was  in  yain 
that  we  worked  ont  to  seaward,  or  diyed  into  the  shoreward  recesses 
of  the  bay ;  the  ice  eyervwhere  presented  the  same  impassable  fissures. 
We  had  no  alternative  bat  to  retrace  our  steps  and  seek  among  the 
bergs  some  place  of  security.  We  found  a  camp  for  the  night  on  the 
old  floe-ices  to  the  westward,  gaining  them  some  time  after  the  dark- 
ness had  closed  in. 

On  the  morning  of  the  15th,  about  two  hours  before  the  late  sun- 
rise, as  I  was  preparing  to  climb  a  berg  from  which  I  might  haye  a 
sight  of  the  road  ahead,  I  perceived  fat,  off  upon  the  white  snow  a 
dark  object,  which  not  only  moved,  but  altered  its  shape  strangely— 
now  expanding  into  a  long  black  line,  now  waving,  now  gathering  it- 
self up  into  a  compact  mass.  It  was  the  returning  sledge  party. 
They  had  seen  our  black  tent  of  Kedar,  and  ferried  across  to  seek  it 

They  were  most  welcome,  for  thejr  absence,  in  the  fearfully  open 
state  of  the  ice,  had  filled  me  with  apprehensions.  We  could  not 
distidguish  each  other  as  we  drew  near  in  the  twilight,  and  my  first 
good  news  of  them  was  when  I  heard  that  they  were  singing.  On 
they  came,  and  at  last  I  was  able  to  count  their  voices,  one  by  one. 
Thank  Ood,  seven  1  Poor  John  Blake  was  so  breathless  with  gratu- 
lation,  that  I  could  not  get  him  to  blow  his  siffnal-hom.  We  gave 
them,  instead  the  good  old  Anglo-Saxon  greetmg,  "  three  cheers  I" 
and  in  a  few  minutes  were  among  them. 

They  had  made  a  creditable  journey,  and  were,  on  the  whole,  in 
good  condition.  They  had  no  injuries  worth  talking  about,  although 
not  a  man  had  escaped  some  touches  of  the  frost  Bonsall  was  minus 
a  big  toe-nail,  and  plus  a  scar  upon  the  nose.  McGk^y  had  attempted, 
as  l^m  Hickey  told  us,  to  phick  a  fox,  it  being  so  frozen  as  to  defy 
skinning  by  his  knife,  and  his  fingers  had  been  tolerably  frostbitten 
in  the  operation.  "  They're  very  homy,  sir,  are  my  fingers,"  said 
McGary,  who  was  worn  down  to  a  mere  shadow  of  his  former  rotun- 
dity, ^  very  homy,  and  they  water  up  like  bladders."  The  rest  had 
suffered  in  their  feet,  but,  like  good  fellows,  postponed  limping  until 
they  reached  the  ship. 

The  Temple  was  erected  without  the  sound  of  any  instru- 
ment of  iron,  the  stones  and  timbers  having  previously  been  fitted  for 
their  respective  places  with  exact  nicety.  So  in  a  Lodge  of  Masons ; 
no  harsh  or  discordant  sound  should  ever  be  heard.  Unity  of  senti- 
ment and  feeling  should  prevent  every  harsh  word,  and  brotherly 
love  flow  like  the  waters  of  life  from  heart  to  heart 


124  THE    ASHLAB. 


lo  a  memoir  of  P.  0.  M.  Kreider^  of  Oiuo,  from  the  pen  of  Bro. 
W.  J.  Beeze,  the  followiDg  eentiments  are  expressed : 

''  His  initiation  into  Masonry  had  keenly  excited  within  him  that 
•laudable  curiosity,*  which  is  a  ruling  constituent  of  every  well- 
informed  mind.  Delighted  with  what  he  saw  and  realized,  he  pushed 
onward  and  upward  along  the  path  of  light,  *  in  pursuit  of  that  which 
was  lost/  until  at  last  he  found  the  solem,  mighty  mystery,  reposing 
in  its  beatitudes  of  beauty  upon  the  bosom  of  the  Ineffable  and  Uni- 
versal Truth.  The  work  of  the  Lodge  room,  its  history,  lectures, 
symbols,  as  leading  step  by  step  to  this  profound  revelation^  became 
the  subjects  of  his  intimate  study  and  regard,  and  having  learned  to 
venerate  them  as  the  offsprings  of  the  richest  intellect  on  earth,  so  he 
treated  with  rational  reprehension  and  discountenance  every  upstart 
interpolation  and  anachronism,  which  would  cause  them  to  derogate 
from  their  ancestral  dignity.  Against  all  such  puerilities  he  set  his 
face  like  flint,  especially  in  the  three  most  ancient  degrees.  He  knew 
that  in  our  symbolised  vocabulary  the  manifestation  of  the  beaxt^iful 
is  but  the  exhibition  of  wisdom  in  the  putting  forth  of  its  stekoth, 
that  they  conatitute  a  harmonious  triad,  a  Masonio  <  tria  juncta  in 
uno^  and  that  any  vandal  attempt  to  dislocate  this  union,  would  be 
to  convert  each  wondrous  pillar  inta  a  broken  fragmentary  column. 
As  his  high  ofBce  made  him  familiar  with  the  condition  of  the  Lodges 
under  his  supervision,  he  observed  with  pain  and  regret  the  glarmg 
incongruities  in  their  different  methods  of  work,  being  in  some  in- 
stances 80  ologged  about  with  silly  ceremonial  clap  traps  and  mystified 
noodling  nonsense,  as  actually  to  deter  the  intelligent  novitiate  from 
receiving  more  than  his  first  degree.  He  determined,  as  far  as  it  was 
practicable,  to  introdnoe  system  and  order  into  all  such  chaotic  work. 
His  experience  taught  him,  and  I  presume  it  has  been  yours,  Most 
Worshipful,  as  it  has  been  that  of  others  who  have  filled  your  high 
chair,  that  to  correct  such  evils,  by  weeding  out  this  rank  efflorescence, 
required  not  only  the  exercise  of  firmness  with  discriminating  tact, 
but  also,  in  union  with  these,  the  commanding  influence  of  official 
authority.  It  is  a  singular  fact,  but  nevertheless  a  true  one,  that, 
take  our  professed  Masonic  teachers  or  lecturers  as  a  body,  and  no 
where  else  will  you  find  a  like  number  of  men  so  dogmatic  in  their 
small  opinions,  so  captious  in  little  unimportant  things,  and  so  com- 
placently poised  in  their  own  self-conceit.  Each  esteems  himself  to 
be  infallible.  One  claims  the  standard  orthodoxy  because  he  is  of 
Paul,  another  as  of  Apollos,  and  the  third  of  Cephas,  and  too  fre- 
quently and  sadly  all  three  of  them  will  disagree  in  the  fundamental 
dicta  of  instruction  and  upon  cardinal  points  of  faith.  I  use  this 
language  in  the  totality  of  its  application,  without  intending  the 
slightest  personal  disrespect  or  reflection  whatsoever,  or  to  signalize 
any  individual  Brother,  living  or  dead.  To  attempt  to  reason  with 
and  convince  such  a  person,  would  be  a  waste  of  time.  Being  often 
selected  for  his  capacity  of  memory  alone,  he  blindly  storea  up  the 


fffogiMnne  of  work  whirii  1m  Uindlj  noeifw  from  mbm  peri^iMh 

Tender  of  its  mysteries,  as  coming  in  lineal  unbroken  traditionary 
descent  from  Solomon  himself;  in  the  same  blind  spirit,  too,  he  would 
teaeh  in  unto  others.  Through  such  instrumentalities  it  came  fro- 
ffBLmAj  to  pass  that  the  work  would  not  harmonise  with  the  lectures, 
while  both  outrMod  the  laws  of  analogy  and  the  dictates  of  common 
aense.  It  was  the  ardent  desire  of  our  Grand  Master  to  instill  into 
the  general  mind  of  the  Craft  a  rational  perception  of  its  symbolised 
significance,  and  of  the  broad  human  uses  and  great  utilitarian  ends 
which  Masonry  is  capable  of  producing,  and  which  he  thought  it  was 
originally  fashioned  to  subserve.  He  summoned  to  his  aid  the  most 
available  talent  in  the  State,  and  put  forth  all  the  influences  of  his 
hifffa  station  to  effect  this  desideratum,  as  his  annual  messages  and 
ot£er  concomitant  papers  of  learned  research  abundantly  show.** 



''In  Tain  nould  DanTera  iritli  his  wit 

Our  slow  resentment  raise; 
What  he  and  all  maakiad  have  writ» 

But  eeleVratea  our  pnJae, 
His  wit  tkia  only  ^nia  imparts, 
That  Masons  hare  firm  fidthfal  hearts." 

SioaaTiBT'a  Bean. 

"The  auooess  that  attended  the  re^estaUishmenl  of  Masonry,"  my 
strange  companion  oontinued,  '<  created  a  very  great  sensation,  and 
raised  up  a  host  of  (^posents,  who  either  envied  the  popularity  of  tha 
Fraternity,  or  were  desirous  of  diverting  it  into  some  other  channel ; 
for  the  uninitiated  were  piqued  at  the  respeot  and  attention  which  it 
attracted  so  universally,  and  more  particularly  when  the  nobility 
began  to  interest  themselves  in  its  promulgation.  Many  were  the 
oonaultations  which  were  held  in  the  Lodge  on  this  subject  Dr. 
Anderson,  Grand  Warden  in  1723,  had  now  become  an  active  col* 
league  of  Grand  Master  Payne  and  Dr.  Desaguliers,  who  held  tha 
office  of  Deputy  Grand  Master,  and  was  installed  into  the  chair  of 
Hiram  Abiff  in  the  same  year ;  and  with  the  assistance  of  other  emi- 
nent Craftsmen,  it  was  formally  deliberated  which  of  three  proceed* 
ings  it  would  be  most  expedient  to  adopt  in  this  emergency.  Bros. 
Lambail,  Noyes  and  Yiileneau  were  of  the  opinion  that  the  most 
dignified  method  of  treating  the  absurd  publications  of  those  eowani 

*  Dr.  OliTer'a  ReTelationa  of  ji  Square. 
17 — ^VOL.  IL  NO.  m. 

126  THE    ASHLAR. 

who  distributed  their  anoDjmons  effiuioDS  through  the  cimntij,  wonM 
be  by  silent  contempt ;  others  proposed  ridicale  as  the  most  efficient 
weapon,  while  Brothers  Desaguliers  and  Anderson  thought  that  the 
interests  of  Masonry  would  be  more  effectually  served  by  some  public 
and  authorized  statement  of  their  proceedings — ^by  an  avowal  of  the 
real  objects  of  the  Institution  and  an  explanation  of  the  principles  on 
which  it  is  founded.     And  this  course  was  finally  agreed  on. 

"  Accordingly  these  two  learned  Brothers  entered  on  the  work  witb 
great  seal  and  assiduity.  Bro.  Desaguliers,  in  1721,  made  a  public 
profession  of  a  Mason's  faith,  in  an  oration  which  was  printed  and 
distributed  plentifully  both  in  the  metropolis  and  provinces,*  in  which 
he  enlarged  on  the  re-organization  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  and  stated 
seriatim  the  peculiar  benefits,  both  moral  and  intellectual,  which  may 
be  derived  from  a  regular  attendance  on  the  duties  of  a  Lodge.  And 
Bro.  Anderson  published  a  well  written  pamphlet  on  the  rise  and 
progress  of  the  Order,  and  its  application  to  the  practical  sciences,  f 

^  In  the  same  year,  September  2d,  the  Duke  of  Montagne  being 
Grand  Master  and  Bros.  Yilleneau  and  Morrice  Grand  Wardens,  a 
Grand  Lodge  was  holden  at  the  King's  Arms  Tavern,  St.  Paul's 
Churchyard,  at  which  Bros.  Desaguliers,  Payne  and  Anderson  were 
ordered  to  examine  the  old  Gothic  Constitutions,  and  to  digest  the 
same  in  a  new  and  better  method ;  and  at  the  succeeding  Gtend  Lodge 
in  December,  a  committee  of  fourteen  expert  Brethren  was  appointed 
to  revise  the  manuscript  when  completed,  and  to  make  their  report 
accordingly.  In  pursuance  of  this  order,  our  worthy  Bros.  Desagu- 
liers, Payne  and  Anderson  commenced  their  proceedings  by  searching 
for  manuscripts  and  authorities  in  every  part  of  the  kingdom,  where 
they  were  supposed  to  exist.  They  communicated  with  many  Lodges 
under  the  Constitutions,  both  of  York  and  London,  and  in  most  cases 
were  successful  in  the  search ;  yet  a  few  instances  unfortunately  oc- 
curred, where  certain  fastidious  Brethren  took  the  alarm  and  com- 
mitted many  valuable  manuscripts  to  the  flames  concerning  ancient 
usages,  regulations  of  Lodges,  charges  and  secrets — ^particularly  one 

*  An  ekKjueat  oration  abont  Masons  and  Masonry.  DeliTered  24th  Januarv. 
1721.  ^ 

t  **  On  the  Rise  and  Promss  of  Freemasonry."  The  Rey.  James  Andeiscm, 
D.  D.,  was  minister  of  the  Scotch  Presbyterian  Church,  in  Swallov  street.  Pic- 
cadilly, and  well  known  in  those  days  amongst  the  people  of  that  persuasion, 


THB    ASHLAR.  127 

wf ittea  by  Nicholas  StonOj  who  wkb  Grand  Warden  to  Inigo  Jonea— 
i«at  thej  should  fall  into  the  hands  of  oar  frionda  and  be  sabmitted 
to  pnblio  inspection  in  a  printed  form. 

"  At  one  of  Our  Lodges,  when  this  design  was  in  progress,  Bro. 
Payne  expressed  his  indignation  at  the  enperlative  folly  of  those  mis- 
gaided  Brothers  in  no  measured  language,  and  it  was  seriously  debated 
whether  it  would  not  be  expedient,  for  the  purpose  of  preventing  a 
repitition  of  the  offense,  to  moye  a  vote  of  censure  against  them  in 
the  ensuing  Orand  Lodge  for  contempt.  This  was  decided  in  the 
negati^re,  as  it  was  considered  to  be  inquisitorial  and  alien  to  the 
general  design  of  Masonry,  for  the  Orand  Lodge  to  interfere  with  the 
disposal  of  private  property. 

"*  It  was  agreed,  however,  at  the  same  Lodge,  that  the  R.  W.  Master, 
Bro.  Desaguliers,  should  move  that  the  ancient  office  of  Stewards  be 
revived  to  assist  the  Orand  Wardens  in  preparing  for  the  feast  and 
in  other  things  appertaining  to  the  annual  general  Assembly  of  Ma* 
sons.  Bro.  Desaguliers  accordingly  proposed  the  appointment  of 
twelve  Brethren  for  those  purposes,  and  the  motion  was  unanimously 
agreed  to.  At  the  same  Grand  Lodgo  it  was  reported  by  the  com- 
mittee that  they  had  perused  Bro.  Anderson's  manuscript  containing 
(he  History  of  Masons,  the  Charges,  Regulations  and  Master's  Song, 
and,  after  some  amendments,  had  approved  of  it  In  consequence  of 
this  favorable  report,  the  Brethren  requested  the  Grand  Master  to 
order  it  to  be  published ;  and  its  appearance  produced  a  wonderful 
impression  on  the  public  mind,  and  insured  the  triumph  of  the  OrafL* 

^  At  a  Grand  Lodge  in  the  same  year,  the  Duke  of  Buccleugh,  G. 
M.,  seconded  by  Dr.  Desaguliers,  proposed  a  scheme  for  raising  a 
fund  for  the  relief  of  distressed  Brethren,  and  a  committee  was  ap- 
pointed on  the  spot  to  consider  what  would  be  the  most  effectual 
means  of  carrying  it  into  execution.  This  was  the  origin  of  the  fund 
of  Benevolence,  for  which  the  Fraternity  are  indebted  to  the  amiable 
disposition,  coupled  with  the  indefatigable  exertions  of  Bro.  Desagu- 
liers ;  and  the  operation  of  the  project  proved  so  beneficial  to  the 
general  interests  of  the  Order,  that  it  was  publicly  announced  in  Gkrand 
Lodge,  that  ingenious  men  of  all  faculties  and  stations,  being  now 
convinced  that  the  cement  of  the  Lodge  was  love  and  friendship, 
earnestly  requested  to  join  the  Society,  which  soon  flourished  in  har- 

*  The  CoBBtitution  of  Freemaaonry,  containing  the  Hiatorj,  Chargaa»  Rega- 
UtiooB,  Ac,  of  that  moat  Ancient  and  J^ht  Wonhipfol  Fraternity.  For  tha 
nae  of  the  Lodgea.  London,  priatad  by  will  Hunter  for  John  Sanaz  aad  Jdim 
fiooka,  1793. 

128  THE   ASHLAR. 

moDy,  repntaiioii  and  nnmbws.  Noblemen  and  genttemen  of  tka 
kigfaest  rank-— *leirned  men,  merciuuits  and  elergjmen  fonnd  in  ibe 
Lodge  a  safe  «nd  pleasant  relaxation  from  intenae  atady  or  the  karrj 
of  Irosiness,  without  any  intermixture  of  politics  and  parties.  New 
Lodges  were  constituted,*  which  the  Qrand  Master  and  his  Deputy 
Tisited  in  person,  and  found  in  thett  a  peaceful  asylum,  free  from  the 
turmoils  and  disputes  by  which  all  other  aocietiefl  were  characteriied 
and  deformed. 

^  But  I  can  assure  you,  sir,  that  the  opponents  of  Freemasonry^ 
although  at  their  wit's  end,  were  determined  not  to  die  without  a 
struggle.!  They  circulated  all  manner  of  ridiculous  reports  about 
the  practices  of  Masons  in  Tyled  Lodges,  which  were  thus  commented 
on  by  a  Brother  who  was  a  member  of  our  Lodge,  in  an  address  to 
the  B.  W.  M.»  when  the  subject  was  mooted  in  open  Lodge.  I  can- 
not recollect  the  whole  of  this  speech,  but  he  said,  amongst  other 
aeute  obserrationa,  which  excited  the  unfeigned  applause  of  the  mem- 
bers: '  Though  we  envy  not  the  prosperity  of  any  society,  nor  meddle 
with  their  transactions  and  characters,  we  have  not  met  with  such 
fair  treatment  from  others;  nay,  even  those  that  never  had  an  oppor- 
tunity of  obtaining  any  eertam  knowledge  of  us,  haye  mn  implicitly 
with  the  cry,  and,  without  fear  or  wit,  haye  yented  their  spleen  in  ao^ 
eusing  and  condemning  us  unheard,  untried,  while  we,  innocent  and 
secure  within,  laugh  only  at  their  gross  ignorance  and  impotent  ma- 
lioe.  Have  not  people  in  former  ages,  as  well  as  now,  allied  that 
Freemasons  in  their  Lodges  raise  the  deyil  in  a  circle,  and  when  they 
have  done  with  him,  tiiat  they  lay  him  again  with  a  noise  or  hush,  as 
they  please.?  How  haye  some  of  our  maligners  diverted  themselyes 
with  the  wild  story  of  an  old  woman  between  the  rounds  of  a  ladder  I 
Others  will  swear  to  the  eook's  red-hot  iron  or  sabuuander  for  mark- 
ing  an  indelible  oharaoter  on  the  new-nade  Mason,  in  order  to  give 
him  the  faculty  of  taciturnity.  Sure,  such  blades  will  beware  of 
coming  through  the  ingers  of  the  Freemasons.' " 

*  Kot  only  in  tfatt  country,  bat  on  the  continent*  sad  these  latter  nnforia* 
nately,  became  a  fruitful  source  of  innoYBtioa  In  1725,  the  Chevalier  Aamsay 
introdnced  his  Royal  Arch  and  other  maanfactured  Begreee  into  a  Lodge, 
under  an  Sneliah  warranto  held  under  the  Hue  de  Boncheriea  at  Paris,  irhich 
was  presidea  over  by  Lord  Derwentwater,  "where  they  were  practised  as  legi- 
timate MasoDrjr.  Ramsay  tried  to  introduce  them  into  this  country,  but  fiiiled. 
See  more  of  thik  in  the  Hist  Landmarks,  Vol  II,  Leet.  XXV,  Part  1,  p.  3a 

t  They  pabliaked  abont  this  time  "  ObserralMfBs  and  Critical  B«nar]moii 
the  new  Censkitution  of  the  F.  M.,  written  by  James  Andersoa.  4e.  London. 

THE   ASHLAR.  129 


We  eztniet  from  the  Saored  Records  some  details  coooeming  these 
magnificent  columns,  of  which  Dr.  Clarke  declared,  that  there  was  no 
skill  in  modem  times  that  would  enable  a  founder  to  do  such  a  job: 

'^  He  made  before  the  house  Iwo  pillars  of  thirtj  and  fiye  cubits 
high,  and  the  chapiter  which  was  on  the  top  of  each  of  them,  was  five 
cubits.  And  he  made  chains  and  put  them  on  the  heads  of  the  pil- 
lars ;  and  made  an  hundred  pomegranates  and  put  on  the  chains. 
And  he  reared  up  the  pillars  before  the  temple,  one  on  t^e  right  hand 
and  the  other  on  the  left,  and  called  the  name  of  that  on  the  right 
hand  Jaohin,  and  the  name  of  that  on  the  left  Boaz,''    2  Chron.,  3d 


"  He  oast  two  pillars  of  brass,  of  eighteen  eubits  high  a  piece,  and 
a  line  of  twelve  cubits  did  compass  either  of  them  about  And  he 
made  two  chapiters  of  molten  brass  to  set  upon  the  tops  of  the  pillars ; 
the  height  of  the  one  chapiter  was  five  cubits,  and  the  height  of  the 
other  chapiter  was  five  cubits ;  and  nets  of  checker-work  and  wreaths 
of  chain-work  for  the  chapiters  which  were  upon  the  top  of  the  pillars, 
seven  for  the  one  chapiter  and  seven  for  the  other  chapiter.  And  he 
made  the  pillars  and  two  rows  round  about — ^upon  the  one  net-work 
to  cover  &e  chapiters  that  were  upon  the  top  with  pomegranates } 
and  so  did  he  for  the  other  chapiter.  And  the  chapiters  which  were 
upon  the  top  of  the  pillars,  were  of  lily-work  in  the  porch  four  cubita 
And  the  chapiters  upon  the  two  pillars  had  pomegranates  also  above, 
over  against  the  belly,  which  was  by  the  net-work ;  and  the  pome- 
granates were  two  hundred  in  rows  round  about  upon  the  other  cha- 
piter. And  he  set  up  the  pillars  in  the  porch  of  the  temple ;  and  he 
set  up  the  right  pillar  and  called  the  name  thereof  Jachin ;  and  he 
set  up  the  left  and  called  the  name  thereof  Boaz.  And  upon  the 
tops  of  tiie  pillar  was  lily-work;  so  was  the  work  of  the  pillars 
finished.*'     1  Kings,  7th  Chap. 

The  marginal  notes  give  as  the  meaning  of  the  word  Jachin,  Be 
shaU  establish — of  Boas,  In  it  is  strength. 

The  concluding  records  of  these  magnificent  works  of  art  are 
mournful  indeed. 

^  The  pillars  of  brass  that  were  in  the  house  of  the  Lord — the 
Chaldeans  broke  and  carried  all  the  brass  of  them  to  Babylon. 

*^  The  two  pillars — ^th^  brass  of  them  was  without  weight  And 
concerning  the  pillars,  the  height  of  one  pillar  was  eighteen  cubits ; 
and  a  fillet  of  twelve  cubits  did  compass  it ;  and  the  thickness  thereof 
was  four  fingers ;  it  was  hollow.  And  a  chapiter  of  brass  was  upon 
it ;  and  the  neight  of  one  chapiter  was  five  cubits,  with  net-work  and 
pomegranates  upon  the  chapiters  round  about,  all  of  brass.  The 
second  pillar  also  and  the  pomegranates  were  like  unto  these.    And 

*  From  the  ijnorieaa  Freemason. 

130  THE    ASHLAR. 

there  were  nioetj  aad  six  pomegranates  on  a  side;  and  all  the  pome- 
granates npon  the  net-work  were  an  hundred  round  about"  Jeremiah, 
52d  Chap. 

From  the  Mirror  and  EeyBtone. 


We  take  the  opportunity  to  inform  our  readers  that  the  ^  Ancient 
and  Accepted  Rite,"  otherwise  called  the  Scottish  Rite^  is  fully  es- 
tablished in  the  city  of  New  York,  under  legal  authority.  There  are 
some  clandestine  bodies  of  that  rite  in  the  Empire  City,  whose  mem- 
bership have  been  deceiyed  with  the  belief  that  they  were  the  siman 
pure^  who,  on  finding  their  mistake,  hare  deserted  the  spurious  bodies 
and  attached  themselves  to  the  legal  one.  Those  who  arc  yet  igno* 
rant  of  their  false  position,  will  in  a  short  time  learn  that  they  have 
been  deceived,  and,  in  order  to  place  themselves  right,  will  have  to 
take  the  proper  steps  to  make  themselves  so  by  making  application 
to  the  only  latcful  Supreme  Grand  Council  of  Sov.  G.  Inspectors 
General  of  the  33d  and  last  degree  of  ^  Ancient  and  Accepted  Rite" 
for  the  Northern  Jurisdiction  of  the  United  States  of  America,  whose 
G^fand  East  is  at  Boston,  Mas& 

The  Supreme  Council  of  Boston  has  granted  a  charter  for  a  Sov. 
Chapter  R.  C.  H.  R.  D.  M,  to  be  located  in  the  city  of  New  York, 
The  presiding  officers  of  said  Chapter  are  the  following,  who  are  also 
the  first  officers  of  a  Sublime  Grand  Lodge  of  Perfection  and  Grand 
Council  of  Princes  of  Jerusalem,  previously  established  and  amply 
recognised  and  acknowledged  by  said  Northern  Supreme  Council  of 
Boston — viz : 

1.  111.  Bro.  Andres  Cassard,  33d,  Most  Wise  and  Sov.  President 

2.  Knight  Prince  Jacob  Jartter,  18th,  S.  W. 

3.  111.  Bro.  Anibal  de  Mosquera,  32d,  J.  W. 

4.  HI.  Bro.  Francisco  Parraga,  32d,  Orator. 

5.  Knight  Prince  Gaspar  de  Arteaga,  18th,  Secretary. 

Besides,  there  is  a  Sublime  Giand  Lodge  of  Perfection  and  a  Grand 
Council  of  Princes  of  Jerusalem,  which  was  established  several  years 
ago,  recognized  by  the  same  authority,  over  which  presides  IlL  Bro. 
Chas.  S.  Westcott,  32d. 
'  The  Supreme  Grand  Council  of  Boston  has  also  lately  granted  a 
dispensation  for  the  organisation,  at  New  York,  of  a  Sovereign  Oon- 

THE    ASHLAR.  131 

sistoiy  of  Yalliant  and  Host  Illastrioiis  and  Sublime  Princes  of  the 
Royal  Secret  (30th,  Slat  and  32d  degrees)  *' Ancient  and  Accepted 
Rite."    The  founders  of  this  Sovereign  Consistory  are : 

1.  Most  111.  Bro.  Giles  Fonda  Yates,  33d,  Past  Most  Puissant 
Sovereign  Grand  Commander  of  the  Supreme  Grand  Council,  of  Sov. 
Grand  Inspectors  General,  33d,  &c.,  &c.,  sitting  at  Boston,  Mass. 

2.  Ill  Bro.  Andres  Cassard,  3Sd,  W.  M.  of  the  Spanish  Lodge  La 
Fratemidad,  No.  387,  Most  Wise  and  Sov.  President  of  the  Sov. 
R.  C.  H.  R.  D.  M.,  La  Sincerite  et  La  Fratemidad,  Extraordinary 
Commissioner  of  the  Grand  National  Orient  of  the  Republic  of  Ve- 
nexuela  for  the  U.  S.,  &a,  &c. 

3.  111.  Bro.  Wm.  K.  Milnor,  32d,  Past  Grand  Master  of  the  M. 
W.  Grand  Lodge  of  the  State  of  New  York. 

4.  Ill  Bro.  Cbas.  S.  Westcott,  32d,  W.  M.  of  Empire  City  Lodge, 
No.  206,  Thrice  P.  G.  M.  of  a  Sublime  Grand  Lodge  of  Perfection, 
and  Most  Equitable  P.  G.  M.  of  a  Grand  Council  of  Princes  of  Je- 
rusalem, &c 

5.  IIL  Bro.  John  L.  Lewis,  Jr.,  32d,  M.  W.  Grand  Master  of  the 
SUte  of  New  York ;  and 

6.  III.  Bro.  Joseph  D.  Evans,  32d,  Past  Grand  Master  of  the  M. 
W.  Grand  Lodge  of  the  State  of  New  York,  and  Representative  of 
the  Grand  Lodge  of  Connecticut. 

The  above  are  the  only  lawful  and  constitutionally  established 
bodies  in  that  rite  now  in  operation  in  the  city  of  New  York. 

Brethren  who  do  not  wish  to  be  imposed  upon  by  those  professing 
to  give  the  Sublime  Degrees,  or  to  grant  charters  to  confer  them, 
have  but  to  boar  in  mind  that  there  are  only  tvH)  lawfiU  Supreme 
Grand  Councils  of  ZZd  in  the  United  States  of  America,  according 
to  the  Constitution  of  the  Order,  promulgated  at  the  Grand  East  of 
Berlin,  on  the  first  day  of  May  1786,  in  the  presence  of  Frederick  the 
Second,  Eang  of  Prussia ;  that  one  of  these  two  Supreme  Councils 
has  its  seat  at  Charleston,  S.  C,  and  exercises  jurisdiction  over  the 
Southern  and  South- Western  States ;  and  that  the  other  is  at  Boston 
and  has  exclusive  control  over  the  Northern  and  North-Eastem  parts 
of  the  United  States.  Therefore,  all  bodies  conferring  the  "  Sublime 
Degrees"  in  the  United  States,  which  do  not  recognize  as  their  execu- 
tive head  the  said  two  Supreme  Grand  Councils,  are  acting  without 
legal  authority,  and  are  spurious  and  irregular;  and  all  good  and 
honest  Masons  are  requested  not  to  have  anything  at  all  to  do  with 
them,  as  the  persons  professing  to  exercise  power  in  the  "  Sublime 
Degrees,''  are  nothing  but  imposters  and  spectUators  in  Masonry  ! 

132  THE    ASH  LAB. 




The  first  meeting  of  old  Zion  Lodge  in  1803  was  held  on  the  3d 
of  Jsnnary.  The  only  thing  of  importanoe  transacted  was  tho  pass- 
ing of  Bro.  Canparre. 

On  the  7th  of  January,  ^  Brp.  Bodemead's  unfortunate  situation 
was  mentioned  and  ordered  to  lay  ovtr  until  the  next  Lodge  night" 
"  Bro.  McDonnell  requested  a  recommendation  from  our  Lodge  to 
the  Boyal  Arch  Lodge  at  Amherstburg,  wishing  to  be  raised  to  that 
degrea    Agreed  to." 

March  7th,  1803.  '<  Bra  Conner  was  passed  to  the  degree  of  Fal- 
low-craft;" also  Bros.  Brevort  and  Davis.  Bro.  Brevort  was  raised* 
P.  Tallman  was  initiated. 

May  2d,  1803.  Bro.  Davis  was  raised,  Bro.  Tallman  was  passed. 
It  ^  was  agreed  to  make  the  return  dues,  and  write  to  the  Grand 
Lodge  to  be  discontinued,  and  a  recommendation  to  obtain  a  warrant 
from  the  Grand  Lodge  of  New  York;  and  that  for  this  purpose  the 
Lodge  apply  by  Bro.  Schieffelin  who  undertakes  to  procure  the  sama" 

May  nth,  1803.  This  meeting  was  called  to  grant  relief  to  the 
widow  of  Bro.  McNiC  On  examining  the  records,  the  Brethren  be- 
came conyinced  that  he  was  a  Brother  in  good  standing  at  the  time 
of  his  death,  as  there  was  some  irregularity  respecting  his  expulsion. 
$28  wiure  granted. 

June  6th,  1803.     The  following  officers  were  elected: 

Bro.  Abbott,  W.  M. 

«  Dodemead,  8.  W. 

«  Davis,  J.  W. 

'<  Campau,  Treas. 

**  Tuttle,  Sec. 

»  Smith,  S.D. 

^  Dougherty,  J.  D. 

On  the  24th  of  June,  a  Past  Msster's  Lodge  was  opened,  and  Bra 
Abbott  was  installed  as  Master.  The  Lodge  was  after  installation 
of  officers  called  to  refreshment,  and  ^  dined  sumptuously  in  great 
and  harmonious  enjoyment  in  the  celebration  of  all  Grand  Masters 
and  absent  Brethren." 

July  4th,  1803.  A  good  deal  of  business  was  transacted  at  this 
meeting  relative  to  the  conduct  of  several  membera  It  was  ordered 
that  a  summons  be  issued  for  Bro.  Smith  to  coma  forlrard  and  show 
why  he  should  not  be  further  dealt  witL 


A  Meedng  waa  held  on  the  lei  of  August,  bat  littla  of  importanoe 

WM  transacted* 

On  the  5tli  of  September,  tbe  sabjeet  of  obtainbg  aapther  charter, 
was  again  considered.  ^  The  Lodge,"  says  the  record,  ^  taking  into 
consideration  the  situation  we  are  plaoed  in^  not  onlj  as  it  respeets 
oiir  distance  firom  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Quebec,  bat  also  oor  residing 
under  another  goyemment^  have  thought  proper  upon  matore  con- 
sideration and  reiection  to  make  ^^plication  to  the  R«  W.  Grand 
Lodge  of  New  York,  to  obtain  a  renewal  of  No.  I  of  Detroit,  former- 
ly onder  their  sanctiott,  or  to  obtain  a  new  warrant  from  them ;  and 
to  obtain  this  request,  they  have  appointed  their  well  beloved  Brother 
John  Sohieffelin  to  do  and  act  for  them  therein,  and  likewise  to  pray 
that  Bro.  Bob.  Abbott  be  W.  M.,  John  Dodemead  &  W.,and  David 
Davis  J.  W.,  and  that  Bro.  Ghaa.  Jewett  be  appointed  to  install  said 

The  following  is  the  form  of  the  petition  reported  at  the  next 
meeting,  October  3,  1803 : 

^TotheR.  W.  Grand  lodge  ^  New  York:— The  homble  peti- 
tion of  the  Brethrea  of  Zion  Lodge,  No.  10  of  Detroit,  Indian  Terri- 
tory, most  respectfully  sheweth  tiiat  your  petitioners  have  long  and 
sensibly  experienced  the  great  inconveniency  they  have  labored  under, 
arising  from  tiieir  local  situation  far  removed  from  any  Grand  Lodge 
of  the  United  States,  they  have  held  their  warrant  under  the  sanction 
of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Quebec,  L.  0.  But  finding  it  so  inconvQiiient 
to  have  a  regular  correspondence  with  a  foreign  government,  and 
from  sincere  attachment  lo  the  government  under  which  they  exist, 
think  it  a  duty  incumbent  on  them,  to  make  application  to  some 
Lodge  within  their  own  Territories»  and  for  this  purpose  they  have 
selected  the  R,  W.  Grand  Lodge  of  New  York.  The  object  of  our 
petition  is  that  the  Worshipful  Grand  Brethren  would,  upon  mature 
consideration  of  our  relative  situation  and  circumstances,  if  they  think 
it  meet  and  convenient,  revive  a  warrant  No.  i  of  this  place,  now 
lying  dormant,  and'  formerly  under,  the  sanction  of  their  Lodge.  But 
if  this  cannot  be  accomplished,  to  grant  a  new  warrant,  and  for  this 
purpose  confer  with  our  beloved  Brother  J.  Sohieffelin  who  is  com- 
missioned to  obtain  the  same,  as  will  appear  by  the  extract  from  the 
minutes.  And  your  petitioners,  as  in  dtity  bound,  will  ever  pray  that 
the  honor  of  the  Gri^t  may  flourish  ia  your  bands." 

'  ^  A  Mason,  if  he  rightly  understands  the  Art,  will  never  be 

an  Atheist,  nor  an  irreligious  libertine," 

18---V0L.  XL  NO.  m. 



OcoNOMowoc,  Waukesha  Co.,  Wis^  S^i  17, 1855. 

Dbak  8i&  and  BsoTHEft : — Some  time  last  simmer,  a  man,  if  h  is 
proper  to  designate  him  by  that  term,  applied  to  oar  Gommittee  oC 
Charitj  and  requested  aid  to  help  him  on  his  wajfaome,  hailing  from 
Philanthropie  Lodge,  No.  164,  Camden,  Oneida  Co.,  N.  Y.  He 
ealled  himself  Amos  F.  Lamphere,  and  represented  that  he  had  been 
West  on  business,  and  had  been  sick  and  oat  of  money.  He  requested 
the  Lodge  to  lend  him  some  money  to  get  home,  when  he  would  im- 
mediately reftmd  it  After  waiting  some  time,  I  wrote  to  the  Secre- 
tary <^  that  Lodge  and  reoeired'the  following  answer:  That  he  was 
a  worthless  rascal,  haring  left  a  wife  and  helpless  family  of  children 
to  the  cold  charities  of  the  w<»ld,  and  that  he  had  been  ezp^ed  for 
gross  unmasonio  conduct  The  W.  M.  of  that  Lodge  further  stated 
that  the  Secretary  had  reeeiTcd  some  doaen  of  communications  similar 
to  mine,  from  different  Lodges  in  the  West;  also  that  the  Secretary 
of  Roman  Lodge  had  reoeiyed  several  of  a  similar  character ;  and 
farther  stated  that  he  considered  it  my  duty  to  hare  him  published  in 
our  Masonic  papers  in  the  West^  to  gnard  other  Lodges  from  similar 
impositions,  as  he  had  imposed  upon  a  great  number  of  Lodges  in 
this  country. 

Another  man,  by  the  name  of  Wm.  Campbell,  hailing  from  Lacon 
Lodge,  Illinois,  came  here  and  represented  that  he  had  lost  some 
horses,  which  he  believed  to  have  been  stolen,  and  had  followed  the 
thief  to  this  State,  and  was  out  of  funds.  He  asked  ten  dollars  to 
get  homo,  pledging  to  return  it  as  soon  as  he  arrived  there ;  but  not 
hearing  from  him,  I  wrote  to  the  Secretary  of  that  Lodge  and  received 
an  answer,  ^  that  no  such  person  had  ever  been  a  member  of  that 
Lodge ;"  but  on  inquiry  it  was  found  that  a  certain  man,  by  the  name 
of  Thomas  Dougherty,  a  Scotchman,  answering  to  the  description,  had 
been  entered  and  passed,  but  never  raised,  but  had  been  expelled  for 
gross  unmasonic  conduct,  and  had  by  some  means  got  the  third  degree 
oonferred  on  him  somewhere,  and  had  imposed  himself  upon  several 
Lodges  under  fictitious  names. 

Both  of  the  above  named  Lodges  thought  it  my  duty  to  have  the 
names  and  character  of  the  impostors  published  in  our  Masonic  papers 
in  the, West,  to  guard  our  Brethren  from  farther  imposition,  and  hold 
them  up  to  the  world  in  their  true  characters.  I  had  these  communi- 
cations read  in  the  Lodge,  and  by  an  unanimous  vote  I  was  requested 

THEA8HLAB.  135 

to  make  out  a  statement  of  facts  and  have  them  published  in  7%e 
Aihlar^  Masonic  Review  and  American  IVeemasan, 

In  aooordance  with  that  vote,  I  send  yon  the  &ots  in  the  ease,  re- 
questing you  to  publish  them  for  the  good  of  the  Graft. 

Fraternally  Yours, 

N.  J.  HoFKINflL 


Di^  at  his  residesoe  in  Charlotte,  Bro.  G.  G.  Btowell,  aged 
twenty-four  years. 

Eaton  Bapids  Lodgs,  No.  63. 
At  a  special  oommunioation  the  following  resolutions  were  passed : 

Whereoi  it  baa  pleased  the  Supreme  Ruler  of  the  UniverBe  to  call  from  thia 
life,  under  circumataDcea  peculiarly  afflictiog,  our  worthy  Brother  Covkilakd 
C.  Stowbll:  and 

Whereas  we  deem  the  occasion  appropriate  to  the  expresaion  of  the  aentimeata 
of  our  affection  entertained  for  him  by  membera  of  thia  Lodge  to  whith  he  be- 
longed;  therefore 

Resolved,  That  in  thia  dispensation  of  Divine  ProTidenoe»  while  it  remoTea 
from  our  midst  an  esteemed  Brother,  from  the  domestic  circle  an  affectionate 
husband,  a  loved  son  and  a  kind  brother*  and  from  society  a  valuable  citiaen, 
it  also  admoniahea  ua  not  only  of  the  uncertain  tenure  of  life,  but  of  the  practi- 
cal virtues  of  the  man,  of  the  Mason  and  of  tibe  .Christian. 

Bnol9td,  That  as  membera  of  this  Lodge,  we  tender  our  warmest  sympathiea 
to  her  who  haa  thua  early  in  life  been  called  upon  to  mourn  the  irrepairable 
loss  of  a  beloved  and  loving  companion,  to  the  parenta,  sister  and  brothei*  of 
o«r  deceased  Brother  in  their  aaa  bereavement,  and  that  we  will  wear  the  naval 
badge  of  mourning. 

J&tolved,  That  a  copy  of  these  resolutions  be  furnished  to  the  widow  and 
fiimily  of  eur  deceaaed  Brother,  and  also  to  Thk  Ashlar  and  country  papers. 

MORGAN  VAUOHAN,  Sscrdary. 

Died  in  Baton  Riq[>ids,  on  the  17th  Sept,  Mrs.  Sarah  HnsTON, 

wife  of  J.  B.  Huston. 

WkerMi  it  haa  pleased  the  Supreme  Grand  Master  to  caU  from  this  earthly 
Lodffe  to  hia  celestial  Lodge  on  nigh  the  companion  ot  our  worthy  Bro^r  S. 
£.  Hubton;  therefore  be  it 

Metoived,  That  we  deeply  sympathiae  with  our  Brother  in  his  bereavement* 
by  which  he  haa  lost  his  earioly  companion,  and  by  which  the  community  haa 
idat  a  uaeful  member  of  aociet j. 

Reaolved,  That  a  copy  of  these  reaolutiona  be  presented  to  our  Brother  and 
also  to  Tbb  AsHLAn  ior  publication. 

MORGAK  VAUGHAK,  Seerdary. 

Died  at  his  residence  in  the  town  of  Farmington,  Oakland  County, 
Mich.,  on  the  night  of  the  2d  day  of  October  1856,  Bro.  John  Brow- 
NBLL,  at  the  age  of  eighty-foor  years.  He  was  one  of  the  early  set- 
tlers of  this  county,  and  long  identifical  with  its  growth  and  prosperity. 

136  THE   ASHLAB. 

He  enjoyed  the  eonfidence  and  esteem  ef  a  laige  eirole  of  aoqvaxD' 
tanees.  We  understand  that  he  was  one  of  ihe  charter  members  of 
Monroe  Chapter,  No.  1,  of  Detroit 

His  fmieral  was  attended  bj  a  large  ooneourse  of  people.  Bro. 
Jaookes  delivered  a  yerj  effeetive  and  appropriate  sermon. 

At  a  regular  eommanication  of  Birmingham  Lodge,  No.  44,  held 

at  their  Masonie  Hall  on  the  evening  of  the  9th  of  October,  A.  L. 
5856,  the  following  preamble  and  resolutions  were  unanimovilj 

adopted : 

Whenai  it  has  pleased  the  Divine  Aiehiiect  of  the  UniTene,  ia  his  infinite 
wisdom  and  nertj,  to  remoTe  from  our  midst  onr  worthj  and  venenible  Brother 
JoBQi  Bbowihell^  at  the  advanced  age  of  eighty-four  years,  whose  long  life^ 
from  young  and  ngotous  manhood  to  hoary  age,  has  heen  one  of  earnest  de- 
votion and  ardent  ^tachment  to  the  prin«iple»  and  prosperity  of  our  Order; 
therefore  be  it 

JRe9ol90d,  That  in  the  death  ift  Bxo.  Bbowvxll  the  fraternity  hae  been  de- 
prived of  a  fidthful  and  worthy  member,  who  loved  our  Institution,  who  patron- 
ized our  assemblies,  and  who  always  joined  heart  and  hand  in  i>romoling  the 
principles  and  welikre  of  our  Order;  the  family  a  kind  and  affectionate  folher; 
the  community  an'upright  and  respected  citisen,  one  whose  virtues  and  social 
qroalities  will  long  be  remembered;  and  although  we  mourn  his  l^Sss^  yet  we 
smcerely  hope  aiid  trust,  that  he  is  now  in  that  spiritual  Temple  above  where 
Ood  himselfpresides. 

Re9oh$d,  That  we  offer  our  heart-felt  sympathiefl^  in  this  dispensation  of 
Divine  Providence,  to  the  friends  and  relatives  of  our  deceased  Brother. 

RsKlhei,  That  the  foretroinff  preamble  and  resolutions  be  entered  rpon  the 
records  of  this  Lo4ge  and  puHished  in  The  Asbijuu 


Id  Icmia,  on  Mondajy  Sep!  16th,  Miss  Mary  EUsa  Dye,  only 

dan^ter  of  Bro.  Biehard  Dye,  aged  twenty  years. 

Gone  from  thy  father,  though  with  anxious  care. 
With  many  a  hope,  with  many  a  fear. 
With  many  an  earnest  heart's  warm  prayer. 
He  sought  to  keep  thy  passing  i^irit  nere. 

Gone  ttom  tb^  moiherl  her  long  watch  with  thee 
Was  one  petition  to  the  throne  of  grace. 
That  thy  young  life  niffht  yet  be  spared,  to  be 
To  her  a  comfort  throng  life's  pilgrimage. 

If  aught  could  call  thee  back  to  earth  again. 

The  tears  thy  brothers  shed  since  that  sad  hour 

Would  surely  win  thee  f^m  yon  bright  abode. 

To  dry  those  tears  and  bid  them  flow  no  more.  V.  H.  T. 


In  Ionia,  on  Monday  evening,  Sept  16ih,  by  Ber.  R.  Laudis,  Bro. 
Dr.  Z.  C.  Bliss  to  Miss  Marion  Caw,  all  of  Ionia. 

Also,  by  the  same  on  Wednesday  morning,  Sept  <4th,  Bro.  James 
Kennedy  to  Miss  Eliza  Moseman,  all  of  Ionia. 


Vians  AMQHG  Tiu  BERHRXir. — Leaying  Gk)dheii,  the  plaee  irhere  our  Imi 
"editorial  oorrespondeoce"  in  No.  2  -was  dated*  we  visited  the  foUowiiig  plaeea: 

Theie  Riyxrs. — This  is  one  of  the  moat  flonriahing  places  in  the  State  of 
Michigan.  Seyeral  new  blocks  are  in  the  process  of  erection,  and  soon  the 
Graft  here  are  to  have  a  new  hall  which  will  be  eommodiona  and  elegant  The 
Lodge  is  doing  well  and  contains  some  noble  hearted  men,  among  whom  are 
Bros.  Cole,  W.  M.,  and  Geo.  B.  Beed. 

OoHsrAirmrB.— Here  we  were  greeted  by  Bro.  Engle  whoae  kindness  we  shall 
not  soon  forget.  Here  also  we  receiyed  the  personal  attentions  of  Bra  8.  C. 
Ooffinbniy,  one  ot  thb  most  intelligent  and  gifted  men  in  the  Slate.  He  is  W. 
M.  of  the  Lodge  and  High  Priest  of  the  Ohapter  at  Constantina  In  this 
number,  we  present  oor  readers  with  a  piece  of  poetry  from  his  pen,  and  here- 
after hope  to  have  our  pages  enriched  by  his  productions.  After  making  hur- 
ried Tisits  at  Centreville  and  White  Pigeon,  we  proceed  to 

Sturgis. — Our  stay  here  was  necessarily  shorthand  we  metbnt  lew  Brethren. 
Bro.  Page  we  found,  as  nsual,  warm  and  polite  in  his  kind  attention. 

OoLnwATsa. — ^Broa.  Jones  and  Dsrt  gave  ns  a  hearty  welcome  and  evidence 
of  their  kind  hearts  and  willing  hands.    At  this  place  the  Graft  is  doing  well. 

JoHisnLLX/— We  were  cordially  greeted  by  M.  W.  Geo.  G.  Mnnro,  Grand 
Master.  We  found  him  busy  with  "his  nsual  avocations,"  but  ready  as  ever 
before,  to  hold  Masonic  communion  and  use  his  endeavors  to  promote  the 
interests  of  the  Craft.  Under  his  guardianship,  the  Order  in  this  State  has 
progressed  peaceably,  and  every  thing  betokens  prosperity.  Here,  we  alao  met 
our  old  friend  Bro.  Jesse  Button,  whose  seal,  inteUigence  and  strenuous  efforts 
claim  for  him  a  lasting  remembrance  among  the  Craft.  **  Travelling  on  the 
level  of  time,"  he  is  approaching  "  that  undiscovered  country  from  whose  bourne 
no  traveller  returns."  May  he,  when  summoned  from  his  labors  on  earth,  gain 
ready  admission  to  that  celestial  Lodge  above,  where  the  Supreme  Architect 
of  the  Universe  presidesi 

Htllsuale. — ^Here  we  found  a  host  of  active  and  ardent  Brothers  who  de- 
serve much  for  their  labora.  Bros.  F.  French,  W.  M.,  Westfall,  Dickerson  and 
Wilson  are  ever  ready  to  advance  the  interests  of  the  Craft  We  had  the 
pleasure  of  seeing  the  Lodge  work  in  the  second  and  third  degrees.  The  En- 
campment here  is  doing  well.  Sir  K't  £,  D.  Cone,  Grand  Commander. 

Hudson. — Masonry  continues  to  flourish  here  like  the  green  spring.  Well  it 
may  when  it  has  such  ardent,  intelligent  and  devoted  advocates  as  Bro.  R.  B. 
Piper.    He  is  truly  a  pillar  of  strength.    Long  may  he  continue  to  flourish! 

AnaiAir. — In  this  place  the  Craft  is  numerous,  and  a  finer  set  of  men  never 
lived.  We  had  the  pleasure  of  meeting  Bros.  Cleveland,  Greenly,  Knapp, 
(High  Prieat)  Snow,  (W.  M.,)  Mills  and  others.  We  also  had  the  pleasure  of 
seeing  Comp.  Knapp  confer  the  Royal  Arch  Degree. 

138  THE    ASHLAR. 

TsouaiUH. — Our  Tisit  was  short  We  were  prese&t  at  a  Lodge  oommunica* 
tion  and  were  gratified  to  see  Bro.  BlaDchard  in  the  East 

ToLKDO. — We  made  our  first  visit  here  and  foand  it  a  busj  and  enterprising 
place.  There  are  many  Masons  here  and  two  Lodges.  Among  the  Craft  we 
met  with  some  bright,  actire  and  enterprising  men.  The  Lodge-room  is  laige, 
commodious  and  well  fitted  up. 

The  following  we  find  in  the  Review  as  a  copj  of  an  old  diploma,  issued 
by  a  Lodge  in  Scotland.  The  original  is  in  the  possession  of  Bro.  Bahn,  at 
Ht  CansoU,  IR: 

"Darkness  oomprehendeth  it  not: 

"  In  the  East,  a  place  of  Light  where  rei^  Silence  and  Peace.  We  the 
Master,  Wardens  and  Secretary  of  the  operative  Lodge  of  Banff,  in  the  King- 
dom of  Scotland,  in  the  five  thousand  seven  hundred  and  ninety-first  year  of 
Light:  Adorned  with  aU  our  honors*  and  regularly  assembled  with  the  rest  of 
the  Mysterious  members  of  the  above  mentioned  Lodge,  Do  declare,  certify  and 
attest  to  all  men  enlightened  on  the  face  of  the  earth:  That  the  Wor^ipfhl 
Brother  Peter  McGillwray  hath  been  received  by  us  and  entered  an  Apprentice 
and  passed  Fellow  Craft  And  after  having  sustained  with  strength,  courage 
and  firmness  the  most  painful  works  and  wonderful  trials,  we  have  given  him 
an  a  recompense  due  to  his  seal,  diligence  and  capacity  the  sublime  degree  of 
Master  ana  initiated  him  as  such  to  our  mysterious  and  most  secret  works  in 
which  he  hath  helped  us  with  his  talents  and  knowledge. 

"Given  at  the  said  Operative  Lodge  of  Banff,  this  ninth  day  of  June  in  the 
year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  ninety-one,  and  Mgned  by 
the  Right  Worshipful  Master,  Wardens  and  Secretary. 

"With  the  Seal  of  the  Lodge  hereunto  appended. 

ROBT.  SMITH,  Sec'y." 

OFnoKBS  or  thb  Gbaxd  Cbaftke  or  Illdcois: — E.  M.  M.  Clarkj  G.  H.  P.; 
J.  H.  Hibbard,  D.  G.  H.  P.;  S.  T.  Trobridge,  G.  K.;  J.  R  jOaae,  G.  8.;  W.  Mc 
Murtrie,  G.  T.;  H.  G.  Reynolds,  G.  Sec.;  L.  B.  Stewart,  G.  Chap.;  N.  D.  El- 
wood,  G.  C.  H.;  S.  Stevens,  G.  P.  S.;  S.  Hutton,  G.  R.  A,  C;  F.  R.  Hubbard, 
3d  v.;  D.  B.  Rice,  2d  V.;  J.  B.  Hamilton,  Ist  V.;  R.  W.  Diller,  G.  S.;  A.  B. 
Robinson,  G.  T. 

Plsasx  to  RxTuaif  the  Fxasr  axd  Skooxd  Numbers. — The  first  and  second 
numbers  of  the  second  volume  of  The  Ashlar  have  been  sent  to  several  of  our 
last  year's  subscribers,  who  have  recently  given  ns  notice  to  discontinue  their 
copies.  Will  those  Brethren  who  have  given  us  such  notice,  be  kind  enough 
to  return  through  ihe  mail  the  numbers  which  they  have  received  of  the  pre- 
sent year,  if  they  have  not  done  so  already?  The  copies  will  be  of  value  to  us 
in  completing  sets. 

We  desire  Brethren  who  see  this  notice,  to  make  it  generally  known,  that 
our  wishes  may  be  complied  with.  By  so  doing,  they  will  greatly  oblige  us. 

pgr  We  have  received  Graham's  Magasine  for  November.  It  is  an  excellent 
miscellaneous  work  for  fiimily  reading.  • 

1^^  The  Peninsular  Journal  of  October  comes  to  us  with  its  usual  amount 
of  instructive  matter.  It  contains  a  well  written' article  from  the  pen  of  Edw. 
Batwell,  M.  D. 




We  have  refrwned  from  expressing  any  opinion  respecting  the 
legality  of  the  "Independent  Grand  Lodge  of  Canada"  (as  its 
triends  Btylo  it),  hoping  that  tho  Grand  Lodge  of  England  voold 
take  Hucb  action  as  would  at  once  remove  aU  doabts  and  induce 
the  Lodges  of  this  country  to  recognize  the  new  body  aa  legitimate 
and  regnliU'.  Our  anticipations  have  not  been  ruolized,  and  the 
lime  seems  now  to  have  arrived  when  we  can  not,  consistently  with 
our  dnty  to  the  Craft  of  Michigan,  postpone  the  consideration  of 
the  most  imixirtont  question  which  has  arisen  in  the  Masonic 
world,  for  niany  years. 

Our  sympathy  is  with  the  Canadian  Brethren  who  have  cast  off 

their  allegiance  to  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England.    Our  commoni- 

cation  with  them  is  too  frequent  and  intimate  not  to  realize  the 

disadvantages  under  which  they  labored,  and  the  severity  of  the 

19 — VOL,  II.  NO.  rv. 

140  THE    ASHLAR. 

grievances  to  which  they  were  subjectei    That  those  disabilities 

would  be  removed  and  the  best  interests  of  the  Craft  promoted 

by  the  establishment  of  a  Grand  Lodge  in  the  Canadas  in  a  proper 

manner  and  by  legitimate  means,  no  one  at  all  acqnainted  with  the 

fiwjts  can  doubt.    But  this  point  we  do  not  propose  to  discuss,  as 

it  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  only  question  at  issue ;  L  e.  is  the 

^^  Independent  Orand  Lodge'*^  a  legally  constitiUed  body  which  I 

should  be  recognized  by  the  Grand  Lodges  of  this  country  f 

Grand  Masonic  bodies  are,  as  now  constituted,  comparatively 
modem.  The  propei*  mode  of  forming  them  in  a  State  or  Terri- 
tory where  members  have  a  right  to  establish  them,  is  as  follows : 
The  Brethren  obtain  charters  for  three  or  more  Lodges  from  some 
Grand  Lodge,  and  the  subordinate  bodies  thus  constituted  send 
delegates  to  a  Convention  which  forms  a  Grand  Lodge.  The 
charters  previously  held  are  given  up,  and  new  ones  taken  from  the 
new  organization.  This  matter  is  now  well  understood  and  well 
settled.  The  main  difficulty  which  arises  in  the  present  case 
relates  to  the  right  to  form  a  Grand  Lodge  without  the  consent  of 
the  parent  body,  and  can  be  decided  only  by  a  reference  to  the 
peculiar  circumstances  attending  it.  The  Canadas  are  a  depen- 
dency of  Great  Britain.  Previous  to  the  late  movement,  the 
Grand  Lodges  of  England,  Scotland  and  Ireland  exercised  con- 
current jurisdiction  over  that  territory.  The  jurisdiction  of  the 
Lodges  of  Scotland  and  Ireland  was  more  nominal  than  real,  for  only 
two  Lodges  held  charters  under  the  former  and  only  fifteen  under 
the  latter.  "  The  present  Grand  Lodge  of  England,"  says  Bro. 
Moore  of  the  Freemasons'  Magazine,  "  has,  from  its  first  organi- 
zation in  1717,  held  and  exercised  jurisdiction  over  England,  as 
the  Grand  Lodges  of  this  country  severally  hold  and  exercise 
jurisdiction  over  the  States  in  which  they  are  respectively  located. 
It  claims,  also,  as  of  right,  in  common  with  the  Grand  Lodges  of 
Scotland  and  Ireland,  exclusive  jurisdiction  over  all  the  depen- 
dencies of  Great  Britain,  as  the  Grand  Lodges  of  America  claim 
and  exercise  a  common  and  exclusive  jurisdiction  over  the  Terri- 
tories of  the  United  States.  These  claims,  with  an  occasional 
exception, — as  in  the  recent  act  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Hamburg, 
— are  reciprocally  acknowledged  and  respected  by  the  Grand 
Lodges  of  Europe  and  America.  That  the  Masonic  jurisdiction 
of  a  country  extends  over  the  Islands  and  other  Colonial  depen- 

THE    ASHLAR.  141 

dencies  of  that  oountry,  may  be  regarded  as  the  settled  law  of  the 
Masonic  world.  It  is  the  great  principle  of  jurisdiction  for  which 
the  Grand  Lodges  of  the  United  States  have  ever  contended,  and 
as  they  are  even  now  contending  against  the  Grand  Lodge  of 
Hamburg.  The  Canadian  Colonies  are,  therefore,  as  much  a  part 
of  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Grand  Lodges  of  Great  Britain,  as  the 
American  Territories  are  a  part  of  the  jorisdiction  of  the  Grand 
Lodges  of  the  United  States." 

These  views,  without  the  sanction  of  such  high  authority  as  the 
veteran  Moore,  we  regard  as  strictly  in  accordance  with  truth. 
They  have  not  been  controverted  by  any  arguments  or  statements 
which  have  come  under  our  notice.  From  them  we  deduce  the 
condusion  arrived  at  by  our  worthy  Brother,  that  the  jurisdiction 
of  the  Grand  Lodges  of  Great  Britain  in  the  Canadas  can  not  be 
in  any  way  interfered  with  without  a  violation  of  Masonic  law  and 
right.  The  organization,  therefore,  of  the  "Independent  Grand 
Lodge "  we  look  upon  as  unwarranted  and  illegal.  Many  have 
been  misled  by  a  false  analogy  instituted  between  the  Territories 
of  the  United  States  and  the  dependencies  of  the  British  Crown. 
Why,  it  is  said,  if  Grand  Lodges  may  be  organized  in  the  Terri- 
tories of  the  Republic,  may  they  not  be  organized  in  Canada, 
without  the  assent  of  any  Grand  Lodge  ?  To  correctly  answer 
this,  we  must  bear  in  mind  the  nature  of  our  Government  and  that 
of  England.  This  is  a  Republic  comprised  of  States  so  free  and 
so  little  restrained  in  their  political  action,  that  they  have  received 
the  title  of  "  sovereignties.'*  Herein  our  Government  differs  jfrom  all 
others  which  ever  existed.  The  nature  of  the  Federal  Government 
and  the  State  Governments  and  their  relations  to  each  other, 
foreign  nations  never  have  comprehended,  and  probably  will  not 
understand  for  centuries.  The  independent  action  of  the  States 
or  their  "sovereignty**  has  caused  the  organization  of  Grand 
Lodges  within  their  borders,  and  prevented,  and  probably  always 
will  prevent,  the  establishment  of  a  General  Grand  Lodge.  In- 
deed, it  is  likely  to  evaitually  destroy  or  dissolve  the  General 
Grand  Chapter  and  General  Grand  Encampment.  These  remarks 
apply  with  much  force  to  our  Territories.  Such  is  the  nature 
of  our  free  institutions  and  the  q>irit  of  our  people,  that  the 
Territories  assume  to  a  great  extent  the  character  of  States. 
Increasing  rapidly  in  population,  they  remain  but  a  few  years 

142  THE    ASHLAR. 

imder  a  Tetritoml  Ooyerninent.  Th^  hsve  the  right  to  come 
into  the  Union,  and  do  oome  in,  on  an  equal  footing  in  eyery 
respect  with  the  other  States.  In  accordance  with  this  irresistible 
genius  of  our  institationfl,  liie  Grand  Lodges  of  this  country  have 
hyeofrmum  oanaenty  as  it  were,  granted  the  privilege  to  Masons  in 
the  Territories  to  form  Grand  Lodges,  till  that  privilege  has  now 
assumed  the  form  of  a  right.  This  is  well  enough,  and  we  would 
not  desire  it  to  be  otherwise ;  but  the  rule  has  never  been  applied 
or  recognized  even  by  American  Grand  Lodges,  beyond  the  terri- 
tory of  the  United  States,  and  in  our  estimation  it  can  not  rea- 
sonably be.  The  Grand  Lodge  of  England  never  has  admitted 
any  such  theory  or  practice  with  regard  to  its  jurisdiction  and  that 
of  the  Grand  Lodges  of  Scotland  and  Ireland,  nor  has  it  reason 
to  do  so.  T^e  political  relations  of  Canada  with  reference  to 
England  are  not  those  of  our  State  "  sovere^ties,"  towards  the 
Government  of  the  United  States.  Canada  is  a  dependency  and  will 
remain  so  as  long  as  the  English  Government  remidns  unchanged. 
England  has  had,  and  still  has,  in  Canada,  three  Pi'ovindal  Grand 
Lodges  which  are  representatives  of  the  parent  Grand  body.  This 
we  regard  as  an  important  &ct  which  has  been  lightly  considered. 
The  Provincial  Grand  Lodges  are,  as  the  New  York  Committee  of 
Foreign  Correspondence  assert,  virtually  Grand  Lodges.  "  The 
greater  partof  the  Provincial  Grand  Lodges  scattered  over  the 
world  have  power  to  dume  laws  ibr  their  own  government,  and  of 
making  regulations  for  the  guidance  of  th^u*  Lodges,  provided  they 
are  not  inconsistent  with  the  supreme  body ;  this  power  is  ex{M*e88- 
ly  granted  to  the  Provincial  Grand  Lodges  of  England,  A  very 
similar  rule  governs  the  Grand  Lodges  and  Grand  Chapters  said 
Grand  Encampments  of  the  United  States  in  their  relations 
vrith  si^rior  authorities — with  the  only  difference  in  respect  to 
our  Grand  Lodges,  though  their  laws  are  subject  to  the  Ancient 
Landmarks  instead  of  the  Constitution  of  an  existing  body.  It 
will  hardly  be  contended  that  these  are  not  Grand  bodies." 

By  what  right,  or  what  precedent  acknowledged  by  Masons  in 
this  country,  can  the  subordinate  Lodges  of  Canada  throw  off  their 
allegiance  to  the  Provinoiai  Grand  Lodges,  and  consequently  to  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  Enghind,  and  control  their  own  affairs  ?  '^  Is  it 
not  the  &ct,"  says  the  Committee,  &om  whom  we  have  before 
quoted,  '^  that  every  officer  and  memb^  of  the  newly  formed 
body,  has  been  obligated  to  support  the  Constitutions  of  the  Grand 

THE    ASfiLAB.  14a 

Lodges,  they  have  respectively  r^ioimoed  ?  '^  This  will  not  be  d^ 
nied,  and  yet  one  of  the  fondamental  lawa  reqiures  tiiem  to  ^'  snb- 
mit  to  the  Constitations,''  and  pay  respect  to  the  regolarly  consti- 
tnted  Masonic  authorities,  under  which  they  were  made.  Is  it 
submitting  to  the  Constitutions,  or  pa^g  respect  to  those  authoir* 
ities  to  establish,  or  seek  to  establish,  other  independent  and  hoft-. 
tile  authorities  within  their  own  jurisdiction  ?"  When  we  seriously 
consider  the  position  of  our  Canadian  Brethren — their  relation  to 
the  Grand  Lodge  of  England,  and  their  obligations — we  are  led 
to  beheve  that  we  should  do  injustice  to  the  ancient  parent  body^ 
injnstice  to  those  under  its  jurisdiction,  injustice  to  ourselves  and 
the  Listitntion  which  we  prize  so  highly,  were  we  not  to  express 
in  strong  and  unequivocal  terms,  our  disapprobation  of  the  new 
movement.  It  is  opposed,  in  our  humble  judgment,  to  tlie  best 
interests  of  the  Order,  and  if  sanctioned  without  the  acquiescence 
of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England,  will  be  productive  of  great  eviL 

A  paper  has  recently  been  established  at  Montreal  for  the  pur- 
pose of  advocating  the  ^^Independent  Grand  Lodge."  Who  its 
proprietors  or  editors  are  does  not  appear.  As  we  knew  it  had  the 
sanction  of  those  engird  in  the  new  movement,  we  have  perused 
its  pages  with  considerable  interest,  hoping  that  we  might  there 
find  a.  justification  of  the  proceedings  of  its  support^^.  We  have 
been  sadly  disappointed.  The  tone  and  tenor  of  the  artides  in 
the  ^^  Pianeer^'*  are  not  such  as  would  reasonably  be  expected,  and 
must  give  little  satisfaction  to  those  most  ardently  devoted  to 
to  the  Independent  body. 

The  ^"^ Pioneer '^^  seeks  to  establish  the  legality  of  the  new  organ- 
ization by  precedents,  but  sadly  fails  in  the  attempt.  We  will 
briefly  refer  to  some  of  the  instances  cited: 

Ths  Gband  Lobge  of  Enoulnb. — In  the  early  part  of  the 
eighteenth  century  there  was  but  one  Grand  Lodge  in  England^ 
called  the  Grand  Lodge  of  York.  Masonry  had  for  many  yeara 
been  on  the  decline,  and  this  body  existed  not  as  an  efficient  organ- 
ization. Its  powers  had  always  been  very  limited.  Says  the 
Freemasons'  Magazine : 

Private  Lodges  were  not  held  then,  as  now,  under  special 
Charters  and  WaiTants,  emanating  from  superior  authority;  nor 
were  they  subordinate  to,  or  dependent  on,  local  or  particular 
Grand  Lodges  for  their  existence.  They  were  independent  volun- 
tary associations,  subject  only  to  the  general  laws  and  regulationa 

144  THE    ASHLAR. 

of  the  Craft,  as  transmitted  fin>m  remote  antiquity,  or  enaotedfin 
their  ^^  General  Assemblies,"  and  were  created  and  dissolved  at  the 
convenience  or  pleasure  of  the  parties  composing  them«  To  the 
Brethren  of  the  tenth  century  such  organizations  as  the  present 
Grand  Lodges  were  unknown.  They  had  their  general  assemblies, 
the  first  of  which  was  held  at  York ;  others  were  afterwards  held 
at  London,  and  other  convenient  points.  But  they  never  assumed 
to  exercise  any  other  than  general  powers,  or  enact  other  than 

general  laws;  they  did  not  claim  any  special  control  over  the 
odges,  nor  exact  of  them  any  special  pledges  of  subordination 
and  fealty.  Not  so  at  the  present  time.  The  Lodges  of  this  day 
hold  the  relation  of  subordination  to  their  respective  Grand 
Lodges.  From  them  they  derive  all  their  authority,  and  without 
their  permission  and  sustaining  power  they  can  not  lawfully  exist. 
The  condition  of  their  being,  is  submission  and  allegiance  to  the 
power  that  created  them. 

The  authority  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  York  was  very  limited, 
and  the  Lodges  were,  in  a  great  degree,  free  to  act  as  they  thought 
best.  The  establishment  by  them,  therefore,  of  another  Grand 
Lodge  with  more  extensive  powers  than  were  possessed  by  the  old 
body,  was  not  a  direct  violation  of  moral  obUgations,  even  if  it 
were  a  questionable  exercise  of  right.  But  there  are  facts  which 
place  this  matter  beyond  dispute. 

Masonry,  as  we  have  said,  had  been  languishing  for  many  years, 
till  the  Grand  Lodge  of  York  was  little  better  than  a  nominal 
organization.  Lito  such  disrepute  had  the  Listitution  &Uen  in  the 
south  of  England,  that  there  were  then  only  four  lodges.  Their 
remote  distance  firom  the  seat  of  the  Grand  Lodge  was  a  serious 
obstacle  to  their  re-organizing  that  body  or  deriving  any  benefit 
firom  its  action.  Those  fonr  lodges,  therefore,  established  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  England.  To  this  the  Grand  Lodge  of  York 
did  not  object^  but^  on  the  contrary^  it  approved  the  movement ^  and 
the  two  bodies  entertained  toward  each  other  the  most  fiiendly 
relations  for  eight  years.  But  even  nnder  all  the  drcumstanoes 
tending  to  prevent  any  charge  of  irregularity,  Brother  Cross  says 
of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  (in  his  history  of  Freemasonry) : 
*^he  motive  which  suggested  this  Listitution  was  certainly  landable 
and  useful ;  but  every  person  must  be  aware,  that  the  four  lodges 
were  guilty  of  a  considerable  impropriety  in  omitting  to  request 
the  countenance  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Yorh?^  'Hie  want  of 
analogy  between  the  establishment  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Eng» 
land  and  that  of  Canada  is  too  obvious  to  need  fiurther  dncidation* 


Orakd  Lodgb  of  Akceent  York  Masons* — This  was  formed 
by  some  seceders  fi*om  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England,  in  1739.  It 
was  not  recognized  by  that  body,  and  was  unquestionably  an 
illegal  organization,  although  recognized  by  the  Masons  of  Scot> 
land  and  Ireland.  It  is  asserted  that  it  was  ^^finaU/y  regarded  as 
legal  and  regular  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  itself  for,  in 
1813,  the  two  bodies  united  on  terms  of  perfect  equality.'*  The 
conclusion  arrived  at  in  this  quotation  may  be  legitimate  accor- 
ding to  the  rules  of  law,  but  it  is  not  correct  [in  fact  or  spirit. 
How  came  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  to  unite  with  a  body 
which  it  had  fi*om  the  first  and  for  sixty-four  years  opposed  aa 
irregular  ?  Was  it  because  it  changed  its  opinion  of  the  legality 
of  the  Ancient  York  Lodge  ?  Not  at  all.  It  saw  that  there  was 
a  prospect  of  an  endless  strife,  and  that  unless  some  reconciliation 
was  affected,  the  best  interests  of  Masonry  would  continue  to  suf- 
fer. It  saw  that  in  order  to  promote  harmony  among  the  Craft, 
it  must  yield,  to  a  certain  extent,  to  the  force  of  circumstances.  So 
long  had  been  its  opposition,  that  its  finid  action  could  not  b^  con- 
strued as  a  recognition  of  a  right  or  principle  which  it  had  always 
denied,  cmd  it  never  wna  so  construed. 

The  Gbakd  Lodge  of  Scotland  was  formed  when  Scotland  was 
free  from  allegiance  to  England,  and  had  its  own  monarchical  gov- 
ernment. That  body,  therefore,  was,  according  to  the  reasoning  in 
the  fore  part  of  this  article,  respecting  political  sovereignty,  legal 
and  regular. 

The  Grand  Lodge  of  Ireland  was  formed  with  the  aoqui- 
escenco  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England,  and  has  alwas  main- 
tained amicable  relations  with  that  organization.  '^The  existence 
of  the  three  Grand  Lodges  in  Great  Britain  under  one  political 
head,''  says  Brother  C.  W.  Moore,  ^  affords  no  preced^it  for  the 
course  of  the  Canadian  Lodges.''  *^They  exist  by  virtue  of  a  com- 
mon inheritance  of  which  neither  can  be  deprived  by  any  pro- 
ceedings known  to  Masonic  law  or  legislative  enactment.  T^e  law 
of  political  nationality  does  not  per  se  involve  any  loss  of  Ma- 
sonic sovereignty;  wMle,  on  the  contrary,  tiiie  possession  or  bo- 
quiring  of  the  first,  guarantees  the  right  to  the  enjoyment  of 
Ae  latter." 

The  act  of  the  Provincial  Grand  Lodge  in  France,  declaring 
itself  independent,  comes  within  the  rule  of  political  sovereignly 

ue  THE    ASHLAR. 

which  has  been  laid  down,  and  can  not  be  dted  to  sustain  our 
Canadian  Brethren. 

The  cases  of  European  Grand  Lodges  which  have  been  cited  as 
precedents  for  the  new  movement,  afford  little  support  to  oar 
opponents.    Referring  to  them,  the  Freemasons'  Magarine  says: 

But  we  are  told  that  there  are  two  Grand  Lodges  in  France  and 
three  in  Prussia ;  and  we  are  asked  why,  if  this  be  allowable,  any 
other  sovereign  State  may  not  have  an  equal  number  ?  So  they 
may,  if  the  parties  interested  agree  to  the  arrangement,  and  the 
security  and  interests  of  other  parties  are  not  prejudiced  or  en- 
dangered thereby.  We  do  not  however,  borrow  inues  of  govern- 
ment from  the  practices  of  our  Brethren  on  the  Continent  of  Eu- 
rope.   By  such  a  course  we  should  soon  find  ourselves 

"  Puzzled  ^ith  mazes,  and  perplexed  with  error." 

Our  Continental  Brethren  have  their  own  jyeculiar  notions  of 
Masonic  propriety,— influenced  perhaps  by  then*  necessities, — and 
we  have  ours.  Without  stopping  to  inquire  who  is  right,  it  is 
enough  that  these  notions  do  not,  nor  can  they  be  made  to  accord 
with  each  other.  The  two  Grand  Lodges  at  Paris  (if  indeed  the 
Sup.  Council  be  a  Grand  Lodge),  harmonize  about  as  well,  and 
hold  very  much  the  same  relations  to  each  other,  that  exists  be- 
tween the  lawful  Grand  Lodge  and  the  unlawful  body  of  the  same 
name,  in  the  City  of  New  York.  The  three  Grand  Lodges  at 
Berlin  are  organized  in  different  rite» — each  claiming  iadepend* 
ence  of  the  others,  and  the  enjoyment  of  equal  powers,  preroga- 
tives, and  jurisdiction.  This  is  a  doctrine  we  in  this  coimtry  do 
not  recognize  or  sanction ;  but,  bcyig  admitted  by  the  Masonic  au- 
thorities of  Prussia,  and  other  Continental  States,  it  establishes 
the  legality,  and  accounts  for  the  existence,  and  perhaps  necessity, 
of  the  three  Grand  Lodges  at  Berlin.  They,  however,  would  fur- 
nish no  precedent  for  the  Canadian  movement,  were  they  all  of 
the  same  rite^ — ^notwithstanduig  one  of  them  was  orimnally  estab- 
lished under  authority  from  London.  N"or  does  the  Grand  Lodge 
of  Hambro,  which  remiuned  in  a  subordinate  relation  to  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  England  until  1811,  when  the  connexion  was  dissolved 
on  account  of  the  political  dMculties  existing  between  the  two 
coimtries.  Tliat  Grand  Lodge  then  declared  itself  an  indepen- 
dent body, — as  its  position  in  a  sovereign  State  fiilly  authorized  it 
to  do.  Other  similar  cases  might  be  cited ;  but  as  they  are  to  be 
fimnd  only  in  countries  politically  independent  of  the  British 
Crown,  they  are  not  analogous,  and  therefore  afford  no  precedent 
for  the  rebeUion  of  the  Lodges  in  Canada.  That  case  stands  alone 
in  the  history  of  Masonry. 

Our  space  will  not  permit  us  to  pursue  this  subject  ^ntha*  at 
this  time.    We  shall  speak  of  it  again  in  our  next  number. 

THE    ASHLAR.  147 

Fob  Thb  Abolae. 

Bg  13n).  SS.  Z.  CoffinftttTi. 

Oh !  weep  for  him,  who,  early  doom'd, 

Lay  on  Moriah's  brow; 
Whose  ashes  there  were  found  entomb'd 

Beneath  the  cassia's  bow ; 
Oh !  weep  ye  for  the  widow's  son 
Whose  glorious  race  so  soon  was  run. 

Let  Israel's  widow  raise  the  wail, 
And  strew  their  heads  with  dost; 

Let  Judah's  daughters  don  the  vail 
And  weep — for  weep  they  must — 

O'er  the  young  Architect  who  won 

The  glory  for  King  Solomon. 

Bright  genius  sat  upon  his  brow, 

And  love  lit  up  his  soul ; 
But  both  are  crushed  and  broken  now,— 

Their  knell  with  sorrow  toll ; 
For  ne'er  again  will  either  dwell 
Within  so  fair,  so  bright  a  shell. 

Let  Judah's  monarch  doff  his  crown, 

And  bow  his  head  in  grief; 
In  dust  and  ashes  strew  the  throne 

Of  Israers  royal  chief; 
And  cast  his  purple  robes  away, 
Nought  but  vain  baubles  now  are  they. 

The  trestle-board  hath  no  designs, 

The  compasses  are  still. 
And  cypress  round  the  altar  twines, — 

Grief  doth  the  temple  fill, 
And  idle  lies  the  gavel  there, 
The  plumb,  the  level,  and  the  square. 

That  mystic  bond,  alas !  is  broken. 
Which  knit  three  souls  in  one; 

And  lost,  alas !  that  mystic  token. 
With  the  poor  widow's  son; 

That  emblem  of  his  merits  rare, 

None  e'er  again  may  ever  wear. 

There,  where  yon  broken  column  rears, 
With  snow-white  marble  um, 

Let  Israel's  virgin  shed  her  tears, 
And  there  still  let  her  mourn; 

There  let  her  still  her  vigils  keep, 

For  'neath  it  doth  young  Hiram  sleep. 

CoTCVunm,  Ootober  23d,  I860. 

148  THE    ASHLAR. 


We  have  received  a  letter  from  a  highly  intelligent  member  of 
the  Craft,  informing  ub  of  a  very  singular  objection  which  is  nAle 
to  the  Worshipful  Master  of  his  Lodge ;  i.  e.  that  ^^  he  is  too  moral 
a  man."  It  is  difficult  to  believe  that  such  an  exception  could  be 
taken  to  any  candidate  tor  office.  The  occupant  of  the  East  might 
be  too  strict  or  whimsical  in  his  notions  of  propriety  or  good  con- 
duct ;  he  might  be  uncharitable  in  his  judgment  of  others ;  but 
that  he  could  be  too  moral  and  upright  in  his  conduct  is  an  ab- 
surdity which  it  is  hoped  no  Mason  will  for  a  moment  tolerate. 
Purity  of  life  is  one  of  the  highest  recommendations  which  a 
member  of  the  Order  can  possess,  and  should  always  have  its  due 
weight  with  Brethren.  If  there  is  in  a  Lodge  one  who,  by  the 
immaculateness  of  his  conduct,  by  unswerving  integrity  and  an 
amiable  disposition,  stands  above  his  fellows,  he  should,  if  other- 
wise qualified,  be  advanced  to  the  highest  honors  in  the  gift  of  hia 
Brethren.  Proficiency  in  the  work  and  in  the  study  of  Masonic 
jurisprudence  is  by  no  means  all  that  should  distinguish  a  Master ; 
that  is  a  valuable  qualification,  but  that  alone  is  not  sufficient 
to  entitle  its  possessor  to  a  seat  in  the  East.  Careful  as  we 
would  be  respecting  this  matter,  we  would  not  be  unnecessarily 
rigid.  Too  much  should  not  be  required.  There  are  men,  not 
unexceptionable  in  their  habits,  who  possess  large  and  noble  souls 
— whose  charity  is  extensive — whose  knowledge  of  the  ritual  and 
the  law  is  profound.  Some  of  them  have  made  worthy  Masters, 
influential  for  good  and  beloved  by  all  who  knew  them.  But  such 
instances  are  rare^  and  there  is  danger  in  trying  an  experiment 
which  has  terminated  un&vorably  in  a  vast  majority  of  cases.  The 
reverse  of  the  picture  presented  is  too  familiar  to  all.  The  mo- 
ment a  Brother  is  elevated  to  a  high  office,  he  becomes  prominent 
— his  filings  and  his  faults  are  conspicuous,  when  his  virtues  are 
often  unperceived.  It  is  his  duty  to  guide  those  over  whom  he 
presides,  in  their  labors,  and  if  he  can  not  command  their  respect 
by  suitable  example  in  his  every-day  life,  he  will  sadly  fail  in  the 
performance  of  his  duty,  if  he  be  not  a  disgrace  and  reproach  to 

There  is  a  danger  greatly  underrated  in  raising  to  office,  Ma- 
sons whose  chief  or  only  qualification  is  their  proficiency  in  the 

THE    ASHLAR.  149 

ritual.  Honors  are  often  conferred  on  sach  in  Lodges  where  there 
are  few  competent  to  perfonn  the  work.  Better  would  it  be  for 
Masonry  if  those  Lodges  were  stricken  from  its  rolL  When  a  bad 
man  is  once  elevated  to  a  position  where  he  can  exercise  arbitrary 
power,  no  one  can  foretell  how  pernicious  will  be  the  influence 
which  he  will  exert.  With  more  than  ordinary  force  does  this 
apply  to  the  subject  under  consideration.  The  Master  i&  supreme 
in  his  Lodge,  and  if  governed  by  maUce  or  wrong  motivea,  can 
openly  or  covertly  inflict  a  blow  upon  its  best  interests.  His  life,  if 
stained  by  vices,  or  corrupted  by  a  want  of  integrity  or  a  base  dis- 
position, reflects  discredit  upon  the  body  over  which  he  presides 
and  upon  the  Listitution.  Such  a  spectacle  may  well  cause  all 
well  wishers  of  our  ancient  Order  to  grieve. 

We  should  be  careM  how  we  place  power  in  the  hands  of  bad 
men,  or  how  we  clothe  them  with  honors.  A  cunning,  crafty  in- 
dividual whose  character  does  not  stand  fair  before  the  world, 
often  seeks  to  get  into  official  Masonic  positions  to  bolster  up  his 
reputation  and  give  it  an  air  of  respectability.  If  such  an  one 
does  not  give  evidence  of  his  real  designs  while  in  office,  he  will 
be  sure  to  reveal  them  subsequently.  We  grieve  to  say  that  we 
know  Masons — far  from  being  •maments  to  our  Institution  and 
who  could  not  now  get  elected  Tiler  in  their  Lodge — who  con- 
stantly take  every  opportunity  to  make  known  to  the  public  that 
they  have  held  high  and  honorable  positions  in  the  Fraternity,  and 
seek  thereby  to  gain  credit  and  respectability.  They  are  '^  wolves 
in  sheeps'  clothing,"  and  we  can  not  too  carefully  guard  against 

In  the  approaching  election,  Brethren,  let  these  things  be  carcp 
fidly  considered;  act  with  deliberation  and  sound  discretion,  with 
a  single  eye  to  the  best  interests  of  your  Lodge,  the  wel&re 
of  the  Craft,  and  the  honor  of  our  venerated  Sodety.  Thus  you 
will  act  if  you  duly  appreciated  the  responsibility  resting  on  you ; 
and  thus  acting,  you  will  inflict  no  injury  upon  the  priceless  inher- 
itance entrusted  to  your  care,  but  will  transmit  it  as  a  rich  blessing 
to  posterity.    "  So  mote  it  be." 

150  THE  ASHLAR. 


[Coniinu^  from  Page  118.] 

It  is  with  DO  little  interefift  that  we  recall  his  own  statement, 
that  it  was  in  his  native  Boston  that  his  curiosity  was  first  excited 
in  regard  to  the  nature  of  that  wonderful  element,  from  the  inves- 
tigation of  which  he  was  d^tined  to  derive  his  highest  and  most 
pervading  celebrity.  Here,  in  the  year  1746,  he  received  the 
earliest  impressions  upon  the  subject  of  electricity,  and  here» 
among  the  Bowdoins  and  Chauncys,  and  Coopers,  and  Quinoys, 
and  Winthrops  of  that  day,  he  found  some  of  the  earliest  and 
latest  sympathizers  and  co-operators  in  his  scientific  as  well  as 
political  pursuits.  The  gradual  steps  by  which  he  advanced  in  his 
electrical  researches  are  for  the  historian  and  biographer;  th« 
transcendant  result  is  familiar  to  you  all.  When  Franklin  had 
completed  that  grand  and  unparalleled  discovery, — arresting  the 
very  thunder-bolts  on  their  flaming  circuit  through  the  sky,  dial- 
lenging  them  forth  from  their  chariots  of  fire,  and  compelling 
them  to  a  reluctant  revelation  of -the  nature  of  their  mysterious, 
mighty  energies, — he  had  reached  a  pinnacle  of  human  gkury 
which  had  not  been  approached  by  any  man  of  his  country  or  of 
his  age.  His  fame  was  flashed  from  pole  to  pole  over  the  whole 
habitable  globe,  and  hardly  a  civilized  region,  over  which  a  thun- 
der-cloud ever  pealed  or  rattled,  was  long  left  ignorant  of  the 
name  of  him  who  had  disarmed  it  of  its  shafts  and  stripped  it  of 
its  terrors. 

The  boldness  and  sublimity  of  the  experiment,  by  which  his 
theories  were  finally  tested  and  confirmed,  have  never  been  sur- 
passed, if  they  have  ever  been  equaled,  in  the  walks  of  science^ 
and  even  the  battle-fields  of  ancient  or  modem  history  may  be 
explored  in  vain  for  a  loftier  exhibition  of  moral  and  physiioal 

See  him  going  forth  into  the  fields  with  no  attendant  or  witness 
but  his  own  son,  lest  a  Mlure  should  bring  discredit, — ^not  upon 
himself^  for  no  man  cared  less  for  any  thing  which  might  c<mcem 
himself — but  upon  the  experiment  he  was  about  to  try,  and  upon 
the  theory  which  he  knew  must  prove  true  in  the  end.  See  him 
calmly  awaiting  the  gathering  of  the  coming  storm,  and  then  lifling 

THE    ASHLAR.  161 

his  littiie  kite,  wiA  an  iron  point  at  the  top  of  the  stick,  and  a 
steel  key  at  the  end  of  the  hempen  string,  to  draw  deliberately 
down  npon  his  own  head  a  fnll  charge  of  the  Artillery  of  Heaven. 
See  him,  disappointed  at  first,  but  never  despairing  or  doubting, 
applying  his  own  knuckle  to  the  key, — knocking,  as  it  were,  at 
the  very  gates  of  the  mighty  Thunderer, — and  eagerly  standing 
to  receive  that  bolt,  from  which  so  many  of  us,  even  now  that  he 
has  provided  so  complete  a  shield,  shrink  awBy  so  often  in  terror ! 
A  similar  experiment  is  to  cost  the  life  of  a  distinguished  Russian 
philosopher  at  St.  Petersburg  only  a  few  months  afterwards.  Shall 
Franklin's  life  be  spared  now?  Well  has  Mr.  Everett  suggested, 
in  the  words  of  another,  that  if  that  moment  had  been  his  last, 
^conscious  of  an  immortal  name,  he  must  have  felt  that  he 
could  have  been  content."  But  the  good  Providence  of  God,  in 
which,  as  we  shall  see,  Franklin  always  trusted,  permitted  the 
cloud  to  emit  but  a  single  spark.  That  spark  was  enough.  His 
theory  is  confinned  and  verified.  Henceforth,  in  the  latest  words 
of  the  dying  Arago,  Electricity  is  Franklin's.  "To  him  the  world 
owes  the  knowledge  which  led  to  the  Telegraph,  the  Electroplate, 
the  Electrotype.  Every  firesh  adaptation  of  electricity  is  a  stone 
added  to  his  monument.  They  are  only  improvements  of  his 
bequest,  Electricity  is  Franklin's."  His  name  has,  indeed,  become 
immortal,  but,  thanks  be  to  God,  his  lite  is  still  preserved  for  the 
best  interests  of  his  Country  and  for  the  welfare  of  the  world. 

But  the  Fame  of  Franklin  as  a  philosopher  rests  not  alone  on 
his  discoveries  in  any  single  department  of  natural  history,  and 
the  brilliancy  of  his  electrical  experiments  must  not  be  permitted 
to  eclipse  his  many  other  services  to  science.  Nothing,  indeed, 
within  the  range  of  philosophical  inquiry,  seemed  to  be  beyond  Ms 
eager  and  comprehensive  grasp,  and  to  the  end  of  his  long  life  he 
was  yearly  adding  something  to  the  stock  of  scientific  knowledge. 
He  delighted  to  employ  himself  in  searching  out  the  causes  of  the 
common  operations  of  nature,  as  well  as  of  its  more  striking  and 
remarkable  phenomena.  The  principles  of  evaporation,  the  origin 
of  the  saltness  of  the  sea,  and  the  formation  of  salt-mines,  the 
habitual  commencement  of  North-easterly  storms  at  the  South- 
east, the  influence  of  oil  in  smoothing  the  water  and  stilling  the 
waves,  and  a  hundred  other  subjects,  at  that  time  by  no  means 
fiutniliar  to  the  common  understanding,  were  elaborately  investi- 
gated and  explained  by  him.    Indeed,  wherever  he  went,  he  was 

152  THE    ASHLAR. 

sure  to  find  material  for  his  inquisitive  and  penetrating  mind.  A 
badly  heated  room  would  ibmish  him  with  a  motive  for  inventing 
a  better  stove,  and  a  smoking  chimney  would  give  him  no  rest 
until  he  had  studied  the  art  of  curing  it.  Did  he  visit  Holland, — 
he  is  found  learning  fi:om  the  boatmen  that  vessels  propeUed  by  an 
equal  force  move  more  slowly  in  shoal  than  in  deep  water,  and 
forthwith  he  engaged  in  patient  experiments  to  verify  and  illus- 
trate the  lesson,  for  the  benefit  of  those  who  may  be  employed  in 
constructing  Canals.  Did  the  bark  in  which  he  was  crosong  the 
ocean  stop  a  day  or  two  at  Maderia, — he  seizes  the  occasion  to 
procure  and  write  out  a  iull  account  of  its  soil,  climate,  population 
and  productions.  And  while  the  ship  is  in  full  sail,  behold  him 
fi-om  day  to  day  the  laughing-stock  of  the  sailors,  who  probably 
regarded  him  as  only  a  whimsical  land-lubber,  while  he  sits  upon 
the  deck  dipping  his  thermometer  into  successive  tubs  of  water, 
bailed  out  for  the  purpose,  to  ascertain  by  the  differences  of  tempe- 
rature the  range  and  extent  of  the  Gulf  Stream, — and  thus  fur- 
nishing the  basis  of  that  Geography  of  the  Seas  which  has  recently 
assumed  so  imposing  a  shape  under  the  hands  of  the  accomplished 
and  enterprising  Maury. 

No  wondy  that  the  great  English  historian  of  that  period,  the 
philosophic  Hume,  wrote  to  Franklin  as  he  was  leaving  England 
to  return  home  in  1762:  "I  am  sorry  that  you  intend  soon  to 
leave  our  hemisphere.  America  has  sent  us  many  good  things, 
gold,  silver,  sugar,  tobacco,  indigo,  Ac;  but  you  are  the  first  phi- 
losopher, and  indeed  the  first  great  man  of  letters  for  whom  we 
are  beholden  to  her."  And  most  justly  did  Sir  Humphrey  Davy 
say  of  him  at  a  later  day — "He  has  in  no  instance  exhibited  that 
felse  dignity,  by  which  philosophy  is  kept  aloof  from  common 
applications;  and  he  has  sought  rather  to  make  her  a  usefiil  inmate 
and  servant  in  the  common  habitations  of  man,  than  to  preserve 
her  merely  as  an  object  of  admiration  in  temples  and  palaces.** 
Indeed,  his  merits  as  a  philosopher  were  early  and  everywhere 
recognized  and  acknowledged,  and  our  Boston  Pbtnter  was 
introduced  and  welcomed  into  Royal  Societies,  and  Imperial 
Academies  and  Institutes,  in  almost  every  kingdom  on  the  globe. 

Nor  were  his  scientific  attainments  recognized  only  by  diplomas 
and  titular  distinctions.  It  is  pleasant  to  remember  that  the  great 
British  Powder  Magazines  at  Purfleet,  and  the  magnificent  Cathe- 
dral of  St.  Pauls  were  both  protected  from  the  danger  of  lightning 

THE    ASHLAR.  168 

by  rods  arranged  under  Franklin^s  immediate  direction;  while 
some  years  later  (1V84),  the  King  of  France  placed  him  at  the 
head  of  a  commission  of  nine  members  of  the  Royal  Academy 
and  Faculty  of  Medicine,  to  investigate  the  subiect  of  Animal 
Magnetism,  then  first  introduced  to  the  notice  of  the  world  by 
the  celebrated  Mesmer. 

In  running  over  the  marvelous  career  of  Benjamin  Franklin, 
we  hail  him  next,  in  the  third  place,  as  a  Statesman  and  Patriot, 
second  to  no  one  of  his  time  in  the  variety  and  success  of  his  efforts 
to  build  up  the  institutions  of  our  country,  both  state  and  national, 
and  in  promoting  and  establishing  her  Union  and  her  independence. 

Franklin  made  his  first  formal  appearance  on  the  political  stage, 
at  the  age  of  thirty  years,  in  the  himible  capacity  of  Clerk  of  the 
General  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania  at  Philadelphia,  in  the  year 
1736.    But  his  thoughts  being  now  turned  to  public  affairs,  he  at 
once  commenced  instituting  reforms  wherever  an  opportunity  pre- 
sented  itself.    Nothing  which  could  contribute  to  the  welfare  of 
the  community  in  which  he  lived,  was  too  seemingly  insignificant 
for  his  attention.    The  regulation  of  the  City  Watch,  the  paving 
and  sweeping  and  lighting  of  the  Streets,  the  organization  of  Fire 
Companies,  the  foundation  of  Schools  and  Academies,  successively 
occupied  his  earliest  care.    His  fitness  for  every  sort  of  public 
employment  soon  becoming  manifest,  he  was  spared  fi-om  no  ser- 
vice within  the  gift  either  of  the  Executive  or  of  the  People.    In 
the  single  year  1 750,  while  he  was  just  commencing  his  philoso- 
phical pursuits,  he  was  called  upoQ  to  discharge  the  duties  of  a 
Justice  of  the  Peace  (no  sinecure  in  that  day),  by  the  Governor ; 
of  a  Common  Councilman,  and  then  an  Alderman,  by  the  Corpo- 
ration of  Philadelphia;  and  of  a  Burgess,  to  represent  them  in  the 
State  Assembly,  by  his  fellow-citizens  at  large.     The  next  year 
finds  him  delegated  as  a  Commissioner  to  treat  with  the  Indians. 
The  next  year,  he  is  appointed  joint  Postmaster  General  of  the 
Colonies.    The  following  year, — the  ever  memorable  year  of  1 764, 
he  is  one  of  a  Congress  of  Commissioners  from  all  the  colonies  at 
Albany,  to  confer  with  the  Chiefe  of  the  Six  Nations  concerning 
the  means  of  defending  the  country  from  a  threatened  invasion  by 
France.    And  theil  and  there,  in  that  capacity,  our  Boston  Prin- 
ter first  projected  and  proposed  a  Union  of  all  the  colonies  under 
one  government, — the  original  suggestion  of  that  glorious  Union 
which  was  afterwards  adopted  as  a  defense  against  the  tyrannical 

164  THE    ASHLAR. 

oppreaskm  of  Great  Britain,  and  which  is  still  our  best  and  only 
defense,  not  only  against  Great  Britain  and  all  the  rest  of  the  world, 
but  against  each  other,  and  against  ourselves,  too.  God  grant  that 
tiiis  Union  ma^  be  no  less  durable  than  the  solid  bronze  of  which 
the  Statue  of  its  earliest  proposer  and  constant  advocate  is  com* 
posed, — defying  alike  the  cori'osions  of  time,  the  shock  of  strife, 
and  the  convulsions  of  every  evil  element ! 

The  next  year,  1755,  we  see  him  procuring  wagons  for  General 
Braddock,  who  had  utterly  failed  to  procure  them  by  any  other 
agency,  and  advancing  for  the  service  npwai^ds  of  a  thousand 
pounds  sterling  out  of  his  own  pocket.  And  then,  too,  it  was, 
that  with  a  sagacity  so  remarkable,  he  distinctly  predicted  the  pre- 
dse  ambuscade  which  resulted  in  the  disastrous  defeat  of  that 
ill-starred  expedition.  Before  the  close  of  the  same  year,  we  find 
him  marching  himself^  at  the  head  of  a  body  of  troops,  to  protect 
the  frontier, — not  waiting,  I  presume,  to  be  formally  commissioned 
as  Commander,  since  it  is  not  until  the  succeeding  year,  1756, — ^just 
one  hundred  years  ago, — that  we  see  him  regularly  sworn  in  as 
Colonel,  and  learn  that  several  glasses  of  his  electrical  apparatus 
were  shaken  down  and  broken,  by  the  volleys  fired  imder  his 
windows,  as  a  salute,  after  the  first  review  of  his  Regiment. 

Passing  over  the  six  or  seven  next  years,  which  belong  to 
another  department  of  his  career,  we  find  him,  in  1763,  sole  Post- 
master General  of  British  North  America,  and  spending  five  or 
six  months  in  traveling  through  the  Northern  Colonies,  in  and  old- 
&8hioned  gig,  for  the  purpose  of  inspecting  and  arranging  the 
Post  Offices.  Soon  afterwards  we  see  him  taking  a  leading  part  in 
stopping  the  tide  of  insurrection  and  quieting  the  commotions 
arising  out  of  the  inhuman  massacre  of  the  Indians  in  Lancaster 
County — appealing  to  the  people  in  an  eloquent  and  masterly 
pamphlet,  organizing  a  Military  Association,  and  by  his  personal 
exertions  and  influence  strengthening  the  arm  of  Government  and 
upholding  the  supremacy  of  the  Laws.  And  now,  in  1764,  we 
welcome  him,  assuming  the  chair  as  Speaker  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Assembly,  to  sign  a  bold  Petition  to  the  King  against  the  Proprie- 
tary Government,  which  he  had  drafted  and  defended  on  the 
floor,  but  to  which  the  previous  Speaker  had  shrunk  from  affixing 
his  signature. 

Passing  over  another  interval  of  a  little  more  than  ten  yeajs 
(to  be  the  subject  of  separate  allusion  under  another  view  of  his 

THE    ASHLAR.  155 

Bervioes),  we  meet  lum  next,  on  his  own  soil,  in  1775,  as  a  Dele- 
gate from  Pennsylvania  to  the  Second  Continental  Congress.  He 
served  amoltaneously  as  chairman  of  the  Committee  of  Safety 
appointed  by  the  Pennsylvania  Assembly.  ^^  In  the  morning  at  ax 
O'clock,"  (says  he  of  this  period,  and  he  was  then  sixty-nine  years 
of  age),  ^^  I  am  at  the  Committee  of  Safety,  which  Committee 
holds  till  near  nine,  when  I  am  at  Congress,  and  that  sits  till  after 
four  in  the  afternoon."  In  the  Continental  Congress,  we  find  him 
snoeessively  proposing  a  plan  of  Confederation;  assmning  the  en- 
tire management  of  the  American  Post  Office;  at  the  head  of 
ConmussionerB  for  Indian  Affairs;  a  leading  member  of  the  Com- 
mittee of  Secret  Correspondence,  and  of  ahnost  every  other 
Committee,  whether  for  secret  or  for  open  negociations;  a  Dele- 
gate to  the  American  Camp  at  Cambridge,  to  consult  with  Wash- 
ington and  the  Continental  Army  for  the  relief  of  his  native  town ; 
a  Delegate  to  Canada,  to  concert  measures  of  sympathy  and  snccor ; 
and,  finally,  one  of  the  illustrious  Committee  of  Five,  with  Thomas 
Jefferson,  and  John  Adams,  and  Roger  Sherman,  and  Robert  R. 
Livingston,  to  draft  the  Declaration  of  Independence.  That  De- 
claration is  reported  and  adopted,  and  Franklin  signs  in  it  his  order 
with  an  untrembUng  hand.  He  would  seem,  however,  to  have 
folly  realized  the  momentous  character  of  the  act,  when  he  humor- 
ously replied  to  our  own  John  Hancock,  who  had  said — ^^'There 
must  bd  no  pulling  different  ways,  we  must  all  hang  together;" 
"Yes,  we  must  indeed,  all  hang  together,  or  most  assuredly  we 
shall  all  hang  separately."  He  was  as  ready  to  brave  the  strokes  of 
arbitrary  power,  as  he  had  been  those  of  the  lightning  of  Heaven, 
— to  snatch  the  sceptre  from  tyrants  as  the  thunder-bolt  from  the 
clouds;  and  he  might  almost  seem  to  have  adopted,  as  the  mptto 
of  Ids  life,  those  noble  lines  of  a  contemporary  Poet — 

"Thy  spirit,  Indep€fiidence,  let  me  share ! 
Lord  of  the  lion  heart  and  eagle  eye, 
Thy  steps  I  follow  with  my  bosom  bare, 
Nor  heed  the  storm  which  howls  along  the  sky  I " 

And  now  he  presides  over  the  Convention  which  frames  the 
Ck>nstitution  of  Pennsylvania;  and  after  another  interval  of  about 
eight  years  and  a  half  (to  be  accounted  for  presently),  we  find  him 
presiding  over  the  State  itself  whose  Constitution  he  had  thus  aided 
in  forming.  Now,  too,  at  the  age  of  eighty,  tie  Nestor  of  Amer- 
ica, as  he  was  well  styled  by  the  National  Assembly  of  France,  he 
20— VOL.  n.  HO.  IV. 

156  THE    ASHLAR. 

is  fi>imd  among  the  Delegates  to  tbe  Convention  which  framed  the 
Constitation  of  the  United  States,  and  there  we  may  hear  him 
making  two  brief  but  most  characteristic  and  remarkable  q)eeGhes. 
One  of  them  I  reserve  for  the  conclusion  of  this  address.  The 
other  was  delivered  on  the  28th  day  of  June,  1787,  wh^i  he  sab- 
mitted  that  memorable  motion, — seconded  by  Roger  Sherman, 
and  said  by  at  least  one  member  of  the  Convention  to  have  been 
rejected  only  because  they  had  noftmch  for  meeting  the  expense, 
but  which,  at  any  rate,  found  only  three  or  four  voices  to  sastam 
it, — that  *'  henceforth  Prayers,  knjdoring  the  aseistanoe  of  Heaven, 
and  its  blessings  on  our  deliberations,  be  held  in  this  Assembly 
every  morning  before  we  proceed  to  business.** 

^^I  have  lived,  Sir,  (said  he  most  nobly)  a  long  time,  and  the 
longer  I  live,  the  more  convincing  proofi  I  see  of  this  truth — that 
God  governs  in  the  a^aira  of  men.  And  if  a  sparrow  can  not 
fall  to  the  ground  without  his  notice,  is  it  probable  that  an  Empire 
can  rise  without  his  fud?  We  have  been  assured,  Sir,  in  the  Sacred 
Writings,  that  ^  except  the  Lord  build  the  house,  they  labor  in 
vain  that  build  it.'  I  firmly  believe  this;  and  I  also  believe  that 
without  his  concurring  aid  we  shall  succeed  in  this  political  building 
no  better  than  the  builders  of  Babel.  We  sha)}  be  divided  by 
our  little  partial  local  interests;  our  projects  will  be  confounded; 
and  we  ourselves  shall  become  a  reproach  and  a  by-word  down  to 
future  ages.  And  what  is  worse,  mankind  may  hereafter,  from 
tins  unfortunate  instance,  despair  of  establishing  governments  by 
human  wisdom,  and  leave  it  to  chance,  war,  and  conquest.** 

[To  he  ccniinued.} 


Our  readers  are  aware  that  Freemasonry  has  existed  in  Turkey 
for  a  long  period.  We  are  pleased  to  see  that  it  is  now  taking  a 
foothold  there  which  it  will  probably  retain  in  the  friture.  The 
Miowhig  oomxmmication  was  written  by  a  correi^xmdent  of  the 
JV^  K  TKimne^  now  resident  at  Constantinople.  It  is  dated  Oct. 
12th,  1856. 

The  subject  of  Freemasonry  has  begun  to  attract  considerable 
attenl^on  in  the  East,  and  lodges  are  beii^  estabHshed  here  and 

THE    ASHLAR.  157 

«t  Sittjnma.  I  am  informed  that  sonie  forty  years  ago  a  Froieh 
lodge  existed  at  OonstantiiM^le,  wbkh  ceaaed  through  want  of 
€iifficient  sapporters,  and  that  more  reeently  there  was  one  in 
Smyrna — a  military  lodge.  Kow  there  are  three  at  Smyrna,  and 
one  is  about  to  be  opened  here.  At  the  ontset,  the  lo^e  of 
Smyrna  was  opened  and  worked  witii  a  warrant  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Ireland,  whose  Master  is  the  Dnke  <^  Leinstes*;  the  S. 
W.,  the  Earl  of  Donoofflunore;  J.  6.  W.,  the  Marquis  of  Con- 
yngham,  and  the  D.  6,  M.,  George  Hoyle,  Esq.,  as  the  Albany 
Lodge,  No.  65.  Seventeen  Masons  of  good  standing  and  of  hign 
rank  in  Masonry,  constituted  themselves  an  Independent  Grand 
Lod^e  of  Turkey,  forming  th^  Magna  Charta,  and  recognised 
by  M  the  Grand  Lodges  of  Europe.  Subseqn^itly,  forty-three 
Master  Masons,  resident  in  Smyrna,  applied  by  petition  to  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  Turkey  for  warrants  to  form  three  lodges  tribu* 
tary  to  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Turkey,  whose  authority  and  superi- 
ority over  all  lodges  in  Turkey,  or  hereafter  to  be  established,  is 
acknowledged.  The  Grand  Lodge  having  met  in  Grand  Chapter, 
after  mature  deliberation,  and  a  lapse  of  two  months,  granted  the 
warrants,  so  that  there  are  now  in  Smyrna,  legally  and  regnlarly 
formed,  consecrated  and  installed,  three  lodges,  called  Ionia  No.  1, 
Anatolia  No.  2,  Byzantium  No.  8,  with  1 10  members  in  all,  and 
twenty-one  otiiers  under  proposition.  No.  1  works  in  English, 
No.  2,  in  Italian,  and  No.  8  in  the  Fr^ioh  language.  As  some  of 
the  members  speak  only  the  Greek  tongue,  th^  also  occasLonally 
work  in  that  language.  The  Grand  Lodge  of  iWkey  is  composed 
of  these  three  lodges,  and  when  it  meets  all  join  in  it.  The  De- 
puty Grand  Master  is  Mr.  C.  G.  Carrer ;  the  6rand  Master  of  the 
Ionia  is  Mr.  S.  Langdon,  an  Ameriean;  the  Byzantium  Lodge 
has  for  its  Grand  Master  M.  Eeiger,  a  Frenchman;  of  the  Aaaif 
tolia  I  have  not  yet  heard  the  name  of  the  Grand  Master. 

It  has  been  tor  some  time  past  contemplated  to  apply  for  a 
warrant  for  a  lodge  for  this  place.  There  a  large  numb^  of  Ma- 
sons here,  some  of  whom  are  Mussulmans,  among  whom  are  H. 
E.  Fuad  Pasha,  the  present  Minister  of  Foreign  AfiQurs,  and  H.  S. 
Cabrs^i  Effendi,  the  Chief  Dragoman  of  the  Sublime  Porte.  It 
is  believed  that  there  are  other  Mussulmans  Masons,  though  I  do 
not  know  their  names.  Mr.  J.  P.  Brown,  the  Dragoman  of  the 
American  Legation,  a  Master  Mason,  is  the  mover  of  the  lodge 
intended  for  Constantinople.  I  learn  that  many  Turkish  ffentfo- 
men  will  apply  for  reception  so  soon  as  the  lodge  is  establiEuaed. 

There  has  been  for  many  years  past,  it  is  said,  a  Masonic  lodge 
nt  Belgrade  on  the  Danube,  called  the  "Ali  Kotdi,"  composed  of 
seventy  members,  the  G.  M.,  of  whi(^  is  named  Tsani  Ismail 
Zehols^  Mehemet  SaadL  So  says  a  late  account  of  it  which  I  find 
in  GalignanPa  Me^Sij^ger  of  April  80,  1855,  taken  from  a  Trieste 
paper.  I  have  made  some  inquiry  here  about  this  lodge,  and  have 
been  able  to  procure  no  satis&ctory  account  of  it.  I  am  assured, 
however,  that  such  a  lodge  does  exist,  under  the  name  above  men- 

158  THE    ASHLAR. 

tioned)  aad  tbk  is  all.  I  have  not  been  able  to  leani  that  Masomy 
exists  at  all  among  the  Turks  or  the  Arabs.  Badly  informed  £a^ 
ropean  writers  declare  that  it  has  existed  amon^  the  Arabs  for  a 
ffl*eat  number  of  oenturies — long  before  the  Christian  era;  but  no 
Turldsh  author,  I  am  told,  mentions  anything  of  the  kind,  and  the 
best  read  Turks  of  this  Capital,  who  ought  to  know  it — some  of 
them  of  Arabian  origin — assure  me  that  it  is  not  so.  The  indi- 
vidnals  mentioned  above  as  beine  Masons,  became  such  in  Ensland.^ 
The  Turks,  in  general,  believe  Masons  to  be  all  atheists,  though 
the  higher  classes  are  convinced  of  the  contrary. 

I  am  almost  uiclined  to  believe  that  the  so-called  Masonic  Lodge 
of  ''All  Kotch,"  at  Belgrade,  is  nothing  more  than  a  Tekkiehy  or 
convent  of  Dervishes  of  Persian  origin.  Its  name  is  not  Turkish.. 
I  am  led  to  this  belief  from  the  following  part  of  the  article  above 
quoted,  which  says : 

^'  In  Turkey  Freemasons  wear,  as  a  distinctive  mark,  a  small* 
brown  shawl,  ornamented  with  different  figures,  and  a  dodahedron 
of  white  marble  of  about  two  inches  in  diameter,  highly  polished, 
and  having  red  spots,  which  signify  spots  of  blood,  and  are  a  re- 
membrance of  AH,  who  introduced  Freemasonry  into  Turkey,  and 
was  punidied  with  death  for  so  doing.  They  wear  this  badge 
suspended  around  the  neck  by  a  white  cord." 

Although  no  mention  is  made  of  the  origin  of  the  All  thus, 
alluded  to,  it  is  not  impossible  that  he  was  a  Fersian. 

Some  time  since  I  paid  a  visit  to  the  Sheik  of  the  little  convent 
situated  on  the  hill  called  "Shahidler,"  above  the  old  Castle  of 
Europe.  The  ccmvent  is  one  of  the  now  few  remaining  ones  of  the 
prohibited  sect  of  the  Bektashi  Dervishes.  On  learning  that  I  was 
a  Freemason  he  seemed  disposed  to  fraternize  with  me,  and  re- 
marked that  I  was  like  those  of  the  convent  or  '^  Tekkieh  "  of  Ali 
Kotch  of  Belgrade.  He  invited  me  into  his  Convent,  and  afterward 
into  the  more  private  apartment  of  his  house,  where  he  showed  me 
several  portraits  of  the  more  eminent  Sheiks  of  his  Order.  I  did 
not  then  offer  to  fraternize  with  him,  but  shall  make  him  another 
visit  in  search  of  information.  All  Mussulman  Dervishes  are  free 
thinkers^  and  those  of  the  Bektashee  sect  are  said  to  be  more  so 
than  any  other.  For  this  they  are,  generally,  none  the  less  thought 
of  by  the  puUic,  though  the  stricter  dass  of  Mahonunedans,  such 
88  the  Ulemcty  hold  them  in  small  esteem.  Dervishism  had  its 
real  origin  under  the  Abbassia  Caliphs  of  Bagdad,  during  whose 
reign  translations  were  made  from  me  old  Greek  philosophers — 
Plato,  Aristotle  and  others — and  their  principles  are  still  the  guide 
of  most  the  Dervish  orders.  I  apprehend  that  if  the  old  Sheik  of* 
the  ^^  Shahidler  "  was  disposed  to  recognize  me  as  a  fellow  Dervish, 
it  was  on  the  ground  that,  in  his  estimation,  I  was  a  ^^  free  thinker.'*- 
It  is  well  known  that  this  sect,  or  order,  of  the  Bektashees  have 
but  little  regard  for  the  great  principles  of  Islamism,  and  j>ut 
almost  no  iaith  in  Mahommed's  inspiration.  They  regard  him 
only  as  a  man  of  very  superior  iuteUigenoe,  Med  with  biaevolent 


THE    ASHLAR.  159 

mtentions  towftttLs  his  brother  AraM  who  were  idolaters,  and  desir- 
ous of  raismg  their  thoughts  tip  to  Allah,  the  Creator  of  all  thin|pi. 
The  sect  is  prohibited  on  aocotmt  of  its  connection  with  the  Janis- 
saries, and  lew  convents  now  exist  in  Tm^ey.  At  Constantinople 
there  are  but  two — ^the  one  in  qnestion,  and  another  beyond  |the 
walls  of  the  city,  near  the  Toss  Kassa  Gate. 

It  is  not  believed  that  the  Ottoman  Qovemment  wiU  now  in 
any  way  interfere  with  the  re-establishment  of  Masonic  Lodges  in 
Turkey,  though  I  have  heard  that  a  lodge  which  once  existed  in 
Smyrna  was  closed  and  confiscated  by  the  Government  during  the 
Greek  Revolution. 

^  •  ♦ 


The  Grand  Lodge  of  England  held  a  quarterly  communication 
't)n  the  third  of  September  last.  The  Earl  of  Zetland,  G.  M.,  was 
not  present.  P.  G.  M.  for  Sumatra,  Bro.  Lewis  presided.  We  are 
indebted  to  the  Mirror  <jb  Keystone  for  the  following  particulars. 
The  session  was  characterized  by  any  thing  but  dignified  pro- 
ceedings and  that  good  feeling  which  ought  always  to  prevdl  in 
Masonic  assemblies : 

The  Grand  Secretary  read  the  minutes  of  the  previous 
communication,  with  which  was  incorporated  a  revised  report  of 
the  speech  of  the  M.  .W.  Grand  Master,  made  at  the  last 
meeting.  On  the  question  of  the  adoption  of  the  minutes,  a 
motion  was  made  ^^  That  the  minutes  be  confirmed  only  so  6r 
as  they  related  to  motions  made  and  carried,  the  speech  of  the 
Grand  Master  being  no  legitimate  part  thereof."  The  motion 
was  finally  carried,  although  a  scene  of  confiision  ensued  such  as 
we  never  before  read  of  in  the  transactions  of  any  Masonic  body. 
The  acting  G.  M.  became  highly  excited,  and  gave  way  to  expres- 
sions of  angry  feelings.  Those  who  with  him  were  in  &vor  of 
confirming  the  minutes,  with  the  address  of  the  M.  W.  G.  M., 
appeared  to  be  determined  to  carry  their  point,  and  the  whole 
meeting  is  characterized  as  most  uproarious  and  disgraceiul.  The 
amendment,  however,  was  carried  by  the  overwhelming  majority 
of  ten  to  one. 

Another  amendment  was  offered,  which  was  finally  with- 
drawn, but  not  before  the  acting  G.  M.  had  shown  an  excessive 
degree  of  arbitrary  power.  After  order  was  restored,  a  commu- 
nication was  read  by    the  Grand   Secretary,  which  was  signed 

160  THB    ASHLAR. 

<^  Zetland,  6.  H.'^  which  reftrred  to  the  Colonial  Lodges,  aod 
embodied  a  '^  plan  and  suggestioos  for  aiterations  to  be  made  iu 
tile  laws  of  Supreme  Grand  Lod^e,"  the  object  of  whioh  was  to 
remedy  the  inconveniences  the  Lodges  in  the  Colonies  are  sub- 
jected to  in  consequence  of  the  delays  arising  from  the  incompe^ 
tency  and  inefficiency  of  the  officers  of  the  Supreme  Grand  Lodge. 
The  propositions  of  the  M.  W.  G.  M.  simply  amount  to  this,  that 
the  Lodges  in  the  British  Colonies  and  settlements,  as  well  as  in 
foreign  parts,  shall  pay  7s.  6d.  for  every  initiated  Brother,  for  which 
he  gets  a  Grand  Lo^ge  certificate,  and  for  Brethren  joioing  one 
Lodge  from  another,  2s.  6d.,  unless  the  Brother  wishes  a  certificate, 
in  which  case  the  fee  to  be  7s.  6d.  The  other  propositions,  which 
are  twelve  in  number,  refer  to  Prov.  Grand  Masters,  and  it  is 
unnecessary  for  us  to  occupy  our  room  fiirther  than  to  mention  the 
fiM5t.  One  important  feature,  however,  of  the  commimication 
shows  that  with  the  consent  of  the  Earl  of  Zetland,  the  revenue 
arising  from  the  Colonial  Lodges,  and  the  dignity  of  exercising 
authority  over  them,  will  not  be  abandoned. 

The  following  was  elicited  during  the  discussion  of  the 
subject,  which  was  that  "  Ten  years  ago^  when  Col.  Burton  was 
Prov.  Grand  Master  for  Bengal,  he  suspended  a  Brother  from  his 
Masonic  rights  and  privileges.  The  Brother  appealed  against  his 
decision,  and  the  Prov.  G.  M.  sent  that  app^  home  ten  years, 
ago,  and  it  has  never  been  answered  yetP 

If  this  account  be  correct,  it  gives  fresh  evidence  of  a  ^t  that 
has  been  too  long  apparent.  There  is  growing  at  the  heart  of  the 
Grand  Lodge  a  disease  which,  if  not  removed,  wiU,  ere  long,  pro- 
duce stagnation  and  inefficiency,  and  which  will  cause  great  injury 
to  the  Craft  of  England  and  her  provinces.  Too  long  have  the 
members  of  the  Institution  in  the  Old  Country,  paid  deference  to 
the  titles  of  nobility ;  too  long  have  they  been  slumbering  under 
the  influence  of  Grand  Masters  selected  from  the  aristocracy.  The 
late  war  taught  England  a  salutary  lesson.  It  demonstrated  to 
her  and  to  the  world,  that  if  she  would  gain  her  former  warlike 
prestige;  if  she  would  succeed  in  the  contest  of  arms,  she  must 
select  for  commanders  and  officers  those  most  competent  and 
worthy,  however  humble  their  origin  and  even  if  they  be  wanting  in 
titles.  As  it  is  in  one  branch  or  department,  so  it  is  in  all  othei-s. 
If  Masonry  is  to  flourish  in  Great  Britain  in  the  nineteenth  cen- 
tury, the  Grand  Lodge  there  must  elect  to  office  those  who  undar* 
stand  the  wants  of  the  Craft,  and  are  able  and  willing  to  supply 
those  wants.  Had  a  proper  state  of  things  existed,  the  movements 
in  Canada  would  have  gained  little  sympathy  and  the  Grand  Lodge 
of  the  Mother  Country  would  stand  before  the  world  at  this  day,  the 

THB   ASHLAR.  161 

most  ^jgriSnA  «id  requested  of  MsBonic  bodies.  As  it  is,  she  is 
&0t  kMBig  the  good  ofnmon  whioh  she  cmee  commanded,  and  is 
doing  more  than  all  other  things  combined  to  give  strength  to  the 
^jiw  Lodge  of  Canada,  which  she  refuses  to  recognise. 

♦  •  » 



9b  Calm  Mumu 

^In  hoe  signo  vincet." 

Chapter  I. 

One  cold,  sparkling  morning,  towards  the  latter  part  of  Decem- 
ber, 1303,  the  French  Court  set  out  from  the  Monastery  of  ChaiHy, 
on  their  return  to  Paris.  There  had  been  a  week's  hunting  in  the 
royal  forests  of  Fontainbleau,  and  they  had  had  rare  sport.  Fore- 
most in  the  cavalcade,  rode  the  Queen,  Joan  of  Navarre,  on  a 
glossy  Spanish  jennet,  and  around  her  clustered  the  ladies  of  her 
Court,  each  attended  by  an  esquire  or  &vorite  cavalier;  then  fol- 
lowed the  huntsman  with  hounds  in  leashes,  and  hawks  in  hoods 
and  jesses;  and  last  came  the  heavy  tumbrels  filled  with  the  car- 
casses of  wild  boars,  stags,  bears,  and  wolves,  all  piled  promiscu- 
ously together.  On  they  passed  with  jest  and  song  and  repartee, 
reaching  Paris  ere  night&n.  % 

The  King  did  not  accompany  them,  as  he  was  hourly  expecting 
a  mess^iger  from  Rome,  with  whom  he  had  business  of  the  most 
pressing  importance. 

The  Monastery  of  Chailly  was  on  the  northern  confines  of  the 
forest  of  Fontainbleau,  and  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Domini- 
cans. The  eastern  portion  was  fitted  up  for  the  reception  of  royal 
guests,  as  Philip  the  Fair  often  led  the  chase  in  the  adjoining  >, 


In  the  refectory,  sat  the  King  at  break&st.  The  feeble  rays  of 
a  December  sun  struggled  in  fiiint  lines  through  the  richly  stained 
oval-shaped  windows.  A  large  wood  fire  blazed  and  crackled  upon 
the  open  health.  On  a  highly  polished  table,  drawn  near  enough 
to  the  glowing  fire  for  comfort,  was  spread  the  first  meal  of  the 

162  THE    ASHLAR. 

day, — ^aa  omelette,  fiome  Temson  pastry,  a  brace  of  savory  gmflllmg 
pheasants;  aad  a  flask  of  the  goldea-colored  -wine  of  Ohampagne 
completed  the  repast. 

Philip  of  France  well  deserved  the  soubriquet  of  "Fair,"  He 
was  a  &ultlessl7  handsome  man,  and  looked  every  inch  a  monarch. 
Scarce  forty  years  of  age,  he  was  in  the  very  plenitude  of  his 
beauty.  A  nobly  shaped  head,  a  majestic  carriage,  and  a  forehead 
crowned  with  intellectual  greatness,  gave  him  all  the  outward 
attributes  of  royalty.  His  features  were  of  the  Korman  cast;  his 
eyes  deep  blue,  almost  hazel;  nut-brown  hair,  as  soft  and  silken  as 
ever  floated  firom  a  woman's  brow,  swept  in  long  curls  down  his 
shoulders.  Behind  the  King's  chair  stood  Engurand  de  Marigny, 
the  Mayor  of  the  Palace,  a  tall,  gaunt-looking  man,  with  a  wolfish 
expression  in  his  stony,  gray  eyes ;  and  at  his  elbow,  a  lay  brother, 
with  a  white  napkin  and  a  crystal  basin  of  water  to  bathe  the 
King's  fingers  when  the  repast  was  over. 

The  King  rose  firom  the  table,  and,  seating  himself  before  the 
fire,  sank  into  a  profound  reverie. 

"May  it  please  thy  Majesty,  the  courier  has  this  moment 
entered  the  court-yard,"  said  the  Mayor,  tapping  the  King  on  the 
shoulder  to  arrest  his  attention. 

"It  is  our  pleasure  to  see  him  instantly,"  replied  Philip.  "60 
thou,  and  brmg  him  to  our  presence." 

The  Mayor  left  the  apartment,  and  returning  ushered  in  a 

Monk  dressed  in  a  Dominican  habit.    His  figure  was  bold  and 

^  commanding,  and  his  step  had  a  martial  air  that  told  his  life  had 

1^  been  passed  in  camps.    The  King  held  out  his  finely  shaped  hand, 

'I  the  Monk  bowed  low,  pressed  it  to  his  lips  and  stood  erect ;  a  large 

I ,  crimson  scar  fiirrowed  his  forehead. 

!  ,  "Thy  Majesty  has  done  me  the  honor  to  come  to  Chailly?" 

I  j  inquired  the  Monk,  with  the  air  of  a  person  who  knew  the  King. 

i '  "  Yes,"  replied  Philip,  impatiently,  "  yes ;  but  a  truce  to  all 

{ .  court  rules,  and  tell  us  truly  the  success  of  thy  mission." 

[^  "  Sire,  thou  art  expecting  dispatches.    I  bring  none.    My  mis- 

aon  was  unfavorable.    I  scarce  .... 

"  Speak,  then,"  interrupted  Philip,  unable  to  control  his  anxiety 
longer.  "Engurand,  look  that  there  is  po  interruption  .  .  .  . 
Albretto,  proceed." 

It  was  evident  from  the  Monk's  manner  that  he  had  very  un- 
pleasant information  to  communicate;  therefore  with  the  air  of  a 


THE    ASHLAR.  168 

bold,  bftd  lnaI^  he  aflsomfid  the  biwvado  of  iadifierenoe  and 
at  oQoe  into  the  subject. 

"Thy  envoy  did  obtain  an  interyiew  with  BSs  HotinesB,  and 
although  he  promises  to  canonize  thy  ancestor,  Louis  IX.,  he 
utterly  refuses  to  grant  thy  perfect  reconciliation  to  our  Holy 
Church,  until  thou  hast  made  ample  atonanent  for  thy  saoriligious 
violence  to  his  predecessor  Boniface  "VULl.  He  would  not  even 
listen  to  thy  demand  for  a  tenth  of  the  Churdi  revenues,  and  when 
I  mentioned  thy  proposition  to  levy  taxes  upon  the  Order  of  the 
Temple,  he  refused  to  grant  any  thing,  and  turned  me  out  of  the 

The  fitce  of  Phitip  grew  ashy  pale  with  anger  and  bitter  dis]q>- 
|>03intment.  Springing  to  his  feet,  he  paced  the  floor  with  sudi 
rapid,  heavy  strides  that  the  windows  rattled  in  their  casements. 
Choking  with  rage,  he  strode  up  and  down  the  room,  giving  vent 
to  his  passion  in  the  most  blasphemous  execrations.  Turning  like  a 
fury  upon  the  Monk  who  witnessed  this  furious  ebullition  of  rage 
with  the  coolest  indifference,  he  shook  his  clenched  hand  in  his 
&ce,  exdaiming: 

"  Thou  bungler!  thou  knave  I  thou  worse  than  idiot  1  what  foul 
fiends  possessed  thee  to  parade  all  those  exactions  before  the  old 
brute  at  once?  Gramercy  to  thy  shrewdness  I  thou  art  more  fit 
for  a  paltry  scullion  than  an  envoy." 

"But  a  &ithful  soldier,"  retorted  the  Honk  fiercely,  striking 
the  scar  that  now  glowed  across  his  forehead  like  a  furnace. 

He  flung  himself  into  the  chair  which  Philip  had  lefi^  vacant, 
4ttid  looked  sternly  into  the  fire.  Philip  was  too  near  a  madman  to 
notice  the  indignity.  He  raved  and  swore  and  stamped,  and  shook 
his  clenched  hand  in  the  direction  of  Rome.  Time  and  space 
seemed  annihilated ;  in  his  rage,  he  imagined  that  he  confronted 
the  Pontifl^  and  exclaimed, — 

^Thy  old  hoary  head  shall  not  save  thee  from  our  vengeance." 

'^  It  was  thy  Majesty's  wish  to  set  off  for  Paris  at  noon.  Shall  I 
order  the  horses?"  asked  De  Marigny  from  the  door. 

The  only  notice  which  the  King  deigned  to  bestow  upon  the 
Mayor  was  to  hurl  a  heavy  oaken  trestle  at  his  head;  then,  com- 
pletely overcome,  Philip  sank  exhausted  upon  a  couch. 

** 'TIS  wearing  late;  thou  wilt  scarce  reach  Paris  before  mid- 
night," said  the  Monk,  addressing  the  King,  without  rising. 

The  Sang  raised  himself  to  a  sitting  posture,  and  taking  a  large 


flagon  of  wine  fifom  the  stone  seat  of  the  window,  he  drank  long 
and  deep,  nntil  he  had  drained  the  yesael;  then  he  dashed  it  npoa 
the  floor. 

"Nay,  we  will  not  set  ont  fcr  Paris,  bat  would  first  haye  the 
particulars  of  thy  audience  with  that  old  Mutton."  • 

Here,  modulating  his  yoice  to  a  gentle  tone,  ho  added : 

"  We  were  overhasty,  but  will  now  incline  our  gradous  ear  to- 
a  fldthitd  narration,  that  we  may  know  whence  came  tliis  bold  de- 
termination to  thwart  our  long  cherished  schemes,  on  the  part  of 
the  "  .  .  .  .    Philip  finished  the  sentence  between  his  teeth. 

The  Monk,  after  deliberating  a  few  moments,  stretched  himaeir 
indolently  b^re  the  fire,  and,  without  rising,  replied : 

"Sire,  thou  must  know  that  immediately  npon  my  arrival  at 
Rome,  I  presented  my  credentials  to  the  Cardinal  Bishop  Orsini, 
who  promised  his  influence  with  the  Pope.  Thy  humble  envoy 
did  not  obtain  an  audience  for  a  fortnight.  His  Holiness  held  a 
coimcil  at  the  Lateran,  to  settle  the  claims  of  the  Templars  with 
the  King  of  Cyprus. 

"According  to  thy  iDstructions,  I  took  note  of  every  evenV 
His  Holiness  is  most  popular ;  whenever  he  appeared  in  public,, 
the  air  was  rent  with  acclamations  of  praise.  His  piety,  charity, 
demenoy,  and  justice  were  on  every  tongue. 

"When  I  entered  his  presence,  I  wore  the  garb  and  air  of  a 
suppliant,  feeling  assured  that  there  was  no  other  way  to  pander 
to  his  integrity.  I  confessed  to  His  Holiness,  that  I  was  commis- 
fijoned  by  thy  Majesty  to  lay  thy  sincere  repentance  at  his  feet; 
also,  thy  hearty  sorrow  for  the  violence  thou  hadst  inflicted  npon 
his  predecessor.  I  implored,  as  a  dispensation  of  our  Holy  Churdi, 
that  thou  mightest  be  again  received  as  a  repentant  son,  promising, 
as  a  voucher,  to  bear  any  pennance  His  Holiness  mi^ht  inflict.  I 
hinted  delicately  at  the  low  state  of  the  royal  treasury;  and,  as  a 
condition  of  thy  setting  out  upon  a  crusade,  asked  one-tenth  of 
the  Church  revenues.  Last  came  the  crowning  stroke, — the  sup^ 
pression  of  the  Order  of  the  Temple.  I  knew  well  that  duj^icity 
would  effect  nothing;  so  I  grappled  with  it  bravely.  I  asked  him 
merely  to  promulgate  the  decree ;  that  thy  Majesty  would  carry 
it  out,  and  the  spoils  should  be  equally  divided* 


^Nicholas  Bocasin,  the  Popo  who  then  wore  the  tiara  under  the  title  of 
Benedict  XI. ,  had  been  a  shepherd  in  his  youth. 

THB    ASHLAR.  ie& 

^'ffis  Holiness  readied,  that  thy  Majesty  had  outraged  the 
Chnrdi  in  the  most  publio  manner,  and  thy  reoondliation  most  be 
made  equally  public;  also,  thy  confeseion  must  be  made  in  person^ 
To  the  Church  revenues,  the  Pope  shook  his  head«  That  did  not 
savor  of  repentance.  On  the  oontrary,  it  was  thy  Mi^esty  that 
should  pay,  and  largdy  too,  for  the  disgraoe  and  scandal  thy 
in&mous  conduct  had  brought  upon  the  Church. 

^The  suppression  of  the  Templars  outraged  him; — that  he 
would  not  listen  too ;  he  broke  up  the  conference ;  ordered  me  to 
quit  Rome  in  one  hour — Italy  in  three  days ;  or  see  the  deepest 
dungeon  of  the  Castle  of  St.  Angelo.  And  thy  Mijesty,  here  I  am.'' 

As  the  Monk  finished,  he  sprang  to  Us  feet.  It  was  painful  to 
watch  the  fearfiil  changes  of  demoniac  rage,  and  supreme  con- 
tempt that  overspread  Philip's  &ce  as  he  listened  to  the  stoical 
Monk.  Maddened  by  the  reflection  that  even  the  humiliating, 
cringing  position  of  his  envoy  had  failed,  he  gave  himself  up  to 
meditating  revenge. 

"  Yes,  yes,'*  he  muttered  to  himself,  "  there  is  but  one  way  ta 
acccHuplish  this.  The  Pope  has  our  secret,  and  we  must  strike 
there — and  instantly,  too,  lest  he  acquaint  the  Templars  with  our 

^^Albretto,"  said  the  King,  aloud,  pointing  to  a  low,  rude  door 
on  one  side  of  the  fire-place,  ^'  see  where  that  leads  to.  Ho,, 
there !  De  Marigny,  we  would  speak  with  thee,"  shouted  Philip. 

"  'TIS  an  oratory.  Sire,"  replied  tie  Monk,  fi-om  the  room,  just 
as  the  Mayor  entered. 

"  Come,  gentlemen,"  said  the  King,  rising,  "  'T  is  dangerous  to 
converse  further  in  this  apartment.  FoUow  us,  for  we  desire  thy 

And  the  three  individuals  disappeared  through  the  door  of  the 
oratory,  closing  it  firmly  afiier  them. 

Noon  passed ;  day  deepened  into  night;  still  they  did  not  come 
fi^rth.  Was  it  for  the  good  of  France  that  those  three  vile  men 
were  closeted  together?    The  fiiture  shall  reveaL 

Chapteb   II. 

On  the  evening  of  the  same  day  that  Philip  was  at  ChaiUy,  there 
was  a  solemn  and  awful  ceremony  performed  in  the  chapel  of  the 

166  THE    ASHLAR. 

Temple  House  at  Paris.  The  ominoiis  tolling  of  the  bell  sounded 
moomfiillj  out  upon  the  still  ni^it  air.  Within,  a  few  w«x  ooi- 
dles  glimmered  like  the  ignU  fatum  through  the  vast  apartment. 
There  were  no  gorgeous  decorations, — window,  wainscot,  oolnmn 
and  altar  were  all  dTi4)ed  in  monming  that  difihsed  a  ftmered 
g^oom.  In  the  centre  of  the  nave  had  been  erected  a  stagmg, 
also  hmig  with  black.  The  Templars,  in  long  white  mantlea, 
carrying  black  wands  (emblematical  of  woe),  thronged  np  the 
aisles  and  filled  the  spacious  choir.  At  the  last  stroke  of  the  greait 
bell,  the  pnrsaivants  ashered  in  a  Knight,  dothed  cap-arpie  in  the 
white  and  crimson  dress  of  the  Knights  Templars,  and  conducted 
him  to  the  stage,  in  full  view  of  whole  assembly. 

All  was  silent  as  death  for  one  fearful  moment ;  then  the  dioir 
began  to  chant  the  burial  service.  The  chanting  ceased.  The 
Orand  Preceptor  rose,  and,  in  a  voice  that  thrilled  every  heart| 
read  the  condemnation. 

"  Sir  Walter  di  Noffodei,  thou  who  didst  receive  the  Sword  of 
Knighthood  fi*om  the  most  illustrious  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem } 
thou  who  didst  solemnly  swear,  that  thou  wouldst  live  under  the 
rule  of  the  regular  canons  of  St.  Augustine, — thou  standest  there, 
attainted  of  treason  to  thy  Oon,  to  thy  Honob,  to  thy  Tbctb» 
and  to  this  Honobablb  Order. 

"  Wherefore,  thy  peers  have  willed  it,  that  thy  soul  be  accurst, 
thy  body  brought  to  nought,  thy  estate  undone,  and  thou  be 
driven  forth,  an  outcast  and  dishonored,  according  to  thy  base 

^Amen  I**  responded  his  brother  Knights. 

Two  esquires  then  advanced  to  disrobe  him  of  the  costume  of 
the  Templars.  They  unlaced  the  casque,  revealing  the  pale  and 
haggard  features  of  the  apostate  Knight.  One  by  one  the  Knightly 
trappings  were  torn  from  his  body.  As  the  snowy  mantle,  the 
tunic,  the  sash,  the  blood-red  cross,  and  the  gauntlets  were  dashed 
upon  the  stone  pavement  and  trampled  under  foot,  the  ELnigfats 
exclaimed : 

*^ Behold  the  harness  of  a  miscreant!*' 

Bending  beneath  the  weight  of  shame  and  disgrace,  he  stood 
before  them,  while  the  golden  spurs  were  struck  from  his  heels, 
and  his  dishonored  sword,  the  last  emblem  of  his  departed  inno* 
thence,  was  broken  above  his  head. 

A  servant  entered,  bearing  a  brasier  of  burning  coals,  and  set 

THE    ASHLAR.  let 

x^upon  the  etage.  The  esqnires  bared  the  bosom  of  the  doomed 
man,  and  held  hhn  down  with  their  muted  efforts,  while  the  Pre*^ 
oeptor,  taking  np  the  rod,  scintillating  with  heat,  applied  it  to  hia 
breart,  directly  over  the  heart.  The  moist  fledb  quivered  beneath 
the  searing  iron,  a  &int  white  smoke,  like  mist,  cm-led  np  from 
aronnd  the  burning  akin,  and  there  was  branded  upon  that  man's 
heart  the  fearful  stigma  of  "Tbattob!'' 

Twelve  Knights  then  unsheathed  their  swords,  and  presenting 
their  gleaming  points  towards  the  now  defenceless  Di  NofLbdei, 
pushed  him  down  the  steps  towards  the  altar.  Here  he  was  seized 
and  thrust  into  a  coffin  which  was  placed  upon  a  bier. 

The  Chaplain  of  the  Order,  then  proceeded  to  the  High  Altar, 
took  the  Bible  in  one  hand  and  Ihe  Consecrated  Candle  in  the 
other,  and,  after  setting  before  the  awe-struck  assembly  the  guilt 
of  llie  culprit,  he  went  on  to  fiilminate  the  anathemas  of  the  Church 
against  the  traitor. 

"For  broken  vows  and  peijured  soul,  we  lay  upon  Walter  di 
Noffodei,  the  curse  of  our  Holy  Churci !  In  virtue  of  the  authority 
bestowed  upon  us  by  the  blessed  St.  Peter,  we  do  pronounce  him 
excommunicated, — an  alien  to  all  the  privileges  and  consolations 
which  our  blessed  religion  affords.  May  he  likewise,  with  dift* 
honor  and  shame,  be  driven  from  the  Kingdom  of  Christ;  may 
not  the  angels  of  God  intercede  for  him ;  may  none  of  all  the 
blessings  of  this  Holy  Book  descend  upon  him ;  and  may  all  the 
corses  contained  therein  cleave  unto  him!"  And  he  dadied  the 
Bible  to  the  ground. 

Liiling  the  waxen  taper,  he  continued : 

**Let  the  light  of  life  be  withdrawn  from  him,  and  let  his  soul 
flank  into  eternal  night /^^ 

With  the  word,  he  threw  the  candle  upon  the  pavement,  and 
instantly  every  light  in  the  church  was  extinguished;  and  amid 
the  profound  darkness,  the  trembling  congregation  heard  the 
voice  of  the  priest,  ringiug  out  clear  and  sonorous: 

*'  We  curse  lum  by  book,  by  candle,  and  by  bell  I "  Instantly,  the 
brazen  tongue  from  the  belfrey  ratified  the  fiat,  with  solemn  tolling. 

*^Amen! '*  responded  the  Knights,  with  fearful  significance. 

As  the  last  sound  rolled  through  the  nave,  the  wretched  man's 
doom  was  consummated.  Amid  the  gloom  and  sUoice,  the  multi- 
tude crept  one  by  one  from  the  church  as  if  fearftd  of  being 
implicated  in  the  terrible  denunciation. 

lee  THE    ASHLAB. 

The  bearers  took  up  tiie  ooflbi,  and  thrust  tha  unhappj  uuiii 
ontfflde  the  gate.  There  was  no  sound  of  IHe  abroad^  save  the  bell 
of  Notre  Dame,  tolling  the  hour  of  midni^t;  and  the  reverbera- 
tion from  the  brazen  hammer  seemed  to  saj, — ^^^Lostl — lostl— 
lost!  ^    Other  belfries  canght  np  the  sound;  and — ^^  Lost  I — lost! 

^ — lost!"  was  knelled  home  to  that  doomed  man's  sonL 

[To  be  continued,] 

♦  •» 


The  Grand  Lodge  of  Maine  held  its  Annual  Communication  at 
Portland  on  the  first  of  May  last.  From  the  official  report  of  its 
proceedings  we  should  judge  that  the  Craft  within  its  jurisdic- 
tion is  rapidly  progressing.  The  venerable  Grand  Master,  John 
Miller,  was  present  and  delivered  a  short  but  valuable  address, 
which  contains  some  recommendations  worthy  of  note.    He  says : 

And  if  thete  is  danger  of  this  our  nobie  institulion  ever  b^off 
brought  into  disrepute,  from  any  one  cause,  more  than  from  aa 
others,  that  cause  will  be  for  the  want  of  proper  care  in  the  ad- 
mission of  members.  And  as  this  will  probably  be  the  last  time 
that  I  shall  be  permitted  to  address  you  m  the  capacity  I  now  do, 
the  representatives  of  Lodges  now  present  will  permit  me  to  give 
them  one  word  of  advice,  and  that  is,  never,  never  suffer  the  ob- 
ject of  increasing  your  numbers,  or  your  funds,  to  induce  you  to  re- 
ceive a  doubtful  character.  And  if  you  wish  to  have  intelligent, 
well-informed  Masons,  never  be  in  haste  in  conferring  the  degrees. 
One  degree  in  a  month  (except  on  special  occasions),  is  as  much 
^  wiU  be  profitable  for  the  Brother  receiving  thenL 

Subsequently  the  Grand  Lodge  decided  by  vote,  tibat  the  re- 
commendation respecting  the  conferring  of  but  one  degree  a 
month  should  be  strictly  adhered  to  by  the  several  Lodges.  This 
is  in  accordance  with  the  old  custom,  and  we  believe  it  to  be 
a  salutory  rule  which  should  be  adopted  in  every  jurisdiction. 
There  is  too  much  haste  displayed  in  conferring  degrees,  which  is 
working  a  decided  injury. 

The  following  extract  from  the  Grand  Master^s  address  is  quite 
touching,  and  conveys  a  serious  truth  in  a  few  words : 

Almost  fifly-thr«ie  years  of  my  life  I  have  been  connected  with 
the  Masonic  institution ;  I  have  q)ent  many  pleasant  hours  with 

TH£   ASHLAR.  149 

the  Breduren,  some  of  whom  are  ffone,  while  others  live;  I  have 
reoeived  many  tokens  of  their  kind  regard.  Daring  that  period, 
I  have  paid  some  attention,  as  my  Brethren  all  know,  to  the  theo- 
ry of  Masonry ;  but  have  always  found  the  practical  part  of  Ma- 
sonry, the  hardest  and  most  difficult  to  learn ;  and  should  I  be 
inquired  o^  how  that  can  be  overcome  and  made  less  difficult,  I 
know  of  no  better  answer  or  advice  to  give,  than  to  set  your  stand- 
ard of  morals  high.  All  aim  for  it,  au  strive  to  win  the  prize ; 
and  if  any  should  seem  to  come  short  of  it,  as  you  probably  will, 
it  may  afford  you  some  satisfaction  that  God  looks  at  the  motive ; 
and  that,  although  David  was  not  permitted  to  build  the  temple, 
yet  he  was  blessed  because  he  had  it  in  his  heart  so  to.  do. 

On  motion  it  was  **  voted  that  the  Grand  Lodge  continue  for 
another  year  their  subscription  for  the  Masonic  Journal,  publish- 
ed  at  Brunswick,  for  each  Lodge  in  the  State."  This  is  patronage 
weU  bestowed  towards  sustaining  a  creditable  Masonic  periodical 
in  the  jurisdiction. 

Seven  Charters  were  granted  to  new  Lodges.  The  following 
^tre  the  Grand  Officers  for  the  ensuing  year : 

Jabez  True,  Grand  Master,  Bangor;  Hiram  Chase,  Deputy  G. 
Master,  Bel&st;  Isaac  Downing,  Sen.  G.  Warden,  Kennebunk; 
William  Allen,  Jun.  G.  Warden^  Portland ;  Moses  Dodge,  Grand 
Treasurer,  Portland ;  Irsi  Berry,  Grand  Seca^etary,  Portland ;  Chas. 
B.  Smith,  Corresponding  G.  Secretary,  Portland. 

The  most  important  action  was  respecting  the  new  Grand  Lodge 
of  Canada.  By  a  test  vote,  \t  refused  to  recognize  that  body,  and 
referred  the  subject  to  the  next  Grand  Lodge, — a  very  wise  and 
appropriate  dedsion.  The  report  of  the  Committee  on  Foreign 
Correspondence  which  treats  of  the  subject  shows  that  its  authors 
iiad  given  the  subject  of  the  Lidependent  Grand  Lodge  very  little 
<;onsideration,  and  if  they  knew  much  about  it,  they  were  very 
careful  to  conceal  it. 

There  are  iu  Maine  nearly  one  hundred  Lodges. 

»■♦  < 

"Now,  therefore,  the  King  laid  the  fotmdatioBs  of  the  temple  very  deep 
!n  the  ground,  and  the  materials  were  strong  stones,  such  as  would  resist  the 
force  of  tilme ;  these  were  to  imite  themselves  with  the  earth,  and  become  a 
basis  and  a  new  fonndation  for  that  snperstnictnre  which  was  to  be  erected 
oyer  it;  they  were  to  be  so  strong,  in  order  to  snstain  with  ease  those  vast 
snperstmctures  and  precious  ornaments,  whose  own  weight  was  to  be  not  less 
than  the  weight  of  those  other  high  and  heavy  buildings  which  the  King  de- 
signed to  be  very  ornamental  and  magnificent." 




The  following  paragraph  appeared  in  the  Boston  Journal  not 
long  since : 

"The  Lieut.  Governor  of  Nova  Scotia  presented  at  Hali&x,  on 
the  25th  of  April,  a  gold  chronometer  to  Hugh  Cameron,  Master^ 
and  a  gold  patent  lever  watch  to  George  Duffote,  Mate,  of  the 
British  schooner  Mars,  of  that  port,  as  a  testimonial  from  the  dtk 
zens  of  the.  United  States  to  those  gentlemen,  for  saving  Capt^ 
John  T.  Philbrick,  of  the  late  American  schooner  State  of  Maine,, 
from  the  wreck  of  that  vessel.  Two  men,  composing  the  crew  of 
the  Mars,  are  to  have  silver  medals." 

The  following  interesting  statement  respecting  the  case  referred 
to  above  was  subsequently  published  in  the  Masonic  Journal : 

Fbakkfobt,  March  8,  1856. 

Bbo.  Chase. — ^I  have  thought  a  brief  narrative  of  my  suffer- 
ings and  Providential  deliverance  from  death  by  starvation  and  ex- 
posure, also  the  kind  treatment  from  Brothers  in  a  ibreign  land^ 
may  be  read  with  interest  by  your  readers. 

I  sailed  from  this  port  Master- of  the  Schr.  "State  of  Maine," 
on  the  4th  day  of  January  last,  botmd  for  the  West  Indies  with  a 
cargo  of  lumber.  On  the  second  day  out  we  encountered  a  se- 
vere snow  storm  with  the  wind  blowing  a  gale  from  the  N.  E. 
At  ten  o'dock  at  night,  the  wind  having  mcreased  to  almost  a  hur- 
ricane, my  vessel  capsized,  at  which  *time  my  mate  and  steward 
were  wa^ed  overboard.  In  a  short  time  the  deck  load  fetched 
away  together  with  the  masts  and  spars  causing  her  to  right  full 
of  water.  The  night  was  extremely  cold,  and  being  without  shel- 
ter, wet,  tired,  and  hungry,  inevitable  death  seemed  to  be  our  lot^ 
A  small  portion  of  the  jib  remained  attached  to  the  bowsprit,  with 
this  and  a  few  spikes,  obtained  by  ripping  up  the  deck  plank,  enabled 
me  and  my  men  (four  in  all)  to  form  a  rude  shelter  under  the  topgal- 
lant forecastle,  in  which  we  took  refuge  for  the  night,  the  sea  all 
this  time  making  a  complete  breach  over  us.  In  this  situation  we 
remained  five  days  without  food  or  water,  except  about  three 
pounds  of  raw  salt  pork  which  floated  out  the  fore  scuttle.  About 
11  o'clock,  p.  K.  of  the  fourth  day  I  saw  a  light  which  I  hailed,  and 
was  answered  by  a  gun.  I  requested  the  Capt.  to  lay  by  the 
wreck  and  rescue  myself  and  fellow  sufferers,  wnich  to  us  seemed 
almost  impossible,  as  the  gale  still  continued.  In  a  few  momenta 
the  light  was  Ipst  sight  of  and  we  then  thought  we  were  leil  to 
perish  on  the  wreck ;  at  daylight  the  next  morning  we  again  saw 
the  vessel  (which  proved  to  be  the  schooner  Mars,  Capt.  Came- 
ron, of  Hali&x),  bearing  down  for  us.    The  sea  was  running 

THE    ASHLAR.  Ill 

mountain  high,  and  our  hope  of  deliverance  was  indeed  smalL  4 

After  repeated  trials  I  succeeded  in  getting  on  board  the  Mars,  by 
being  hauled  about  sixty  fathoms  through  the  water  in  a  bowline, 
being  the  only  one  save4.  One  man  was  lost  after  jumping  over- 
board with  a  rope  about  him,  the  remaining  two  were  left  to  per- 
ish on  the  wrecK,  it  being  impossible  to  save  them.  Great  credit 
is  due  to  Capt.  Cameron  and  his  noble  crew  for  their  perseverance 
and  bravery.  For  seventeen  hours  after  being  hailed,  he  lay  by 
the  wreck  continually  renewing  his  trials  before  he  succeeded  in 
securing  me  from  a  terrible  death.  My  hands,  feet  and  legs  were 
very  badly  frozen,  my  legs  so  swollen  they  measured  just  above 
the  ankle  twenty  three  inches.  Everything  was  done  on  board  that 
could  be,  to  make  me  comfortable;  the  vessel  was  quite  small,  and 
not  having  on  board  the  proper  remedies,  I  suftered  greatly  for 
seven  days,  when  we  arrived  at  Halifax.  I  was  then  placed  under 
the  care  of  the  American  Consul  (Albert  Pillsbm-y  of  Machias) 
whom  I  found  to  be  a  Brother.  He  took  eb^eci:il  mterest  in  my 
distressing  condition,  and  provided  me  with  comfortable  rooms  at 
a  first  class  hot^l,  also  with  physicians  and  attendants,  for  which  I 
shall  always  hold  him  in  grateful  remembrance.  Every  attention 
that  heart  could  wish  was  paid  me  by  the  Consul  and  Masons  of 
the  city,  particularly  by  members  of  the  Scotch  Lodges.  I  was 
entirely  destitute  of  clothing,  without  money,  unable  to  walk  or 
help  myself  in  any  manner,  still  I  found  myself  among  Brothers 
and  friends,  who  were  always  ready  to  administer  to  my  wants. 
The  Scotch  Lodges  contributed  very  generously  to  my  pecuniary 
wants.  Upwards  of  $100  in  money,  a  good  fit-out  of  clothing, 
(about  $60  worth)  medical  attendance,  hotel  expenses,  &c.,  &c., 
all  fiirnished  by  warm  and  sympathizing  Masons. 

I  would  maJ^e  particular  mention  of  the  many  &vor8  received 
from  the  wives  and  daughters  of  Masons.  Also,  of  Mrs.  Johnson, 
(landlady  of  the  Mansion  House)  who  was  my  daily  attendant,  M. 
W.  Keith,  Prov.  G.  M.  of  Nova  Scotia,  Bro.  John  Richardson,  M. 
of  Bums  Lodge,  Bro.  John  B.  Fay,  M.  of  Keith  Lodge,  l^ro.  K. 
L  Lordly,  M.  of  Athole  Lodge,  Bros.  Williamson,  Saybold,  Dr. 
Stephen  Foss,  and  many  others  who  were  untirine  in  their  acts  of 
kindness.  To  all  of  these,  and  the  Fraternity  of  Halifiix,  I  would 
tender  my  heartfelt  thanks  for  their  kindness,  sympathy,  and  aid 
manifested  toward  me  while  among  them.  ^ 

In  behalf  of  Howard  Lodge,  No.  69  (of  which  I  am  a  mem^ 
ber),  I  would  express  our  deepest  gratitude  and  thanks  to  our 
Brethren  in  Hali&x  for  their  kindness  and  liberalitv  towards  their 
mifortunate  and  fraternal  firiend,  J.  T.  Philbrick. 

The  subjoiped  letters  were  lud  before  the  Grand  Lodge  of 

Maine  at  its  recent  session : 

Halifax,  February  12,  1856. 
Brother  John  T.  Philbeick, 

Dkab    SiBr-^The  Brethren  of  Bums  Lodge,  sensible  of  the 

21 — VOL.  n.  KO.  rv. 



m    .   VI 

172  THE    ASHLAR. 

deplorable  and  distresfling  situation  yon  were  lately  placed  in 
by  the  loss  of  your  vessel  at  sea :  as  a  small  token  of  toeir  sympa- 
thy, I  enclose  ten  pounds  for  your  acceptance — ^hoping  this  will  be 
of  some  service  to  you  in  defraying  your  expenses  to  your  native 

In  behalf  of  the  Brethren  of  Bums  Lodge,  I  remain,  dear  Sir 
and  Brother,  John  Richardson,  W.  M. 

Halifax,  12th  February,  1866. 
Captsun  Philbrick,  Mandon  House. 

Dear  Sir  and  Brothjbr — ^It  affords  me  much  pleasure,  on  be- 
half of  the  Brethren  of  Athole  Lodge,  361,  of  this  city,  to  hand  you 
the  enclosed  sum  of  Thirty  Dollars,  voted  to  you  from  the  funds 
of  the  Lodge  at  their  regular  meeting  last  evening.  It  was  a  mat- 
ter of  regret  with  the  Brethren,  that  the  low  state  of  our  finances 
would  not  admit  of  a  larger  amount.  Understanding  however 
that  the  Brethren  of  the  other  Lodges  in  the  city  are  coining  for- 
ward to  evince  their  sympathy  for  your  condition,  I  trust  you  will 
not  find  yourself  in  want  of  any  thmg  until  you  reach  your  more 
immediate  friends.  Your  sufferings'  and  providential  escape  from 
death,  drew  forth  the  unanimous  sympathy  of  the  Bretnren  to 
yourself,  and  gratitude  to  the  Great  Architect  of  the  Universe  for 
his  mercies  towards  you.  That  you  yourself  may  not  €bj1  to  ac- 
knowledge his  goodness  and  mercy  so  signally  manifested,  that  He 
may  bring  you  again  in  safety  to  your  friends,  and  finally  to  the 
Grand  Lodge  above,  is  the  sincere  wish  of      Yours  fratemaQy, 

E.  I.  Lordly,  W.  M.  Athole  Lodge,  861. 

Masonic  Hall,  Halifax,  February  13,  1866. 
Dear  Sir  and  Brother — ^I  have  much  pleasure  in  enclosing 
you  the  sum  of  seven  pounds  ten  shillings  [£7  10  O]  voted  by  the 
members  of  Keith  Lodge,  No.  366,  at  their  regular  meeting,  for 
a  frmd  in  connection  with  the  Bums  and  Athole  Lodges,  towards 
defi-aying  your  expenses  in  Halifax,  and  assistance  in  returning  to 
your  friend^  in  the  United  States.     I  beg  to  subscribe  myself 
Fraternally  yours,         John  B.  Fay,  Master  Keith  Lodge. 
To  J.  T.  Philbrick,  Esq.,  Mansion  House,  Hali&x« 

»■♦  < 

tS^  When  Solomon  had  completed  all  this  in  twenty  years* 
time,  because  Hiram,  King  of  Tjre,  had  contributed  a  great  deal  of 

fold  an4  more  silver  to  these  buildings,  as,  also,  cedar  wood  and 
re  wood,  he  also  rewarded  Hiram  with  rich  presents;  com  he 
sent  him,  also,  year  by  year,  and  wine  and  oil,  which  were  the  prin- 
cipal thmgs  that  he  stood  in  need  o^  because  he  inhabited  an 
island  as  wo  have  already  said.  And  besides  these,  he  granted 
him  certain  dties  of  Galilee,  twenty  in  number,  that  lay  not  &r 
from  Tyre. — JpsiCPHus. 

THE    ASHLAR.  173 

Fbom  tb«  Horn  Jo  visa  l. 

Ih  oeTermore  there  u  despair; 

In  fare-thee-well,  a  dirge-like  tone ; 
Bnt  agony,  too  hani  to  bear, 

Breathes  in  that  monmftil  word— ^iIorM/ 
It  tells  of  broken  hearts,  and  ties. 
Long  silent  lips,  and  curtained  eyes ; 
Of  vanished  birds,  abandoned  nests, 
Juad  white  hands  clasped  on  silent  breasts. 

Alone  I  alone!  what  echoes  wake, 

In  memory's  cavern,  at  the  sonnd ;  \ 

While  phantoms  their  appearance  make, 

As  if  the  lost  again  were  fonnd. 
Bat  ah  I  how  desolate  the  thought 
Bach  figures  are  of  moonlight  wrought : 
Alone !  alone !  no  sadder  word. 
By  mortal  ear,  is  ever  heard. 

■♦  •  » 


As  the  time  for  the  election  of  officers  and  tJie  meeting  of  the 
"Grand  Lodge  is  approaching,  some  infonnation  respecting  those 
matters,  will  not  be  uninteresting. 


No  brother  shall  be  eligible  to  the  office  of  Master  of  a  Lodge, 
unless  he  shall  previously  have  been  a  Warden  of  a  regular  Lodge, 
except  in  case  of  the  formation  of  a  new  Lodge,  when  no  past  or 
former  Warden  can  be  found  among  its  members. 

[Art.  v.,  Sec.  8,  Constitntion  of  Grand  Lodge.] 


The  Master  and  the  Senior  and  Junior  Wardens  shall  be 
annually  elected  by  ballot  at  the  regular  communication  of  the 
Lodge  next  preceding  the  festival  of  St.  John,  the  Evangelist, 
unless  otherwise  ordered  by  the  Grand  Lodge,  or  the  Grand  Mas- 
ter during  vacation.  They  shall  hold  their  offices  for  one  year,, 
and  until  others  are  elected  and  installed  in  their  stead.  Each 
member  of  the  Lodge  in  good  standing,  shall  be  entitled  to  one 
vote,  and,  in  case  of  a  tie,  the  presiding  officer  shall  have  an 

additional  vote. 

[Art.  v.,  Sec.  4] 

174  THE    ASHLAR. 


In  the  election  of  officers,  a  mistake  is  made  in  many  Lodges 
in  counting  the  ballots.  This  should  be  done  by  the  Secretary^ 
and  not  by  a  committee.    Sec.  5,  of  Art.  V.,  says : 

When  all  have  voted  who  have  a  right  or  desire  so  to  do,  the 
Secretary  shall  carefully  examine  and  coimt  the  ballots,  and  report 
the  result  to  the  Lodge,  and  the  Brother  having  a  majority  of 
the  votes  shall  be  declared  elected.  All  the  other  officers  of  the 
Lodge,  not  named  in  the  precoeding  section,  shall  be  elected  or 
appointed  in  such  way  and  manner  as  each  Lodge  may  for  itself 

Section  11  further  specifies  the  duty  of  the  Secretary,  thus: 

It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  Secretary  of  each  Lodge  (in  ad- 
dition to  his  other  duties)  to  transmit  to  the  Grand  Secretary, 
at  least  two  weeks  before  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  in  each  year,  a  return  of  the  officers  and  members  of  his 
Lodge,  and  also  of  all  resignations,  withdrawals,  or  deaths,  which 
may  have  taken  place  since  the  preceding  return,  in  conformity 
with  the  forms  hereto  annexed,  and  keep  on  file  a  duplicate 

There  has  been  much  carelessness  displayed  by  Secretaries  in 

making  up  their  returns.     They  should  write  the  name  of  ead^ 

member  of  their  Lodge  in  a  plain,  legible  hand. 


The  following  clause,  Sec.  8  of  Art.  YI.,  is  very  seldom  attend- 
ed to: 

Lodges  are  required  upon  the  expulsion  of  a  Brother  for 
any  other  cause  than  non-payment  of  dues,  forthwith  to  make 
a  report  of  their  proceedings  in  the  case  to  the  Grand  Secretary^ 
in  order  that  in  the  event  of  an  appeal,  the  Grand  Lodge  may  be 
enabled  to  come  to  an  immediate  decision  thereon. 


Many  have  labored  under  a  misapprehension  as  to  the  qualifi-^ 

cations  of  Master  required  in  this  jurisdiction.     The  matter  is 

settled  by  the  following  resolution  passed  by  the  Grand  Lodge, 

January  10th,  1860: 

Resolved^  That  it  is  necessary  for  a  Master  Mason,  when  elected 
to  preside  over  a  Lodge,  before  entering  upon  the  duties  of  hia 
office,  to  receive  a  proper  qualification,  and  tnat  qualification  shall 
be,  to  bind  him  fiuthftiily  and  inipartially  to  discharge  the  dutiea 
of  a  Master  of  a  Lodge,  together  with  the  ancient  charges  and  regn 
nlationsy  as  laid  down  in  Caper's  Ifonitor  and  Morris'  Craftsman^ 

THE    ASHLAR.  175 

land  nothing  more;  and  that  any  Present  or  Past  Master,  who  haa 
ireoetved  the  aforesaid  quatifieatioiifl,  be  aatJioilzed  to  perform  the 
<flaid  c%retacmyy  when  i^qnested. 

BEPBESEirrATnnBS     of    ,THS     ORAjm     LODGE. 

In  many  instances,  representatives  have  been  deprived  of  their 
seats  because  they  had  not  a  sufficient  certificate.  The  following 
dauses  of  Article  TL  govern  this  matter  and  are  not  ambigaons: 

Sbc.  1.  Every  Brother  deputed  to  represent  a  Master  or  War- 
den, or  the  entire  Lodge  in  case  ^e  Master  and  Wardens  are  all 
absent,  shall  be  furnished  with  a  certificate  of  his  appointment^ 
tmder  the  Seal  of  the  Lodge  appointing  him,  and  the  attestation 
of  the  Secretary  thereof. 

Sec.  2.  Representatives  shall  be  chosen  fi'om  among  the  mem- 
bers of  the  Lodge  appointing  them. 


*'Our  acknowledgments,^  says  the  Mirror  <ft  Keyetone^  "are 
^ue  to  the  R.  W.  Bro.  Ricardo  H.  Hartley,  Representative  of  the 
X^rand  Lodge  of  the  State  of  New  York,  near  to  the  Grand 
Orient  of  Pern,  for  a  list  o&  their  officers  for  the  present  year, 
many  valuable  addresses,  and  other  documents  of  importance; 
the  most  noteworthy  of  which  are  the  discourses  delivered  by  the 
SL*.  Bro.  *'Junis  Bruto,'  one  of  the  ripest  scholars  in  that  inter- 
esimg  country.  His  ^Discorse  Presentado  al  B.*.  T.*.  Coneordia 
Univeraal,  del  Valle  del  Caliao,  a  hi  InstaOadoii  de  la  Dig&e.*.  en 
ia  fiesta  del  Patriarca  S.  Juan  Bautista,'  his  ^Masoneria  Repop- 
isalia,^  and  the  ^La  Muerte  de  un  Mason  Cristiano,'  also  firom  his 
pen,  are  said  to  be  master-pieces  of  their  kind,  and  as  soon  as  trana- 
lated  will  appear  in  our  columns* 

*^  The  officers  of  the  Grand  Orient  are  as  follows :  M.  W.  Franr 
cisco  Quiros,  Grand  Master;  R.  W«  Antonio  Sonsa  de  Ferriera, 
D.  6.  M. ;  R,  W.  Francisco  Xarier  Mariatigui,  S.  G.  Warden ;  R. 
W.  Ricardo  H.  Hartiey,  J.  G.  Warden ;  R.  W.  Juan  Oveido,  G. 

*  This  is  the  Brother's  Matomc  name.    Each  Brother,  on  Jdning  the  Order 
4n  Pent,  Mfi*"!^  one.    This  is  done  to  protect  them  against  the  Jesuits. 

ne  THE    ASHLAR. 

""It  win  be  Been  fiom  this  figt  that  our  R.  W.  Bro.  HaitleyniL 
26al  for  the  institation  has  been  dvlj  apfw eoiated  in  hia  new  home^ 
as  he  now  ranks,  as  the  fourth  officer  in  the  Grand  Orient.  We- 
shall  always  be  pleased  to  hear  from  him;  and  we  assure  him  that 
his  many  friends  in  New  Yor]c>often  recur  with  pleasure  to  their 
intercourse  with  him  whilst  sojourning  among'them,  and  with  de* 
light  to  tjbe  admirable  manner  in  which  he  exemplified  the  woric 
of  the  Englidi  Royal  Arch  Degree.*' 

6sA2n>  EircAHPHEST  OF  Madcb. — There  are  in  Maine  three 
Encampments  of  Ejiights  Templars.  The  Grand  Encampment,, 
composed  of  representatives  frx>m  these  bodies,  met  at  Portland^ 
on  the  Ist  day  of  May  last.  "  To  feed  the  hungry,"  says  the  M.  E. 
G.  M.,  ^' clothe  the  naked,  and  bind  up  the  wounds  of  the  afflicted, 
are  eminent  duties  of  Knights  Tem^^ars.  Such  opportunities  of 
good  are  constantly  occurring ;  and  while  we  thus  minister  to  the 
wants  of  our  fellow-beings,  aid  and  counsel  the  stranger,  and  bid 
him  God  speed  on  his  journey  of  life ;  wipe  the  tear  from  the 
widow's  eye,  and  protect  the  helpless  orphan ;  how  elevating  and 
ennobling  the  charity  bestowed  upon  such  objects,  and  with  what 
approbation  is  it  viewed  by  Him  who  has  promised  to  be  the 
father  of  the  &therles8,  and  the  God  of  the  widow!" 

Speaking  of  the  condition  of  the  Order  in  Maine,  the  G.  M.  says : 

^  I  have  the  pleasure  to  inform  you  that  our  Encampments  are 
in  a  healthy  and  prosperous  condition ;  and  although  no  applica- 
tions have  been  made  the  past  year  for  new  organizations,  yet 
many,  who  I  trust  will  prove  themselves  ^true  and  courteous 
£j]ight6,'  have  entered  the  portals  of  our  asylum,  and  enUsted 
under  our  banner.  To  all  such,  we  extend  the  right  hand  of  fel- 
lowship, and  bid  a  hearty  welcome  to  all  the  rights  and  privileges 
of  this  noble  Order." 

The  followiug  is  a  list  of  the  officers  for  the  ensuing  year : 
Sir  Joseph  0.  Stevens,  M.  E.  G.  M. ;  Sir  Freeman  Bradford,  D« 
O.  M;  Sff  John  Williams,  G.  G. ;  Sir  A.  B.  Thompson,  G.  C.  G.;  Sh- 
Cyrus  Cummings,  G.  P. ;  Sir  Timothy  Chase,  G.  S.  W. ;  Sir  Jabea 
True,  G.  J.  W.;  Sir  Charles  Fobes,  G.  T.;  Sir  Ira  Berry,  G.  B,^ 
Sir  F.  H.  Weymouth,  G.  S.  B.;  Sir  J.  K  Osgood,  G.  S.  B.;  Sir- 
John  J.  Ben,  G.  W. 

There  are  about  one  hundred  Sir  Knights  belonging  to  the  Ett«. 
oampments  of  Maine* 


THE    ASHLAR.  m 


Vl  Sn.  la^  ZuiL 

At  a  reoent  Ghrand  Oommuxucatioti  of  one  of  the  largest  most 
important  and  respected  of  om*  Oraad  Lodges,  a  question  arose 
respecting  the  qnalifieations  of  candidates.  It  is  one  that  is  gen- 
erally well  understood  by  Masonic  jurists,  and  aade  from  any 
inflnenoes  that  may  be  bronght  to  bear  in  particular  cases,  would 
certainly  be  decided  without  hesitation.  It  was,  in  this  case,  what 
theological  opioions  qualify,  and  what  thdological  opinions  disqual- 
iiy,  a  candidate  for  our  mysteries. 

The  veriest  tyro  in  Freemasonry  knows  that  no  ^^stupid  athdst,** 
or  irreligious  scoffer  can  become  a  Mason;  so  the  unalterable 
regulations  dedare.  When  made  a  Mason,  he  must  confonn  to 
to  the  requirements  of  that  catYioUo  religion,  in  which  all  men 
agree;  and  is  bound  by  his  tenoj^  to  obey  the  moral  law.  Our 
rights  require  that  he  shall  be  one  who  has  fidth  in  God,  the  Pre- 
server and  Bewarder  of  all,  anrl  whose  trust  is  placed  on  that  Rocic 
which  can  not  be  shaken.  Tfciese  are  the  regulations  of  Masons  in 
all  ages  and  in  all  countries — no  less — no  morel 

The  particular  question  tc>  which  I  alluded  in  the  commence- 
ment of  this  article,  was  stat.ed  thus :  **  Can  a  man  who  is  of  good 
.character  and  of  correct  moral  deportment,  who  pronounces  the 
Bible  a  *  bundle  of  fictionF.,'  be  constitndonaUy  made  a  Mason?  ^ 
l^ese  are  not  the  exact  ^.rords,  perhaps— I  quote  from  memory 
— but  the  idea  is  embor  lied  therein,  lie  committee  to  whom 
it  was  referred  decided  hi  in  the  negative,  and  the  Grand  Lodge 
approved  the  decLdon. 

In  another  G^d  I^odge,  than  which  none  stands  higher,  the 
same  question  arose  uuder  the  form  following:  A  Mason  was  tried 
in  one  of  the  oldest  J^odges  in  the  jurisdiction,  for  his  belief  in  the 
religious  dogmas  of  the  Mormons,  and  for  attempting  to  defend 
the  same.  It  was  V40t  alleged  that  he  counseled  a  violation  of  any. 
law,  or  that  he  prsx^tisod  any  of  their  peculiar  rites,  matrimonial 
or  otherwise ;  nor  was  it  proved  that  he  denied  the  existence  of  a 
Ddty;  on  the  oc*ntrary,  in  his  appeal  to  the  Grand  Lodge,  he  sets 
forth  his  belief  in  the  existence  of  a  Gk>d,  in  the  truth  of  the  Scrip- 

*  From  the  AmericsQ  Vreemason. 

178  THE    ASHLAR. 

ttires  of  the  Old  and  New  Testamentfi,  and  in  addition,  the  Scrip- 
tnres  of  the  Latter  Day  Saints,  and  that  their  prophets  are  also 
worthy  of  belief.  One  might  suppose  this  was  certainly  religions 
belief  enough  for  a  Mason  I  The  subordinate  lodges  thought  oth- 
erwise, and  the  Grand  Lodge  sustained  the  expulsion  I 

But  some  might  suppose  that  this  expulsion  was  because  of  too 
rmich  religion.  This  can  not  be,  because  Masonry  interferes  with 
no  man's  religious  belief.  The  conscience  of  each  Mason  is  his 
own.  It  is  solemnly  declared,  that  aroimd  our  holy  altar,  the  Jew 
and  the  Gentile,  the  Moslem  and  the  Brahmin,  the  Christian  and 
the  Pagan,  may  kneel  together.  The  enlightened  Mason,  whose 
yision  portrays  to  him  the  golden  streets  of  the^New  Jerusalem, 
may  worship  with  him 

"Whose  ontatored  mind 
Sees  God  in  clouds  and  bears  him  in  the  wind." 

The  Mason's  creed  is  to  loye  Us  neighbor  as  himself,  to^do  good 
unto  all,  but  especially  to  the  household,  and  to  exemplify  his  love 
to  the  Great  Architect  of  the  Universe  by  doing  justice  and 
exercising  mercy  to  his  fellows. 

This  is  the  broad  platform  of  the  Universal  Brotherhood. 
Who  shall  take  it  upon  himself  to  add  a  plank  or  abstract  one? 
May  Lodges  or  Grand  Lodges  do  Ihis?  Or  is  this  any  part  or 
parcel  of  the  "principles  or  ground-work  of  Masonry  up(m  which 
it  is  not  competent  for  any  man,  or  body  of  men,  to  make  innova- 
tions ?"    Shall  the  Grand  Lodge  of declare  that  the  Jew  who 

rejects  the  Gospels  and  the  Koran,  the  Zendavesta  and  the  Shas- 
ter,  is  ineligible  because  of  his  belief?  Or  is  the  Brahmin,  who 
rejects  all  of  ihese  except  the  last,  to  be  placed  in  the  same  cate- 
gory, though  his  idea  of  a  Gk>d  to  whom  he  is  accountable  is  not 
less  oomprehenflive  than  that  of  the  most  enlightened  Christian  ? 

The  difficulty  seems  jfrequently  to  arise  &om  confounding  the 
particular  case  with  the  general  principle :  ttie  prudent  action  of 
individual  Brethren,  with  the  general  oversight  of  Grand  Body. 
Thus,  whUe  it  is  competent  for  any  affiliated  Brother  to  say  wheth* 
er  he  is  wiUiitg  to  fellowship  with  one  who  lightly  regards  that 
which  to  him  is  sacred,  and  to  reject  one  who  dedares  the  Bible 
^*  a  bundle  of  fictions,'*  is  it  not  going  &r  beyond  the  line  of  duty 
for  the  Grand  Lodge  to  declare  him  ineligible,  under  thd  Masonio 
Constitutions  ?  Li  the  same  manner,  is  it  the  privilege  of  each 
member  of  the  Craft  to  reject  the  indolent,  the  miserly,  the  sel- 

THE    ASHLAR.  179 

fiflh,  the  tattling,  the  meddling,  the  impnident,  the  cowardly? 
Tet)  who  would  contend  that  a  Grand  Xiodge  has  the  power  to 
declare  sndh  persons  ineligible  as  apartionlar  and  special  class! 
The  Landmarks  declare  that  the  ap|dicant  mnst  ,be  under  the 
tongue  o£  good  report — ^this  excludes  the  scoffer,  and  holds  him 
up  Tor  rejection.  Policy  might  dictate  that  one  who  believed  in 
the  soK»lIed  spiritual  manifestations  should  be  rejected;  but  does 
this  require  a  *^New  Regulation^'  ?    I  trow  not 

Far  be  it  firom*me  to  counsel  the  widening  of  the  gate.  None 
can  more  regret  the  sight  of  the  spiritually  halt,  lame,  or  blind, 
alas,  now  too  common,  in  the  eandum  sanctorum.  But  I  may,  and 
do  object,  to  the  attempt  to  fetter  the  individuid  Mason  in  the  exer- 
cise of  his.  duty  under  the  and^it  Landmarks  by  uncalled-for 
Grand  Lodge  legislation.  Each  Mason  knows  that  it  is  his  privi^ 
lege,  nay,  more,  a  duty  Jrom  which  he  dare  not  shrink,  to  reject, 
without  hesitation,  not  cmly  every  candidate  who  is  not  under  the 
tongue  of  good  report,  but^also  all  whom  he  has  reason  to  believe 
will  not,  for  any  reason  perform,  with  ail  his  heart,  every  Masov^ 
ic  act  that  Masons  understand  so  welL 

If  I  believe  respecting  a  candidate  tiiat  indolence  will  causeMs 
£x>tsteps  to  halt,  or  wrath  to  turn  him  aedde  as  he  ^^roacbes  a 
fellow-creature  in  distress;  if  I  believe  he  will  not  ask  a  blessing 
of  Gk>d  upon  his  Brother;  if  I  believe  he  will  betray  a  Brother's 
trust;  if  I  believe  he  will  not  freely  give  his  Brother  a  helping 
hand,  and  support  his  character  in  his  absence  as  he  would  in  his 
presence,  without  hesitatiim,  I  will  leave  him  in  the  mbUsh  out- 
side the  Temple,  where  I  find  him,  and  where  he  belongs.  This 
standard  is  safe  under  this  rule,  may  not  Masons  ^^cidl  die  quar- 
ry" unhampered  by  any  ^authority  save  a  conscience  void  of  of* 

LiBBBTiNS. — The  man  who  lives  without  the  restraint  of  con- 
sdence,  Kcentiously  violating  the  mora!  law  and  paying  no  regard 
to  the  precepts  of  rdigion,  m  unworthy  to  become  a  member  of 
that  institution  which  boasts  that  its  principles  are  intended  to 
make  all  its  members  ffood  men  and  true;  and  hence  our  Old 
Charges  lay  down  the  rule  that  *'a  Mason  is  obliged  by  his  tenure 
to  obey  the  moral  law;  and  if  he  rightly  understands  the  art,  he 
will  never  be  a  stupid  atheist  nor  an  irreligious  libertine.'' — Zexi- 
can  qf  M'eemasanry. 

160  THB    ASHLAR. 


Tliat  lotteries  are  oonddered,  hj  a  large  portion  of  the  commii* 
nitjy  a  speciefl  of  gambHng,  there  b  not  a  shadow  of  doubt.  And 
they  are  thus  considered  not  without  reason.  They  are  games  of 
chance,  in  which  few  win  and  many  lose.  They  tend  to  foster  a 
desire  to  obtain  money  and  other  property  by  quick  and  easy 
means  which  have  caused  the  ruin  of  thousands  who  might  have 
prospered  in  a  regular,  le^timate  business. 

So  banefid  are  lotteries  considered,  that  they  are  prohibited  by 
a  latge  portion  of  the  States  of  this  Union.  Midbigan  has  passed 
strentious  laws  against  them,  which  are  still  in  force.  Under  these 
oiroumstances,  we  are  at  a  loss  to  see  how  intelligent  Masons  can 
look  with  fiivor  upon  lotteries,  connected  with  our  honorable  msti- 
tution.  They  must  bring  discredit  upon  the  Order,  in  the  estima- 
tion of  thousands  of  honest  and  high-minded  citizens.  Is  it  right 
or  proper  thus  to  <»«ate  an  unfiivorable  (pinion  of  Masonry?  Is 
it  light  or  proper  to  bring  reproach  upon  her  name  ?  We  answer, 
no— a  thousand  times,  no.  These  remarks  apply  to  all  lotteries, 
whatever  may  be  their  object.  They  can  not  be  justified  on  the 
principle  that  ^*  evil  may  be  done  that  good  may  come.  ^  Masonry, 
thank  God,  inculcates  no  sueh  doctrine.  Lotteries  have  an  im- 
moral tendency,  and  are  regarded  as  baneful  by  the  puMic.  This 
&ct  should  be  sufficient  to  guide  every  member  in  his  conduct. 

These  remarks  have  been  caQed  forth  by  the  project  of  Bro. 
Brennan,  to  dispose  of  a  large  number  of  sets  of  the  Universal 
Masonic  Library,  by  a  grand  lottery.  The  scheme  should  be  dis- 
countenanced by  every  weQ-wisher  of  Masonry;  and  we  trust  the 
Craft  of  Michigan  will  Aow  their  fiddity  to  the  best  interest  of 
the  Order,  by  revising  to  give  the  project  any  aid  or  c(Hnfi>rt. 
Let  us  not  violate  the  laws  of  our  State,  and  become  partidpants 
in  an  offense  ag^st  morality  and  law.  Let  us  be  ^^  quiet  and 
peaceable  citizens,  true  to  our  government  and  just  to  our  coun- 
try;'* let  ufl  not  ^*  countenance  disloyalty  or  rebellion,  but  patiently 
submit  to  leglsl  authority  and  conform  with  dieerfhlneas  to  the 
government  of  the  country  in  which  we  live.**  Thus  doing,  we 
shall  be  acting  safely,  and  no  evil  can  ensue. 

THB    ASHLAR.  181 


At  a  regular  Commnnication  of  Byron  Lodge  of  F.  A  A.  Maaoiu, 
hdd  Kov.  12th,  1856,  the  following  resolutions  were  submitted 
by  Brothers  B.  W.  Dennis,  I.  Wixom,  and  J.  Close,  a  committee 
appointed  for  that  purpose,  and  adopted  by  an  unanimous  vote  : 

Whibbas,  Our  beloved  Brother,  om*  dear  friend  and  respected  dUzen,  Thbo- 
DOBB  iBi.  M.  Gbosb,  was,  by  the  hand  of  death,  taken  from  among  his  Brethren, 
kindred,  and  friends,  at  Byron,  Friday  morning,  the  fifteenth  of  Aognst  last : 
TherefMre,  as  a  UAea  of  our  deep  sorrow,  and  as  a  siiglit  expression  of  our 
regard,  be  it 

Bmdhed,  Thai  when  we  consider  the  worth  of  onr  departed  Brother, 
with  a  character  so  excellent,  with  a  disposition  so  amiable,  with  a  purpose  in 
life  so  noble  and  elevated ;  as  a  citizen  so  respected,  and  as  a  husband  and  son 
so  beloved,  there  are  no  words  adequate  to  express  our  grief  at  his  loss.  We 
sympathlM  most  sbxserely  with  the  afflicted  widow,  the  fi^ther,  and  other  rela- 
tives of  the  deceased  In  their  bereavement ;  we  feel  the  poverty  of  language  to 
administer  consolation,  and  while  we  can  hardly  expect  to  assuage  their  grief, 
we  would  bid  them  sorrow  not  as  those  without  hope. 

Seidhed,  That  this  Lodge  has  lost  one  of  its  brightest  ornaments,  and  that 
the  Craft  have  lost  a  Brother,  who,  by  his  s^eal,  integrity,  and  unwearied  exer- 
tions, had  rendered  himself  beloved  by  all  *,  that  society  has  lost  a  pillar,  the 
oommnnity  an  honest  man,  a  kind  nel^bor,  and  a  friend  who  will  be  cherished 
long  in  the  hearts  of  its  members. 

Sesdhedj  That  we  tender  our  sincere  regard  to  A.  H.  Boon,  Esq.,  Superin- 
tendent of  Detroit  and  MUwankee  Railroad,  for  the  Hberality  he  showed  the 
fHends  of  the  deceased,  in  allowing  them  to  pass  free  of  charge  from  Oaines  to 
Springfield,  to  perform  the  ftmeral  obsequies. 

Be$oiwdt  That  a  copy  of  these  resolutions  be  transmitted  to  the  widow  and 
fother  of  the  deceased,  as  an  expression  of  our  hearti^t  sympathy  with  thoao 
who  mourn  his  loss. 

Beaclhed,  That  the  members  of  this  Lodge  wear  the  customary  badge  of 
mourning,  in  testimony  of  their  great  appreciatioa  of  the  deceased,-  and,  also, 
the  Charter  be  dressed  in  moum£g  thirty  days. 

Reaoived,  That  these  resolutions  be  printed  in  Tax  Abblab,  Cobuvva  Dbxo- 
CBAT,  and  the  OwASSo  Abbbicait. 

Died,  on  or  about  the  seventh  of  November,  1856,  Bro.  Aus- 
tin W.  LBsnrftB,  on  the  shore  of  Lake  Superior,  near  Whiskey  Bay. 
His  death  was  caused  by  cdd  and  &tague.  He  was  a  member  of 
TiVindsor  Lodge,  C.  W.  His  remains  were  buried  with  Masonic 
honors  at  Detroit  on  the  sixte^ith  ult. 


•    ■    ■♦  •  • 

The  preTioiis  munben  of  Thb  Ashlab  hare  been  printed  at  the  "  Fre» 
Press"  office,  in  Detroit  Oar  work  has  been  well  and  pnnctoally  dono^  THhb 
present  nnmber  was  printed  at  the  new  and  extensive  job  estabUshmeot  of 
Palmbs,  FuHXft  db  Flbxivo,  on  Shelby  Street,  Detroit.  The  work  speaks  for 
itself.  The  type,  presses  and  other  materials  used  are  entirely  new,  and  we 
•hare  reason  to  believe  that,  with  care  and  attention,  the  future  nnmbers  of  Tbb 
Ashlab  will,  in  appearance  and  freedom  from  typographical  errors,  excel  pie- 
Tions  issoes.  Palvbb,  Pishbs  &•  FLBinva  have  ample  fodlities  for  execatlng, 
well  and  quickly,  any  kind  of  Job  work  entrusted  to  their  care ;  and  we  cheer^ 
Ailly  and  voluntarily  recommend  them  to  our  readers. 

Do  Tou  bbcbivb  Trb  Abpiab  bbottlablt  T — ^We  would  thank  any  of  our 
subscribers  who  have  not  received  Thb  Ashlab  regularly,  to  inform  us  of  the 
ilict.  We  have  an  experienced  and  careftil  mail-man,  who  seldom  makes  a 
mistake.  If  there  be  any  difficulty,  it  is  generally  in  the  post-office.  Will  our 
subscribers  uaform  us  immediately  of  irregularity  1 

To  OvB  Chicago  Sitbscbibbbb. — ^We  would  say,  your  numbers  of  Tbb 
Ashlab  have  been  regularly  mailed,  yet  we  have  intelligence  that  some  of  you 
have  not  received  them.  If  any  of  you  have  fiuled  to  receive  your  numberit  be 
kind  enoni^  to  iofbrm  us  by  letter. 

Pat  vob  Tsb  Ashlab. — ^We  deshre  all  subscribers  who  are  in  arrears  for 
last  year,  or  who  have  not  pdd  for  thiv  year,  to  forward  us  the  amotmt  of  their 
Indebtedness  ftNr  Thb  Ashlab,  at  the  tSme  of  the  meeting  of  the  Grsiid  Lodge, 
"Which  will  be  14th  day  of  January  next  Hand  tl^  moody  to  our-agoB^  or  if 
you  do  not  know  of  any  agent,  forward  it  by  some  Brother  who  will  attend  the 
Communication  of  the  Grand  Lodge. 

Sbkd  nr  SoBSOBiBBBS.— Win  our  agents  and  Brethren  in  different  localities 
oblige  us  by  procuring  the  names  of  new  subscribers,  and  forwarding  them  at 
tH*  before  the  meeting  of  the  Grand  Lodge.  We  have  printed  an  edition  irhich 
win  enable  us  to  supply  back  numbers,  so  that  each  subscriber  wiU  have  the 
Yolume  complete.  With  a  very  little  effort,  many  of  our  patrons  can  obtain 
one  more  name  for  our  list.  Each  one  is  smaU  of  itself,  but  the  aggregate  of 
the  small  sums  gives  vitaUty  to  the  enterprise.    Brother,  wiU  you  aid  our  work  ? 

THE    ASHLAR.  isa 

BmsD  r  A  Talb  or  thb  Okbat  Dismal  Swaxp.  Bt  Haxbibt  Bbbcbbb 
Stows. — ^Thi»  is  the  iitte  of  another  work,  by  the  author  of  Uncle  Tom'» 
Cabin.  It  is  a  tale  founded  on  real  or  imaginary  incidents  connected  with 
Southern  slayery.  It  has  not  exdted  so  much  interest  as  its  predecessor. 
While  some  persons  find  little  in  its  pages  to  interest  them,  others  peruse^ 
it  with  much  pleasure.  The  peculiar  class  to  which  it  belongs,  places  it 
without  our  province  of  criticism  in  the  pages  of  Thb  Ashlab.  It  may  be  pur- 
chased  at  the  book  store  of  Kerr,  Morley  &>  Co.,  Jefferson  Avenue,  Detroit. 

Gbaud  Council  op  Mains. — This  body  was  formed  in  May,  1855.  It  held, 
its  Annual  Communication  in  May  last.  The  following  persons  were  elected  to 

Robert  P.  Dunlap,  Gr.  Puissant;  Joseph  C.  Stevens,  Dcp.  Or.  Puissant; 
Freeman  Bradford,  Gr.  Th.  Illustrious ;  Hii^m  Chase,  Gr.  Pr.  Con.  of  the 
Work ;  A.  B.  Thompson,  Gr.  Capt.  of  the  Guard ;  Charles  Forbes,  Gr.  Trea- 
surer ;  Ira  Berry,  Gr.  Recorder ;  Cyna  Cummings,  Gr.  Chaplain ;  Isaac  Davis, 
Gr.  Steward  and  SentineL 

Seven  Councils  were  represented. 

AnvBRTiBiNO. — ^We  would  again  call  attention  to  Thb  Asrlab  as  an  adver- 
tising medium.  It  circulates  into  every  part  of  Michigan  and  throughout  the 
North-west,  and  the  other  States.  Those  who  wish  to  communicate  with 
country  merchants  can  not  find  a  better  medium. 

Brother,  the  cold  winter  is  upon  us.  Many  will  su£fer  ih>m  its  inclem- 
ency ;  remember  that  it  is  your  duty  to  alleviate  the  distresses  of  such.  Do 
you  give  of  your  means  to  the  indigent  t  Do  you  live  up  to  the  inculcations  of 
our  Institution  1    This  question  each  must  answer  for  himself. 

Gabbttbbb  Aim  Busihbss  Dibbotobt  or  tbb  Statb  op  Hicbioak,  fob 
1856-7. — ^This  book  has  been  issued  by  H.  Huntington  Lee  db  Co.,  and  James 
Suth^land.  It  is  very  beautifully  printed  on  excellent  paper  and  well  bound. 
It  contains  a  large  amount  of  valuable  information,  and  a  directory  of  the  busi- 
ness men  of  the  State,  which  is  very  accurate,  and  complete.  The4>ubli8hcrs 
deserve  a  liberal  patronage.  "  Price,  three  dollars — ^mailed,  postage  free,  to- 
any  part  of  United  States  or  Canada,  on  the  receipt  of  the  above  amount" 

Bbo.  S.  C.  CoFFiiTBUBT. — ^Wc  present  our  readers  in  this  number  with  a  beau- 
tliU  little  poem  from  the  pen  of  Bro.  Cofflnburyr  This  distinguished  Brother 
will  in  the  friture  i^pear  in  our  pages  as  a  regular  contributor.  The  January 
number  will  contain  his  first  prose  contribution  to  Tbb  Ashlajl 

There  is  nothing,  says  Plato,  so  delishtfril  as  speaking  the  truth.  For  thia 
reason  there  is  no  conversation  so  agreeable  a4  that  of  the  man  of  integrity,  who 
hears  without  any  intention  to  betray,  and  speaks  without  any  intention  to  de« 

184  THE    ASHLAR. 

To  ouB  AasiTTe. — ^We  wish  our  agenta  to  collect  ndwcriptions  due  for  Tm 
Abblab,  and  forward  the  money  to  ua  at  the  moetlog  of  the  Qrand  Lodge. 

St.  Johh's  Dat. — ^We  have  heard  of  no  celebrftUoxvi  prqjected  for  the  ap- 
proaching St.  John's.  Wo  presume  there  will  be  many.  We  wonld  be  obliged 
to  those  who  wiQ  send  ns  accounts  of  snch  celebrations  for  publication. 

We  commence  in  this  nmnber  the  publication  of  an  original  story,  wrIW 
ten  expressly  for  Ths  AsHLAa,  entitled  "  A  Tale  of  the  Suppression  of  the 
Order  of  the  Temple.^'  We  hare  perused  it  with  much  interest,  and  doubt  not 
it  will  afford  our  readers  profit  and  interest. 

The  Grand  Lodge  of  Kentucky  met  on  the  thirteenth  of  Octob^  last. 
It  recogmzcd  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Canada. 

We  are  pleased  to  learn  that  the  work  of  the  Lodges,  which  wajT  re- 
tarded by  the  late  political  campaign,  has  been  commenced  in  all  parts  of  the 
State  with  renewed  Yigor.  Let  it  be  conducted  cautiously,  and  let  it  be  "  good 

Bro.  Hyncman,  of  the  Mirror  and  Keystcne,  is  in  trouble.  We  hope 
aomo  humane  individual  will  find  some  remedy  for  the  singular  complaint 
which  annoys  him.    Hear  him : 

Which  causes  us  the  most  bother — ^the  mails  or  the  females  1    The  latter 
keep  us  wriUng  letters  all  the  time,  while  the  former  never  deliver  them. 

C5^  The  ftutemity  at  Nashville,  Tennessee,  and  at  Frankfort,  Kentucky, 
have  recently  lost  their  halls  by  fire. 

t^  Mr.  R.  H.  h^,  writing  from  Washington,  Pennsylvania,  correotmg  a 
statement  in  Governor  Wise's  oration  at  Lexington,  relates  the  following  aneo- 
dota  of  Washmgton: 

During  General  Washington's  administration,  he  aUnost  daily  attended  his 
room,  aj\joining  the  Stnate  Chaml»cr,  and  often  arrived  before  the  Senate  or- 
ganized. On  one  occasion,  just  before  his  arrival,  Gov.  Morris  and  some  other 
Senators  were  standing  toorethcr,  conversing  on  various  topics,  and  amOBg 
them  the  natural  bat  majestic  air  of  Gcueral  Wa«hington,  when  one  observed 
there  was  no  man  living  could  take  a  liberty  with  him.  The  sprightiy  and 
bold  Morris  remarked,  "  1  will  bet  a  dozen  of  wine  I  can  do  that  with  ini- 
punity."  The  bet  was  accepted.  Soon  after  Washinjjton  appeared,  and  com- 
menced an  easy  and  pleasant  conversation  with  one  of  the  gentlemen,  at  a  little 
distance  from  the  others.  While  thus  engaged,  Morriff^,  fitrpping  up,  in  a 
jocund  manner,  tapped  Washington  on  the  shoulder  in  a  vety  familiar  manner, 
and  said,  "Good  morning,  old  fellow!"  The  General  tum<^.d,  and  merely 
looked  him  in  the  face,  without  a  word,  when  Morris,  with  all  his  assumed 
effrontery,  stepped  hahtily  back,  in  evident  discomposure,  and  said,  "  Gentle- 
tletnen,  you  have  won  the  bet.  I  will  never  take  such  a  liberty  again  1"  The 
writer  received  this  from  one  who  waa  a  member  of  the  Senate,  and  preeeot. 


TOLL       DETEOIT,  JANUAEY,  1856.        NO.  V. 




A  faw  dayi  aAer  this  sh&U  reacli  the  e^es  of  onr  readers,  the 
Onnd  Lodge  of  Mlohigu)  will  assemble.  Its  dnties  will  be  jmpor- 
tsat,  and  its  labors,  arduous.  To  gnard  the  saored  troat  committed  to 
its  eharge,  and  legislate  wisely  for  the  advancement  of  the  Craft,  are 
not  easy  tsslcfl ;  they  require  wisdom,  discretion,  and  severe  applioa- 
tion.  The  aiuiital  conTention  of  the  representatives  of  the  lodges, 
although  affording  an  opportunity  for  pleasant  social  interoonrse  and 
fraternal  greetbgs,  is  not  a  mere  putime.  QnestionB  of  nsgnitade 
are  to  be  considered,  which  woold  tax  the  powers  of  tita  greatest  in- 
telleets ;  and  decisions  are  to  be  made,  that  will  materially  effect  the 
mtereeti  of  tbe  Institation.  The  work  of  the  session  should  be  ap- 
ptoadied  with  a  seriousness  and  a  sense  of  reqwnsibili^  irtiieh  w* 

19 — VOL.  I.  50.  V. 

186  TH£  ASHLAR. 

doubt  not  will  be  experienced  by  those  who  shall  be  honored  with  the 
character  of  delegates. 

It  is  not  our  province  to  anticipate  the  action  of  the  Grand  Lodge, 
to  allude  the  many  and  varions  questions  which  will  arise,  or  to  dic- 
tate any  specific  course  of  action ;  we  propose  simply  to  briefly  con- 
sider a  few  of  the  glaring  evils  which  now  retard  the  progress  of  the 
Fraternity,  and  offer  some  suggestions  for  their  removal  During  the 
past  four  months,  we  have  travelled  over  a  large  portion  of  Michigan, 
and  visited  many  lodges.  The  following  remarks,  therefore,  will  bo 
founded  on  facts  gathered  by  our  personal  observation. 

The  rapid  increase  of  the  Graft  and  of  lodges  in  this  jurisdiction 
during  the  past  year,  has  been  a  theme  of  general  remark.  Li  it  evi- 
dence of  prosperity?  or  is  it  an  unhealthy  growth  like  that  of  the 
plant  which,  sustained  by  a  soil  too  highly  enriched  by  man's  eulti- 
vation,  early  blossoms,  and  basks  in  the  sunshine  only  to  sicken  and 
decay,  and  bears  no  palatable  fruit?  Whatever  opinion  may  be  en* 
tertained  on  this  subject,  we  would  suggest  no  plan  for  the  purpose 
merdy  of  checking  the  rapid  advancement  of  our  numbers :-  the  pre- 
sent condition  of  affairs  should  cause  us  to  realise  the  necessity  of 
maintaining  at  all  times  proper  safeguards ;  if  with  these  firmly  es- 
tablished and  adhered  to,  the  augmentation  continues,  no  apprehen- 
sion need  be  entertained  for  the  result. 

There  is  no  State  in  the  Union  where  a  greater  uniformity  in  the 
ritual  prevails,  than  in  Michigan.  As  far,  therefore,  as  our  lodges 
obtain  a  knowledge  of  work,  they  tread  in  the  beaten  track.  Sut  the 
difficulty  is,  that  many  of  them  do  not  make  a  proper  proficiency,  and 
are  without  the  light  essentially  necessary  to  impart  a  proper  under- 
standing of  the  "■  ancient  and  honorable''  Institution  of  Masoniyy 
maintain  its  dignity,  and  impress  upon  the  minds  of  candidates  the 
wise  and  serious  truths  which  it  inculcates.  There  are  liew  lodges 
and  old  lodges,  whose  officers  cannot  confer  some  of  the  degrees,  and 
in  many,  the  forms  and  ceremonies  are  conducted  in  such  a  blunder- 
ing, i^iritless  way,  and  in  such  miserable  and  poorly  fitted  rooms,  that 
indifference  or  disgust  may  well  take  the  place  of  zeal  and  energy. 
A  small  dirty  apartment  dimly  lighted  with  smoky  candles,  without 
ft  Master's  carpet,  without  pillars,  with  stations  consisting  of  common 
chairs  and  tables,  with  ante-rooms  wholly  unfit  for  the  uses  for  which 
they  are  designed — officers  clothed  in  regalia  of  cotton  cloth  and  tin 
jewels— what  Mason,  who  has  travelled  in  this  jurisdiction,  has  not 
seen  such !  and  what  Mason  when  he  has  seen  them,  has  not  felt  that 
Brethren  have  met  in  a  temple  unworthy  the  Order  and  its  great  and 

THE  ASHLAR.  187 

iMiiefioeiit  objects  1  The  eyil,  resulting  from  these  things^  is  serious. 
The  first  impression  made  upon  the  mind  of  a  candidate  is  of  the 
utmost  importance.  If  he  sees  at  once  the  moral  beauties  of  Mar 
sonrj,  his  interest  and  seal  are  awakened ;  he  eagerly  presses  forward 
to  gain  further  light  respecting  an  institution  which  has  surviyed  the 
lapse  of  time,  the  ruthless  hand  of  ignorance,  the  devastations  of  war^ 
and  has  come  down  to  us  from  remote  generations  with  its  most  ex- 
cellent tenets  unimpaired ;  he  manifests  a  laudible  ambition  to  obtain 
an  accurate  knowledge  of  the  lectures  and  work — ^the  means  of  tm- 
limited  usefulness.  He  who  fails  on  his  initiation — through  the  igno* 
ranee  or  carelessness  of  those  who  conduct  the  ceremonies,  on  account 
of  the  miserable  equipments  of  the  lodge  room,  or  from  any  other 
cause — ^to  appreciate  the  lessons  of  morality  which  are  inculcated, 
becomes,  too  frequently,  a  drone  in  the  hive,  and  a  useless  member  of 
the  Order — yea,  more,  he  is  a  dead  weight,  and  by  his  indifference 
before  the  world,  tends  to  bring  discredit  upon  the  Fraternity.  As  the 
number  of  such  persons  increases,  dangers  of  greater  magnitude  are  to 
be  apprehended.  There  is  but  one  course  for  wise  men  to  pursue. 
Take  time  by  the  forelock,  check  the  evil,  and  prevent  it  in  future  if 
possible,  and  not  wait  till  it  has  grown  too  powerful  to  be  overcome. 

The  best  interests  of  the  Institution  demand  that  those  Lodges 
which  have  not  members  competent  to  properly  peform  the  work, 
should  be  prohibited  conferring  the  degrees,  until  the  officers  have 
acquired  the  knowledge  which  the  discharge  of  their  duties  demands. 
No  new  lodge  should  be  permitted  to  initiate  a  candidate  before  the 
Master  and  Wardens  have  given  conclusive  evidence  that  they  are 
oorrectly  and  thoroughly  instructed  in  the  ceremonies  of  all  the  de- 
grees, and  are  competent  to  conduct  them.  The  provision  whidi  now 
exists  in  reference  to  this  matter,  has  not  accomplished  the  end  for 
which  it  was  designed.  Either  it  should  be  more  rigidly  enforced,  or 
some  new  rule  should  be  adopted.  Every  subordinate  body  should 
also  be  obliged  to  meet  in  a  safe  and  convenient  room,  and  procure 
for  the  same,  suitable  e^pments ;  and.eaoh  new  lodge  should  be  com- 
pelled to  comply  wiA  the  requisition  previous  to  commencing  its 
work.  This  course  may  at  first  appear  too  stringent,  but  a  careful 
consideration  will,  we  confidently  believe,  produce  the  conviction  that 
it  is  demanded  by  the  best  interests  of  the  Graft. 

A  compliance  with  the  above  suggestions  might  lead  to  an  investi- 
gation, or — ^if  we  may  be  allowed  the  expression — an  werha^iling  of 
^e  afiUrs  of  the  Sratemity  in  the  State.  We  can  see  no  harm  in 
such  an  examination ;  on  the  contrary,  we  believe  it  would  result  in 

188  THE  ASHLAB. 

miioh  good.  Never  was  there  a  better  time  to  inatitate  it  The  rapid 
advancement  of  the  Order  and  the  constant  increase  of  oar  numbers, 
are  evidence  that  the  Institation  would  speedily  progress  nnder  any 
salutary  rules,  however  strictly  enforced.  Any  scrutiny  which  could 
be  observed,  and  any  reform  to  which  an  enquiry  might  lead,  would 
but  refine  and  purify  the  Association — separate  the  wheat  £rom  the 
chaff — ^the  pure  gold  from  the  useless  dross. 

It  has  been  suggested  that  the  proposed  changes  may  be  realised 
through  the  instrumentality  of  the  Orand  Lecturer.  We  feel  that 
we  are  now  approaching  one  of  the  most  important  subjects  on  which 
the  Grand  Lodge  will  be  called  upon  to  act.  The  restrictions  and 
regulations  which  surround  the  Grand  Visitor,  cripple  his  action,  and 
render  his  efforts  in  a  great  degree  powerless  for  good.  His  compen- 
sation is  so  arranged  that  he  receives  an  incompetent  salary  unless  he 
attends  meetings  of  almost  all  the  lodges  in  the  jurisdiction.  The  reso- 
lution regulating  this  matter  says  his  remuneration  shall  be  '^  the  pro- 
portion for  each  lodge  visited,  as  twelve  hundred  dollars  bears  to  the 
whole  number  of  lodges  in  the  State."  If  he  visits  only  half  the  whole 
number,  he  is  entitled  to  six  hundred  dollars — ^if  only  a  third,  to  four 
hundred  dollars.  Under  such  circumstances,  a  man  of  proper  stand- 
ing and  accomplishments,  who  is  fitted  to  properly  discharge  the  im- 
portant duties  of  the  office,  can  ill-afford  to  lay  aside  his  private  buri- 
ness  and  become  Grand  Lecturer,  unless  he  can  include  in  his  oiroait 
all  the  subordinate  bodies.  During  the  past  year,  Bro.  Goggahall  has 
been  present  at  a  meeting  of  every  lodge  but  one  in  the  State.  This 
is  no  small  labor,  when  we  take  into  consideration  the  wide  spread 
territory  of  Michigan.  It  is  impossible  for  any  person,  whatever 
may  be  his  ability  and  acquirements,  to  faithfully  perform  ihe  work  of 
Grand  Lecturer  when  constrained  to  pursue  such  a  course.  Many  of 
the  subordinate  bodies,  it  is  well  known,  do  not  need  any  assistance  •* 
the  time  therefore  spent  with  them,  is  uselessly  expended.  Besides 
this,  the  large  number  which  claims  his  attention,  prevents  the 
Lecturer  devoting  the  requisite  time  to  any  one  lodge  diat  requires 
his  instruction.  The  result  is,  as  far  as  we  can  judge,  that  little  in- 
formation is  given  to  those  who  are  most  in  want  of  it,  and  the  offi- 
ears  of  many  lodges  are  unable  to  properly  sn^rintend  or  conduct 
the  work,  while  some  cannot  confer  the  degrees.  Common  sense 
would  seem  to  dictate  timi  tiiis  state  of  things  riieuld  be  speedily 

We  regard  the  office  of  Grand  Lecturer  as  neeessazy,  and  eminently 
useftil  under  proper  regulationB.    It  has  noi  generally  been  held  in 

THB  ASHLAB.  180 

the  iifjtk  ettimaiioQ  which  it  detervas.  To  folfil  ita  dutiat^  a  pacsoii 
fhonld  po886fl8  not  only  a  thorqiigh  knowledge  of  tho  rhnal,  but  ahonld 
be  oonyeraant  with  the  history  of  tho  Order,  and  versed  in  Masonic 
jarisprodence.  He  is  looked  up  to  by  many  as  the  light  and  the 
guide,  and  is  constantly  consulted  on  questions  of  moment  For  one, 
we  desire  to  see  the  office  clothed  with  proper  dignity— to  have  its 
fifphere  enlarged — and  to  attach  to  it  a  liberal  salary  that  will  remu- 
nerate a  competent  Brother  for  the  deyotion  of  his  whole  time  to  its 
labors.  Let  him  take  a  general  superintendence  of  the  Graft;  let  it 
be  his  iq[>ecified  duty,  beside  imparting  a  knowledge  of  the  lectures 
and  work,  to  inspect  lodge  rooms  and  their  equipments,  and  in- 
4|uire  into  the  manner  in  which  their  business  is  generally  conducted ; 
and  when  he  finds  anything  seriously  objectionable,  let  him  report  the 
same  to  the  Grand  Master.  Let  it  be  his  duty  to  visit  all  new 
lodges,  and  before  they  can  initiate,  give  a  certificate  that  they  have 
complied  with  the  requisitions  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  and  are  competent 
to  work.  It  may  be  thought  that  many,  if  not  all  these  things,  come 
properly  within  the  scope  of  the  Lecturer's  duty  now.  We  desire  to 
.see  them  made  imperaHvey  to  place  more,  responsibility  on  the  Visi* 
tor,  and  not  permit  lodges  to  work,  as  some  of  them  are  now  doing, 
with  inc<Hnpetent  officers,  in  unsafe  rooms,  and  with  cotton  and  tin 
regalia.  Obliged  to  perform  the  duties,  and  clothed  with  the  rights, 
specified,  the  Grand  Lecturer  could  give  all  his  time  and  energies  to 
the  Craft,  and  direct  his  labors  into  those  channels  where  they  are 
most  needed.  Instead  of  visiting  lodges  which  are  well  informed, 
he  could  devote  himself  to  the  uninstntcted.  Then,  he  could  as  well 
afford  to  spend  a  week  or  fortnight  in  a  place,  as  he  can  now  afford  to 
spend  a  day. 

The  evils  whidi  are  so  conspicuous,  and  which  have  been  alluded  to, 
arise  not  from  any  fault  of  the  Grand  Lecturer,  or  of  Masters  or  offi- 
cers of  lodges ;  they  are  the  natural  result  of  the  present  system. 
Bro.  Cogshall  has  shown  a  commendable  zeal  in  giving  as  much  atten- 
tion to  those  who  would  profit  by  his  instructions,  as  circumstances 
would  permit ;  and  Masters  who  are  uninformed  have  displayed  a 
corresponding  desire  to  receive  his  teachings.  Neither  the  one  nor 
the  other  has  been  suited ;  the  Lecturer  has  frequently  been  com- 
pelled with  regret  to  forego  his  desire  to  accept  invitations  for  re- 
peated visits,  and  the  officers  of  lodges  have  experienced  chagrin  and 
mortification  at  his  absence,  thinking,  perhaps,  that  their  interests  wete 
negleeted.  We  cannot  put  shackles  up^  a  man  and  expect  him  to 
run  as  briskly  as  though  he  were  dothed  merely  in  his  ordinary  ap- 

190  THE  ASHLAR. 

parel;  nor  can  we  place  conditions,  like  those  wliieh  now  exist,  aroimd 
the  Grand  Visitor,  and  expect  him  to  devote  to  many  lodges  the  time 
which  may  be  necessary  to  properly  instruct  them.  Bro.  Gogshall  ia 
now  thoroughly  acquainted  with  the  condition  of  each  lodge  in  the 
jurisdiction,  and  knows  in  what  places  the  services  of  the  Lectnrer 
will  be  needed  during  the  coming  year;  Would  it  not  be  well,  there- 
fore, to  permit  that  officer  to  direct  his  labors  in  a  great  degree,  as 
his  judgment  shall  dictate  ? 

The  compass  of  this  article  will  not  permit  us  to  enlarge  upon  the 
subject  under  consideration,  and  present  our  views  more  at  length. 
The  remarks  which  have  been  made  are  designed  more  for  the  purpose 
of  suggesting  thoughts,  and  leading  others  to  reflect,  than  to  enforce 
the  necessity  of  any  specific  plan.  We  have  confidence  that  the  Grand 
Lodge  will  act  wisely,  and  for  the  highest  advancement  of  the  Graft. 

Before  closing,  we  feel  constrained  to  allude  to  a  topic  which  should 
claim  the  attention  of  the  Grand  Lodge.  It  is  a  &ct  well  known  to 
the  most  casual  observer  among  Masons,  that  a  knowledge  of  the  lec- 
tures— ^indeed  of  the  essentials — ^is  possessed  by  a  very  limited  num- 
ber of  the  Fraternity.  This  is  wrong.  A  provision  exists  in  the  consti- 
tution of  the  Grand  Lodge  which  is  designed  to  remedy  the  defect, 
but  is  little  better  than  a  dead  letter.  It  is  a  requisition  of  much 
importance,  and  yet  is  generally  disregarded.  We  have  on  a  previous 
occasion  given  our  views  respecting  this  matter,  and  need  not  here 
repeat  them.  The  degree  of  proficiency  required  of  candidates  is  now 
regulated  by  the  judgment  of  each  Master,  and  may  differ  materially 
in  different  lodges.  Would  it  not  be  well  for  the  Grand  Lodge  to 
decide  tohat  prt^ciency  shall  be  made  by  those  who  wish  to  take  the 
second  and  third  degrees  ?  By  doing  this,  and  making  it  imperative 
on  Masters  to  see  that  the  rule  is  complied  with,  a  source  of  much 
indifference  would  be  removed,  and  a  great  benefit  would  be  con- 

Wherever  the  superior  body  of  the  Masonic  Institution  is 
situated,  that  place  is  called  the  Grand  East  London,  York,  Dublin, 
Edinburgh,  Paris,  Vienna  and  Amsterdam  are  Grand  Easts.  Bach 
State  in  this  country  has  a  Grand  Bast.  The  meaning  and  applica- 
tion of  thi^  term  will  be  easily  understood  by  Masons. 

THE   ASH  LAB.  191 

For  The  Aahiar. 

At  the  last  session  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Michigan,  in  aooordanoe 
with  the  recommendation  of  the  Grand  Master,  a  committee  appointed 
for  the  purpose,  reported  an  amendment  to  the  constitution,  rektive  to 
regalia.  The  amendment  is  in  the  shape  of  a  new  article,  and  may 
be  foxmd  at  length  in  the  printed  proceedings  of  the  communication 
referred  to.  Upon  this  amendment  the  Grand  Lodge  will  be  required 
to  act  at  the  coming  session. 

There  can  be  little  doubt  but  that  a  large  proportion  of  the  Fra- 
ternity recognize  the  propriety  of  securing  by  constitutional  enact- 
ment a  general  uniformity  in  the  clothing  of  the  Graft  in  this  juris- 

Wherever  the  writer  of  this  article  has  met  his  Brethren  in  the 
lodge  room,  or  in  Masonic  procession,  the  sad  want  of  a  standard  of 
regalia  has  forced  itself  upon  his  attention.  He  has  noticed  aprons 
of  many  shapes,  and  all  conceivable  devices — some  of  them  certainly 
so  novel  and  exceedingly  ugly  as  to  surpass  anything  in  the  line  of 
aprons  from  the  fig  leaf  of  our  first  parents,  down  to  those  worn  by 
the  present  generation.  The  collars  also  form  an  admirable  study  for 
lovers  of  the  curious  and  unique. 

Such  a  state  of  things  should  not  be.  We  exult  in  the  hoi  that 
the  Masonic  Institution  has  come  down  long  centuries  of  time,  un- 
changed— ^that  throughout  the  world  its  lessons  are  taught,  and  its 
lectures  given,  materially  the  same,  and  yet,  in  no  two  Lodges  of  this 
State,  can  be  found  the  same  style  of  regalia.  If  in  all  else 
they  agree,  why  should  they  not  in  this  respect  ? 

It  may  be  said  in  opposition  to  placing  anythmg  upon  the  consti- 
tution in  this  regard,  that  ^  the  lambskin  or  white  leather-apron"  is 
the  badge  of  a  mason.  True,  it  is — ^but  you  seldom  find  the  plain, 
white  apron  unadorned  by  ornament  or  symbol,  and  what  is  desired 
is,  that  the  Grand  Lodge  should  say  f4f hat  particular  ornament  and 
what  particular  symbol  (if  any)  shall  be  worn  by  each  particular 
officer  or  craftsman  accordmg  to  degree. 

In  no  State  of  the  Union  is  the  writer  aware  that  any  such  action 
as  is  now  proposed  has  ever  been  had  ;  but  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Eng- 
land have  incorporated  in  their  constitution  an  article  which,  in  his 
opinion,  would  fully  meet  the  want  existing  here.  It  is  that  article 
in  the  main  which  has  been  submitted  by  the  committee  to  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  Michigan,  and  to  which  this  communication  is  de- 
signed to  call  attention. 

102  THE  ASHLAR. 

The  Grand  Lodge  of  England  and  its  provincial  Grand  Lodges 
with  their  subordinates  conform  to  the  standard  proposed,  and  no 
objection  on  the  ground  of  taste  or  propriety  can  be  urged  against  ii» 
adoption  in  this  jurisdiction.  On  the  contrary,  it  cannot  but  be 
admired  as  giving  a  signifioancy  to  the  shape  of  the  apron  that  will 
be  readily  understood  by  Masonic  eyes. 

Any  person  who  has  been  fitvored  with  a  view  of  our  Canadian 
Brethren  in  a  body,  cannot  have  fitiled  to  admire  the  uniformity  in 
clothing,  and  to  draw  a  contrast  between  them  and  the  Masons  of 
this  country  in  that  particular. 

The  committee  on  foreign  correspondence  in  the  Chrand  Lodge  of 
Indiana,  has  been  pleased  to  pronoxmce  the  report  made  to  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Michigan,  as  '^balderdash"  The  learned  Brother  who 
penned  that  report  will  doubtless  be  made  easy  when  assured  that  the 
old  parent  Grand  Lodge  of  England  originated  the  standard  ha 
condemns,  and  not  the  ^  three  intelligent  Masons  of  Michigan."  The 
only  difference  between  them  is,  that  the  Michigan  committee  make 
it  optional  with  the  Fraternity  to  wear  "linen"  or  "^ leather," 
while  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  compels  them  to  wear 
^leather."  The  word  "linen"  will  probably  be  struck  out  by  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  our  State. 

As  an  evidence  of  the  necessity  of  some  provision  upon  this  sub- 
ject, the  writer  will  state  that  in  at  least  one  of  the  Lodges  of 
northern  Indiana  the  officers  wear  red  collars  trimmed  with  blue. 
One  would  suppose  that  Indiana  would  rather  €^pprove  the  report  of 
our  committee  than  censure  it.  However,  not  having  a  copy  of  the 
constitution  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  in  his  possession,  the 
Grand  Secretary  of  that  State  probably  presumed  it  original  with  the 
"  three  intelligent  Masons"  of  Michigan,  and  was  opposed  to  so  young 
a  Grand  Lodge  takmg  the  initiative  in  the  matter. 

It  must  be  conceded  that  some  action  on  this  subject  by  the  Grand 
Lodge  should  be  had.  If  that  Grand  body  do  no  more,  let  them 
assert  the  plain  leather-apron  to  be  the  regalia  to  be  worn  in  our 
Lodges,  and  that  no  other  will  be  tolerated.  Only  give  us  tsntfor- 
mity,  and  put  an  end  to  the  impositions  practiced  by  venders  of  all 
sorts  of  aprons  and  collars  upon  the  members  of  our  Order!  Let  it 
be  so  that  by  our  dress  we  may  be  known,  and  not  that  we  may  be 
taken  for  Odd  Fellows,  Templars,  or  UnitedA  mericans. 

While  to  many,  the  proposed  reglia  may  commend  itself  on  account 

of  its  plain  beauty,  its  signiicancy,  and  its  or^in,  to  others  it  may 

seem  unsuitable.    Let  the  delegates  to  the  Grand  Lodge  consider  the 
matter,  but  let  us  at  least  have  some  standard  adcpted.  k. 

THE   ASHLAR.  199 

Trom  fha  KlRor  tad  KeyftOBA. 



THio  has  not  felt  upon  the  spirit  fall, 

The  soft,  nndyiDg  memory  of  the  past, 
indued  with  power  its  fond  dreams  to  recall—- 

Dreams  that  were  far  too  sweet  and  bright  to  last  t 
Aje,  back  they  come — ^the  years  departed,  gone, 

£ach  bearing  in  its  train  some  treasure  fled— 
Each  telling  of  some  pleasure  once  our  own — 

Some  joj  we  long  have  mourned  as  faded,  dead. 

And  there,  too,  are  the  fair  ones  early  lost. 

Called  'mid  the  anguish  of  our  tears,  away. 
Ere  yet  the  troubloua  waves  of  time  had  tossed 

Their  feeble  frames  with  fierce  and  angry  Qway; 
In  youth's  fair  mom  thej^  to  the  grave  were  given, 

£re  sin  had  power  their  purity  to  stain; 
Immortal  angels  now,  they  dwell  in  Heaven^ 

Eternally  exempt  from  grief  and  pain. 

And  there  are  they,  the  chosen  and  the  dear, 

l^hose  natures  with  our  own  were  intertwined^ 
Who  made  life  lovely,  while  they  tarried  here-^ 

Departing,  left  no  joy  for  us  bebind  I 
Again,  iheir  spirits,  hovering  o'er  us,  bend. 

And  breathe  a  sacred  blessing  on  our  hearts: 
Holy  and  bright  the  influence  they  lend. 

And  sweet  the  calm  their  message  kind  impartik 

They  whisper— 'tis  but  in  their  bodies  only. 

That  from  us  they,  the  precious  ones,  have  fled; 
A  gpafd  and  watch  about  our  spirits  lonely. 

They  hold,  and  heavenly  light  upon  them  shed^ — 
Beloved  and  gentle  ffnides.    ul  may  ocr  £Mt 

Be  tauffht  the  perfect  path  of  life  to  take,  *  * 

That,  in  bright  realms  or  glory,  we  may  meet 

With  yon*  whoM  love  death  hath  no  power  to  brtak  I 


Dedication  of  Lodges. — Id  cootiDnatioD  of  onr  review  of  the  Re- 
port in  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Massachusetts  in  1851,  on  the  petition  of 
Bro.  Jacob  Norton,  and  six  other  brethren  of  the  Jewish  persnasion, 
we  will  now  offer  some  remarks  on  what  we  characterized  in  conclu- 
ding the  article  in  our  last  number,  the  more  difficult  subject  of  tha 
dedication  of  Lodges. 

20 — VOL.  I.   NO.  V. 


Lodge  halls  are  dedicated  to  Masonry,  Virtue  and  Universal  Be- 
nevolence. How  should  Lodges  be  dedicated?  In  America,  and  un- 
der the  Grand  Lodge  at  London,  for  an  uncertain  period  prior  to 
1813,  they  haye  been  dedicated  to  one  or  both  of  the  Sts.  John.  The 
petitioners  objected  to  this  dedication.  The  Committee  to  whom  this 
petition  was  referred,  answer  this  objection :  that  it  is  a  landmark ; 
that  snch  has  been  the  dedication  of  Lodges  in  Massachusetts  since 
the  first  was  opened  in  that  State,  in  1833  ;  that  they  knew  no  other 
Masonry  than  that  which  they  have  received,  and  that  they  must 

If  landmarks  relate  to  usages  and  ceremonies,  then  we  lay  down  as 
the  incontroyertible  rule  that,  those  only  can  be  landmarks  whose 
origin  is  coeval  with  the  Institution,  or  supposed  to  be  so,  knowing 
nothing  to  the  contrary.  If  a  time  can  be  shown  when  they  had  an 
origin  by  legislation  of  Grand  Lodge,  a  General  Assembly,  or  other- 
wise, then  they  are  still  subjects  of  legislation  by  General  Assemblies 
or  Grand  Lodge.  Now,  whether  Lodges  were  dedicated  originally  to 
God,  or  to  Solomon,  it  is  quite  certain  that  they  were  not  to  both  or 
to  either  of  the  Sts.  John.  There  was  a  time  when  a  change  was 
made,  and  that  time  was,  comparatively  speaking,  more  or  less  mod- 
em. If  our  rule  be  true,  then,  the  dedication  of  Lodges  is  a  matter 
of  pure  regulation.      •••••• 

The  length  of  time,  according  to  some  authotities,  pleads  strongly 
for  the  retention  of  the  dedication  to  one  or  both  the  Sts.  John ;  but 
there  is  a  strong  argument  in  opposition,  viz :  the  tendency  which 
such  a  dedication  has  to  introduce  errors  and  innovations.  This  has 
already  been  done.  The  allunion  to  the  Christian  character  and  ser- 
vices of  the  Sts.  John,  commenced  in  the  latter  part  of  the  last  century, 
and,  in  some  jurisdictions,  may  be  found  at  the  present  day.  That  it 
would  hare  been  better  to  have  continued  the  old  dedication,  what- 
ever that  may  have  been,  we  cannot  doubt.  But  for  the  evil  of  which 
we  have  spoken,  there  would  be  no  complaint,  however,  except  per- 
haps, the  calling  our  patrons  Saints.  No  Jew — ^in  Mississippi,  at 
least — ^has  any  other  cause  of  fault  finding,  if  that  should  furnish  one. 
A  travelling  lecturer,  a  few  years  ago,  introduced  the  innovation  rela- 
tive to  the  Sts.  John,  but  we  are  happy  to  say  that  it  has  been  rejec- 
ted by  authority.  Let  us  trace  back,  if  we  can,  the  history  of  the 
dedication  of  Lodges.  From  the  variety  of  opinions  expressed  bj 
writers  on  the  subject,  and  the  lack  of  record  evidence,  the  task  is  one 

THE   ASH  LAB.  195 

ef  mnoli  diffioalty.  The  M assaoIiTiMtis  committee  refer  to  history. 
They  state  in  subfltance : 

The  first  Lodge  on  this  continent  was  opened  in  Boston  in  1733^ 
the  charter  having  been  obtained  from  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England* 
A  charter  was  granted  to  St.  Andrew^s  Lodge  in  1752,  bj  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Scotland.  The  committee  would  go  back  to  these  dates^ 
and  ascertain  how  it  was  at  that  time  with  the  Grand  Lodges  of  Eng- 
land and  Scotland.  Thej  appear  to  take  it  for  granted,  and  it  may 
be  true,  that  in  1733  and  1752,  Lodges  were  dedicated  to  the  Sts. 
John  in  Boston,  and  their  first  enquiry  is  into  the  practice  in  1733  in 
England.  With  the  practice  in  England  now,  they  say  they  hope 
nothing  to  do.  They  think  that  Masonry  was  pure  and  unchanged 
at  the  revival  in  1717,  and  give  an  extract  from  old  lectures,  as  they 
say.  by  Anderson,  as  follows:  "  Q. — From  whence  came  you?" 
«  A.— From  the  holy  Lodge  of  St.  John," 

And  this  they  consider  unequivocal  testimony  that  Lodges,  under 
this  revived  system,  were  dedicated  to  St.  John.  And  as  further 
testimony,  they  quote  a  law  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England,  [Lon- 
don] of  1721,  requiring  that  Lodges,  in  or  about  London  and  West- 
minster, should  hold  an  annual  communication  on  the  anniversary  of 
one  of  the  Sts,  John ;  and  that  the  Grand  Lodge  of  New  York,  in 
the  time  of  Elizabeth,  more  than  two  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago, 
when  she  sent  her  officers  to  break  up  the  Grand  Lodge,  held  its  meet- 
ings on  St.  John  the  Evangelist's  Day.  This  custom  has  existed 
from  time  immemorial,  say  the  Committee,  according  to  Dr.  Oliver 
who  derived  his  information  from  the  old  Gothic  Constitutions,  a  copy 
of  which  was  produced  at  a  grand  festival,  on  St.  John's  Day,  in  tiie 
year  1663: 

^  In  a  formula  used  a  little  later  than  the  middle  of  the  last  cen- 
tury, called  '  the  Old  York  Lecture^  the  Sts.  John  occupy  a  promi- 
nent situation.  A  parallel  is  drawn  between  them,  and  one  is  said  to 
have  finished  by  his  learning  what  the  other  began  by  his  zeal,  and 
hence  the  dedication  to  them.  The  Sts.  John  occupy  their  places  as 
the  paeons  of  Masonry,  according  to  Oliver,  in  the  lectures  compiled 
by  Sayer,  Payne  and  Desaguliers,  and  improved  by  Anderson,  Desa- 
guliers  and  Cowper ;  in  the  reviewers  of  Dunckerly  and  Martin  Clare^ 
twice  repeated,  and  in  the  extended  rituals  of  Hutchinson,  Preston 
and  others,  which  were  in  use  down  to  the  union  in  1813." 

In  Scotland,  (they  quote  Oliver,)  the  Kilwinning  Efystem  may  be 
traced  back  to  the  12th  century,  and  is  called  Si  John's  Masonry, 
and  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Scotland  has,  among  its  present  laws,  that 
no  Lodge  shall  confer  more  than  three  degrees,  E.*.  A.'.,F.'.  C.-.,  and 

196  TH  E   ASHLAR. 

M.-.  H.'.)  denominated  St  John's  Masonry.     The  Committee  also 
copy  from  Bro.  Oliver,  but  without  credit,  the  following : 

'^  In  a  formula  used  a  little  later  than  the  middle  of  the  last  cen- 
tury, which  was  called  *  the  Old  York  Lecture,*  the  two  Sts.  John  oc- 
cupy a  prominent  situation — the  following  is  an  extract : 

Q. — *•  To  whom  wore  the  Lodges  dedicated  under  the  Christian  dis- 
pensation 7 '  A. — ^  From  Solomon  the  patronage  passed  to  St.  John 
the  Baptist.*  Q. — '  Why  were  Lodges  dedicated  to  St.  John  the 
Baptist  ?  *  A. — *  Because  he  was  tho  forerunner  of  our  Saviour ;  and 
by  preaching  repentance  and  humiliation,  drew  the  first  parallel  of 
the  Gospel.'  Q.— *  Had  St.  John  any  equal  ? '  A.—*  He  had  :  St 
John  the  Evangelist'  Q. — *•  Why  is  he  said  to  be  equal  to  the  Bap- 
tist ? '  A. — ^  Because  he  finished  by  his  learning  what  the  other  be- 
gan by  his  zeal,  and  thus  drew  a  second  parallel  to  the  former ;  ever 
since  which  time,  Freemasons'  Lodges,  in  M  Christian  countries,  have 
been  dedicated  to  the  one  or  the  other,  or  both,  of  these  worthy  and 
worshipful  men." 

In  1721,  Dr.  Oliver  states,*  it  was  thus:  "  God's  good  greeting  be 

to  this  our  happy  meeting.     And  all  right  worshipful  brothers  and 

fellows  of  the  right  worshipful  and  holy  Lodge  of  St  John." 

Q. — "•  Why  do  you  denominate  it  the  holy  Lodge  of  St  John  ?" 
A. — ^  Because  he  was  the  forerunner  of  our  Saviour,  and  laid  tho 
first  parallel  line  to  the  Gospel" 

In  another  formula,  continues  Bro.  Oliver,  which  was  introduced 
by  Bro.  Dunckerly,  the  parallelism  is  still  more  intelligibly  enun- 
ciated : 

^  In  all  regularly  constituted  Lodges,  there  is  a  point  within  a  cir 
cle ;  the  point  representing  an  individual  brother ;  the  circle  represent- 
ing the  boundary  line  of  his  duty  to  God  and  man,  beyond  which  he 
is  never  to  suffer  his  passions,  prejudices  or  interests  to  betray  him, 
on  any  occasion.  This  circle  is  embroidered  by  two  perpendicular 
parallel  lines,  representing  St  John  tho  Baptist  and  St.  John  the 
Evangelist,  who  were  perfect  parallels  in  Christianity  as  well  as  in 
Masonry ;  and  upon  the  vertex  rests  the  book  of  the  Holy  Scriptures, 
which  point  out  the  whole  duty  of  man.  In  going  round  this  circle, 
we  necessarily  touch  upon  the  two  lines,  as  well  as  on  the  Holy  Scrip- 
tures; and  whilst  a  Mason  keeps  himself  thus  circumscribed,  it  is  im- 
possible that  he  should  materially  err." 

In  the  four  formulas  which  have  been  quoted,  we  have  one  of  greet- 
ing, one  touching  the  dedication  and  parallelism  together  and  the  two 
other  the  latter  alone ;  the  last  considerably  "  improved  "  by  Bro. 
Dunckerly.  Dr.  Oliver  speaks  of  the  *•'  Old  York  Lecture,"  the  one 
tokich  was  in  use  in  the  latter  part  oftJie  last  century.  It  was  prob- 
ably the  Lecture  of  Grand  Lodge  of  the  Ancients^  which  Bro.  Oliver 

^  MliTor  for  tbe  J<duuiiiiiU  Maaon,  Letter  IIL 

THE   ASHLAB.  197 

calls  the  ''  Old  York  Leotnre."  Bro.  Randall  does  not  give  the  whole 
lecture  as  given  by  Bro.  Oliver,  and  as  some  of  onr  readers  may  learn 
some  thing  new,  wo  will  give  all  w  hich  Bro.  Oliver  publishes : 

Q. — Our  Lodges  being  finished,  furnished  and  decorated  with  or- 
naments,  to  whom  were  they  consecrated.  A. — To  Noah,  who  was 
saved  in  the  ark.  Q  — And  by  what  name  were  Masons  then  known  ? 
A. — They  were  called  Noahcidae,  Sages,  or  Wise  Men.  Q. — To  whom, 
were  the  Lodges  dedicated  during  the  Masonic  dispensation.  A. — To 
Moses,  the  chosen  of  God,  and  Solomon,  the  son  of  King  David,  King 
of  Israel,  who  was  an  eminent  patron  of  the  Craft.  Q  — And  under 
what  name  were  Masons  known  during  that  period  1  A. — Under  the 
name  of  Dionysiacs,  Geometricians,  or  Masters  in  Israel.  Q. — But, 
brother,  as  Solomon  was  a  Jew,  and  died  long  before  the  promulga- 
tion of  Christianity,  to  whom  were  they  dedicated  under  the  Chris- 
rian  dispensation?  A. — From  Solomon ,  the  patronage  of  Masonry 
passed  to  St.  John  the  Baptist.  Q. — And  under  what  name  were 
they  known  after  the  promulgation  of  Christianity  1  A. — ^Under  the 
name  of  Essenes,  Architects  or  Freemasons.  Q  — Why  were  Lodges 
dedicated  to  St.  John  the  Baptist?  A. — Because  he  was  the  fore- 
runner of  our  Saviour,  and  by  preaching  repentance  and  humiliation, 
drew  the  parallel  of  the  Gospel,  &c.,  as  above." 

"  In  the  ritual  practiced  by  the  Lodges  in  the  north  of  England,  a 
little  later  in  the  century ^^  says  Dr.  Oliver,  "  we  find  the  following 
passage :  '  Our  Lodges  are  untruly  said  to  be  dedicated  to  St.  John, 
because  the  Masons  who  engaged  to  conquer  the  Iloly  Land  chose 
the  Saint  for  a  patron.  We  should  be  sorry  to  appropriate  the  Bal- 
sarian  sect  of  Christians  to  St.  John,  as  an  explanation  of  this  prin- 
ciple. St.  John  obtains  our  dedication  as  being  the  proclaimer  of 
that  salvation  which  was  at  hand  by  the  coming  of  Christ ;  and  we, 
as  a  set  of  religious  men  assembling  in  the  true  faith,  commemorate 
the  proclamations  of  the  Baptist.  In  the  name  of  St.  John  the  Evan- 
gelist, we  acknowledge  the  testimonies  which  he  gives,  and  the  divine 
Logos  which  he  makes  manifest."  ♦  •  •  u  Qqj.  beauty  is  such  as 
adorns  all  our  actions ;  is  hewn  out  of  the  rock,  which  is  Christ ; 
raised  upright  with  the  plumb  lino  of  the  Gospel,  and  squared  and 
levelled  to  the  horizontal  of  God's  will,  in  the  holy  Lodge  of  St  John, 
and  as  such  becomes  the  temple  whose  maker  and  builder  is  God." 

Again,  Dr.  Oliver :  "  The  old  lectures  [no  authority  given]  dis- 
tinctly explain  the  origin  of  their  appropriation  in  the  following  words, 
which  are  but  the  extension  of  a  ritual  already  cited : 

"After  the  flood  the  Masons  were  called  Noachidae,  and  from  the 
buildinff  of  the  tabernacle,  the  Lodges  were  dedicated  to  Moses. 
From  the  building  of  the  first  temple  at  Jerusalem  to  the  Babylonish 
captivity,  Freemasons*  Lodges  were  dedicated  to  King  Solomon ;  from 

198.  THE   ASHLAR. 

tfaenoe  to  the  coming  of  Shilo,  thej  were  dedicated  to  Zenibbabel,  and 
from  that  time  to  the  final  destruction  of  the  temple  by  Titns,  thej 
were  dedicated  so  St.  John  the  Baptist;  but  owing  to  the  many  masa- 
cres  and  disorders  which  attended  that  memorable  event,  Freemasonry 
sunk  very  mnch  into  decay ;  many  Lodges  were  entirely  broken  np, 
and  few  could  meet  in  sufficient  numbers  to  constitute  their  legality ; 
and  at  a  general  meeting  of  the  Craft,  held  at  Jerusalem,  it  was  ob- 
served that  the  principal  reason  for  the  decline  of  Masonry,  was  the 
want  of  a  Orand  Master  to  patronize  it ;  they,  therefore^  deputed  seven 
of  their  most  eminent  members  to  wait  upon  St.  John  the  Evangelist, 
who  was  at  that  time,  Bishop  of  Ephesus,  requesting  him  to  take  the 
office  of  Orand  Master.  He  returned  for  answer,  that,  though  well 
stricken  in  years,  yet  having  been,  in  the  early  part  of  his  life,  initia- 
ted into  Masonry,  he  would  accept  the  office ;  thereby  completing  by 
his  learning  what  the  other  St.  John  had  begun  by  his  zeal ;  and  thus 
drew  what  Freemasons  term  a  line  parallel ;  ever  since  which,  Free- 
masons' Lodges,  in  all  Christian  countries,  have  been  dedicated  both 
to  St  John  the  Baptist  and  to  St.  John  the  Evangelist'' 

We  italicise  the  word  and.    Again  we  are  indebted  to  Dr.  Oliver  : 

'^  In  a  system  of  Masonry  used,  as  it  is  confidently  affirmed,  in  the 
fourteenth  century,  the  following  passage  occurs  in  the  0.  B. : 

*  That  you  will  always  keep,  guard  and  conceal, 

*  And  from  this  time  you  never  will  reveal, 

*  Either  to  M.  M.,  F.  C,  or  Apprentice 

*  Of  St.  John's  Order  what  our  grand  intent  is.' " 

By  whom  this  system  of  Masonry  was  used,  on  what  authority  it  is 
stated  that  these  doggerel  lines  were  either  said  or  sung  five  hundred 
years  ago,  our  Brother  does  not  inform  us.  Until  further  enlightened, 
we  are  bound  to  reject  this  testimony  as  without  authority. 

[To  be  continued.] 

"  The  fair  fabric  of  Masonic  splendor  was  planned  and  reared 
and  finished  for  durability.  It  has  withstood  the  shocks  of  time,  the 
revolution  of  ages,  the  concussions  of  empires,  and  the  convulsions  of 
hostile  contending  nations.  While  everything  unsolid  in  nature  falls ; 
while  kings  and  kingdoms  arelost  in  the  vortex  of  revolutions;  and  thrones 
crumble  into  ruin,  and  totter  and  fall  from  their  basis.  Masonry  tow- 
ers above  all  that  is  awful  and  ruinable  in  nature's  realm,  stands  un- 
moved as  the  mountain  rock.  She  has  passed  safely  through  the  dark 
ages  of  superstition  and  bigotry,  when  wars  and  commotions  convuls- 
ed the  world  to  its  centre,  and  when  change  seemed  to  sway  a  scep- 
tre of  universal  empire." 

THBA8HLAB.  199 

^  BsraESHMENT''  IN  THE  SEVENTEENTH  Oentu&t. — "^  0x16  evenbg, 
as  these  choice  flpirits  sat  round  the  table  after  supper — and  suppers, 
I  must  tell  yon,  in  those  halcyon  days,  generally  terminated  the  busi- 
ness of  the  Lodge — Brothers  Lamball,  Sorell,  Beloe,  Ware,  Madden, 
Yilleneau,  Noyes,  Cordwell,  Salt,  Gofton,  Senez,  Hobby,  Mountain, 
and  a  few  others  being  present  with  the  W.  M.,  all  celebrated  Masons, 
whose  names  are  all  well  known  to  the  Graft,  Bro.  Lamball,  who  was 
an  incorrigible  laugher,  and  that  in  no  very  mild  tone  of  voice,  being 
tickled  by  some  witty  remark,  indulged  his  propensity  in  a  regular 
horse-laugh.  Bro.  Madden  rose  with  much  gravity,  and  addressing 
the  chair,  said — ^  B.  W.  Sir,  did  you  ever  hear  a  peaceful  lamd  bawl 
(Lamball)  so  vociferously?"  ^No,''  said  Bro.  Desaguliers,  ^but 
IVe  heard  a  mad'un  (Madden)  make  an  ugly  naUe  (Noyes)." 

<<  Oh !"  rejoined  Bro.  Sorrell,  "<  let  him  ride  his  hobby  (Hobby) 
quietly,  his  lungs  will  be  no  worse  for  toear  (Ware).'' 

"  Aye,''  Bro.  Ware  snapped  in,  "  particularly  if  the  color  of  hii 
hobby  be  sorrel  (Sorrel).    Ha  I  ha  1  ha  1" 

^  The  lamb  had  better  go  to  sea  next,  (Senex)  and  then  he  may 
belhw  (Beloe)  against  the  roaring  of  the  sale  (Salt)  waves  as  they 
dash  upon  the  mountain  (Mountain),"  shouted  Bro.  Hobby. 

^  Well,"  replied  Bro.  Lamball,  ^  I  shall  never  quarrel  with  any 
Brethren  who  hold  the  cord  vfelly  (Gordwell — cable  tow)  for  this  or 
anything  else,  provided  he  does  not  call  me  a  villain  0 1  (ViUeaeau) 
Hal  ha!  hal" 

^I  shall  not  Brothers  and  fellows,"  responded  Bro.  Yilleneau, 
''question  your  good  faith,  although  you  cany  on  so  briskly  a  ^ 
Funnc  war." 

''  A  truce  to  your  wit,"  Bro.  Madden  interposed,  ''I  thirst  to  mend 
my  simile." 

'<  Nay,"  said  the  W.  M.,  ^  if  Bro.  Madden  thirsts,  why  there's  an 
end  of  it." 

<<  Oh  I  no !"  echoed  Bro.  Noyes,  ^  if  hpun  is  meant,  I  move  that 
we  inflict  the  usual  ^nuAm^n^." 

^  Why  then,"  says  the  chair,  ^  we  will  replenish  the  glasses,  and 
try  to  qu^oh  Bro.  Madden's  thirst  with  a  toast}^ 

Now  all  this  may  appear  very  puerile  to  you,  sir,  but  I  assure  you 
it  is  a  correct  sample  of  the  wit  of  the  age,  and  formed  the  staple 
commodity  of  a  lively  conversation  at  taverns  and  clubs,  which  were 
then  the  resort  of  the  higher  nobility  and  gentry  of  the  land. — The 
Reeelations  rf  a  Square,  by  Dr.  Olioer. 


7or  The  Aihtir. 



All  old  masoDS  in  western  New  York  will  remember  Major  J- 

G.,  who  formerlj  resided  in  L.,  but  for  the  last  twenty  years  he  has 
been  a  resident  of  Michigan.  The  Major,  it  will  be  remembered, 
was  one  of  the  few  masons  who  withstood  the  shocks  of  anti-masonry 
in  1827  and  1828.  For  many  years  the  Major  was  the  object  of  the 
malevolence  of  the  anti-masons,  and  many  were  the  bitter  invectivea, 
«nd  yile  calumnies  heaped  upon  hioL  He  was  a  man  below  the 
medium  size,  but  remarkably  muscular,  and  those  who  have  expe- 
rienced the  grip  of  his  hand  will  not  soon  forget  its  power.  It  was 
like  a  vice,  and  he  could  always  graduate  it  to  suit  circumstances — ^an 
instance  of  which  we  will  relate.  It  was  during  the  year  1827,  while 
the  anti-masonic  excitement  was  high,  that  a  party  of  masons  among 
whom  was  Major  G.,  was  one  evening  assembled  at  the  ^  Eagle 
Tavern"  in  L.,  spending  a  few  social  hours,  when  a  tall,  lank  speci- 
men of  humanity  entered  the  room,  and  in  a  loud  voice  exclaimed, 

"Gentlemen,  do  any  of  you  know  Major  J s  G.  ?    I  hare  heard 

that  he  was  a  man  who  could  give  the  masonic  grip,  and  I  have  come 
all  the  way  from  Cattaraugus  county  to  get  it  I  want  the  real 
Master  MasorCs  grip."  At  this,  the  Major  stepped  forward,  and  said, 
'^  I  am  Major  G.,  and  if  you  want  the  masonic  grip,  I  suppose  I  can 
give  it  to  you  as  well  as  any  other  man."  Suiting  the  action  to  the 
word,  the  Major  took  the  fellow's  brawny  hand  in  his  own,  and  ap- 
plied a  moderate  degree  of  pressure,  to  which  the  man  from  Cattarau- 
gus manifested  considerable  uneasiness,  said  his  curiosity  was  satis- 
fied, and  desired  to  be  released,  but  the  Major  very  playfully  told 
him  that  this  was  only  the  Entered  Apprentice's  grip,  and  that  he  had 
two  degrees  more  to  take  before  he  could  obtain  the  Master  Mason's 
grip.  The  Major  then  applied  more  pressure,  which  brought  Gatta* 
raugus  upon  the  ends  of  his  toes,  groaning  and  writhing  with  pain. 
In  vain  did  he  implore  to  be  released ;  in  vain  did  he  protest  that 
he  had  got  enough  of  Masonry — ^his  hand  was  in  the  inexorable  grasp 
of  the  Major,  and  escape  was  impossible.  '^  You  have  got  the  Entered 
Apprentice's,  and  Fellow  Craft's,  grip,  it  is  true,  but  you  wanted  the 
Master  Mason's,  and  you  must  have  it  You  have  come  a  long  way 
to  get  it,  and  it  would  be  wrong  for  me  to  let  you  go  home  without 
it.  Yes,  you  mtist  haye  the  '  real  Master  Mason's  grip.'  There,** 
said  the  Major,  at  the  same  time  exerting  his  great  muscular  power 

THE  ASHLAR.  201 

upon  the  band  of  hiB  wriihing  victim,  whioli  made  the  bones  fairly 
crack,  ^  there,  this  is  the  real  Master  Mason^s  grip,  and  it  is  such  a 
grip  as  joa  will  never  forget — ^and  when  jou  go  home,  tell  jonr  Catta- 
Tangos  friends  that  should  any  of  them  want  the  reai  grip,  that 

Major  J-< s  Gr.,  of  L.,  can  probably  give  it  to  them  as  well  as  any 

man  alive."  The  Major  released  his  grasp,  and  the  blood  which  had 
started  from  the  ends  of  the  poor  fellow's  fingers,  told  the  fearful 
power  of  the  "  real  Master  Mason^s  grip."  a. 


tContiniied  from  page  1S5.] 

Answers  to  Cross-interrogatories :  1.  That  he  is  not  aware  of  the 
existence  of  any  serious  discontent  or  differences  previous  to  the  oc- 
currence of  '^  the  division  or  schism,"  most  of  the  disagreements  hav- 
ing (according  to  tradition)  arisen  subsequently  to  the  proceedings 
which  were  taken  for  the  formation  of  the  Athol  Grand  Lodge. 

2.  That  the  only  information  which  he  can  give  in  regard  to  the 
adoption  or  signature  of  '*  the  thirty-nine  Articles  or  Regulations,"  is 
such  as  is  derivable  from  the  printed  Book  of  the  Constitutions  of  the 
Freemasons,  published  in  London,  in  1723,  and  a  second  edition  of 
the  same,  published  in  1738,  and  also  the  ^'  Ahiman  Rezon,"  or  book 
of  old  and  new  regulations,  by  Lawrence  Dermott,  published  in  Lon- 
don, in  1756. 

3.  That  he  does  not  consider  that  the  articles  or  regulations  refer- 
red to  ^^  formed  a  solemn  compact,  unalterable,  without  dishonor ; " 
but,  on  the  contrary,  that  they  were  alterable  by  the  votes  of  the 
Grand  Lodge,  and  that,  in  fact,  after  their  first  publication  in  1723, 
alterations  were  made,  as  will  appear  by  reference  to  the  second  edi- 
tion, which  was  published  prior  to,  and  without  causing  any  disagree* 
ment  or  schism,  and  as  will  also  appear  by  reference  to  the  first  edi- 
tion of  the  ^  Ahiman  Rezon,"  published  in  1756,  or  after  the  schism. 

4.  That  as  matters  of  record,  those  articles  or  regulations  were  pre- 
served only  in  the  old  printed  books  of  constitutions  by  the  Grand 
Lodge,  of  which  he  was  Grand  Sccretaiy,  prior  to  the  union,  and  also 
by  the  other  Grand  Lodge ;  and  the  books  are  also  preserved  as  mat- 
ter of  record  by  the  Grand  Lodge,  of  which  he  is  now  Grand 

21 — ^VOL.   L   NO.    V, 

202  THE  ASHLAR. 

5.  That  all  Past  Masters  of  Lodges  are  entitled  to  vote  in  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  England,  who  have  not  ceased,  (subseqnentlj  to  their 
Mastership)  to  be  members  of  a  private  Lodge  for  a  term  specified  in 
the  existing  laws  of  the  United  Grand  Lodge. 

6.  That  John,  the  third  Duke,  Marquis  and  Earl  of  Athol,  was 
Grand  Master  of  that  part  of  the  fraternity  of  Masons  in  England  be- 
longing to  the  Grand  Lodge  formed  in  1753,  from  the  time  of  his 
election  to  that  office  until  his  death,  on  the  5th  of  December,  1774. 

The  *»  Copy  "  and  "  Statement "  mentioned  in  the  reply  to  the  eleventh  inter- 
rogatory : 

The  union  of  the  two  previously  existing  Grand  Lodges  in  England, 
was  concluded  on  the  27th  of  December,  1813. 

By  the  articles  of  the  union  which  had  previously  been  arranged, 
and  received  the  assent  of  the  separate  Grand  Lodges,  at  meetings 
respectively  held  on  the  first  day  of  December,  1813,  and  accepted, 
ratified,  and  confirmed  unanimously  by  the  two  bodies,  when  assem- 
bled on  the  said  27th  of  December,  it  was  by  the  7th  article  declared, 
that  '^  The  United  Grand  Lodge  of  Ancient  Freemasons  of  England, 
shall  be  composed,  except  on  days  of  festival,  in  the  following  man- 
ner, as  a  just  and  perfect  representative  of  the  whole  Masonic  Frater- 
nity of  England,  that  is  to  say,  of — The  Grand  Master,  Past  Grand 
Masters,  Deputy  Grand  Master,  Past  Deputy  Grand  Masters,  Grand 
Wardens,  Provincial  Grand  Masters,  Past  Grand  Wardens,  Past 
Provincial  Grand  Masters,  Grand  Chaplain,  Grand  Treasurer,  Joint 
Grand  Secretary,  or  Grand  Secretary, — if  there  be  only  one — Grand 
Sword  Bearer,  Twelve  Grand  Stewards,  to  be  delegated  by  the  Stew- 
ards* Lodge,  among  their  members,  existing  at  the  union,  it  being 
understood  and  agreed  that  from  and  after  the  union,  an  annual  ap* 
pointment  shall  be  made  of  the  Stewards,  if  necessary. 

^  The  actual  Masters  and  Wardens  of  all  warranted  Lodges,  Past 
Masters  of  Lodges,  who  have  regularly  served  and  passed  the  chair 
before  the  day  of  union,  and  who  have  continued,  with  secession,  regu- 
larly contributing  members  of  a  warranted  lodge.  It  being  under- 
stood, that  of  all  Masters  who,  from  and  after  the  day  of  the  said 
union,  shall  regularly  pass  the  chair  of  their  respective  Lodges,  but 
one  at  a  time,  to  be  delegated  by  this  Lodge,  shall  have  a  right  to  sit 
and  vote  in  the  said  Grand  Lodge,  so  that  after  the  decease  of  all  the 
regular  Past  Masters  of  any  regular  Lodge  who  had  obtained  this 
distinction  at  the  time  of  the  union,  the  representation  of  such  Lodge, 
shall  be  by  its  actual  Master,  Wardens  and  one  Past  Master  only. 

"  And  all  Grand  officers  in  the  said  respective  Grand  Lodges  shall 
retain  and  hold  their  rank  and  privileges  in  the  United  Grand  Lodge 
as  Past  Grand  officers,  including  the  present  Provincial  Grand  Mas- 
ters, the  Grand  Treasurers,  Grand  Secretaries  and  Grand  Chaplains, 
in  their  several  degrees,  according  to  the  seniority  of  their  respeeti^e 
appointments,  and  where  such  appointment  shall  have  been  contem- 

THB  ASHLAR.  203 

{>oraneoTi8,  the  Beniority  shall  be  determined  by  lot.  In  all  other  re* 
spects,  the  above  shall  be  the  general  order  ofjpreeedence  in  all  time 
to  come^  with  this  express  provision,  that  no  Provincial  €rrand  Miis- 
ter,  hereafter  to  be  appointed,  shall  be  entitled  to  a  seaf  in  the  Grand 
Lodge  after  he  shall  have  retired  from  such  situation,  nnleM  he  shall 
have  discharged  the  duties  thereof  for  fnll  five  years." 

The  *  Copy  "  and  "  Statement "  mentioned  in  the  reply  to  the  twelfth  inter- 

Extract  from  the  original  record  of  the  transactions  of  the  Grand 
Lodge,  of  which  John,  third  Doke  of  Athol,  was  afterwards  Grand 

Grand  Lodge,  Sept.  4th,  1665,  BelPs  Tavern.  The  B.  W.  James 
Gibson,  Esq.,  8.  G.  W.,  in  she  chair. 

"  Proposed^  That  every  Past  Master  shall  be  a  member  of,  and 
have  a  vote  in,  all  Grand  Lodges,  during  his  continuance  a  member  of 
any  Lodge  under  the  ancient  constitutions." 

''  This  proposal  occasioned  long  and  varied  debates ;  several  of  the 
Masters  and  Wardens  argued  strenuously  against  the  motion,  while 
the  presiding  officer  and  three  Masters  were  the  only  persons  who 
spoke  in  favor  of  it.  At  length  an  amendment  was  proposed,  and 
agreed,  and  then.  Grand  Warden  Gibson,  the  President,  put  the  ques- 
tion in  this  form,  viz : 

"  That  regular  Past  Masters,  while  members  of  private  lodges  un- 
der the  sanction  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  shall  be  members  hereof,  and 
have  votes  in  all  cases  except  in  making  new  laws.  Upon  casting  up 
the  poll,  the  number  appeared  thus :  For  the  Past  Masters,  48 ; 
against  them,  26 ;  majority  for  them,  22.  Therefore  it  is  hereby  or-^ 
dered  and  declared  that  from  and  after  the  third  day  of  December, 
one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  sixty-five,  all  and  every  regular  Past 
Master,  while  a  member  of  any  private  lodge  under  the  sanction  of 
this  Grand  Lodge,  shall  be  a  member  of  this  Grand  Lodge  also,  and 
shall  have  a  vote  in  all  cases  except  in  making  new  laws,  which  power 
is  vested  in  the  Masters  and  Wardens,  as  being  the  only  true  repre- 
sentatives of  all  the  lodges,  according  to  the  old  regulation,  the 

The  copy  of  "Report"  mentioned  in  the  reply  to  direct  interrogatory 

"  Most  Woeshipful  Grand  Master  : — In  obedience  to  your  com- 
mands, wc  have  attentively  considered  the  subject  of  the  differences 
subsisting  among  the  brethren  of  the  State  of  New  York. 

^  About  the  year  1782,  a  Provincial  Grand  Lodge  was  duly  estab- 
lished at  New  York,  under  a  charter  dated  the  6th  of  September^ 
1781,  granted  by  the  Grand  Lodge,  of  which  the  then  Duke  of  Athol 
was  Grand  Master.  This  charter  authorized  the  ^  Provincial  Grand 
Master  and  Grand  Wardens,  together  with  the  lawful  associates,  being 
the  installed  Masters,  Wardens,  and  Past  Masters  of  the  regular 

204  THE  ASHLAB. 

lodges  wiihin  the  jarisdiotion/'  to  act.  After  the  recognition  of  the 
independence  of  the  United  States,  this  Grand  Lodge  ceased  to  be 
provincial,  and  assumed,  and  has  ever  since  maintained,  the  character, 
and  exercised  4he  functions  of  an  independent  Grand  Lodee,  and  has 
since  been  so  considered  and  recognized  by  the  Grand  Lodce  of  Eng- 
land. Its  constitution,  as  revised  in  1845,  declared  (in  article  3)  the 
Grand  Lodge  to  consist  of  the  Grand  officers  and  certain  Past  Grand 
officers,  the  Masters  and  Wardens,  or  the  representatives,  legally  ap- 
pointed, of  all  the  lodges  under  its  jurisdiction ;  ^  and  the  Past  Mas- 
ters, Masters  by  election  and  service  of  one  year  in  the  chair  of  all 
such  lodges."  It  also  provided  that  the  annual  meetings  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  should  bo  held  in  the  city  of  New  York  on  the  first  Tuesday  in 
June ;  that  meetings  therein  called  quarterly  should  be  held  on  the 
first  Tuesdays  in  September,  December  and  March  in  each  year ;  that 
special  meetings  might  be  called  by  the  Grand  Master,  but  that  no 
regulation,  affecting  the  general  interests  of  the  craft,  should  be  edop- 
ted  or  changed,  except  at  the  annual  meetbg  in  June.  The  106th 
article  is  as  follows : 

^  First. — No  amendment  to  this  constitution  shall  be  made  or  have 
any  effect  until  the  same  shall  have  had  the  affirmative  vote  of  the 
Grand  Lodge  at  two  successive  communications,  unless,  in  addition 
to  the  affirmative  vote  of  the  Grand  Lodge  at  one  June  communica- 
tion, it  shall  have  received  the  affirmative  vote  of  a  majority  of  the 
lodges  within  this  jurisdiction.  If  such  proposed  amendment  shall 
receive  the  affirmative  vote  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  at  one  June  commu- 
nication, the  same  shall  then  be  appended  to  the  published  proceed- 
ings at  the  end,  under  caption  '  Proposed  Amendments  to  the  Consti- 
tution,' and  sent  to  each  lodge  within  this  jurisdiction,  in  order  that 
ihe  lodges  may,  if  they  think  proper,  instruct  their  representatives 
thereon,  and  the  action  of  the  Grand  Lodge  in  relation  thereto  shall 
also  appear  in  its  appropriate  place  in  the  proceedings." 

[To  be  oonttnaed.] 

We  place  the  spiritual  lodge  in  the  vale  of  Jehoshaphat,  int- 
plying  thereby,  that  the  principles  of  Masonry  are  derived  from  the 
knowledge  of  God,  and  are  established  in  the  judgment  of  the  Lord ; 
the  literal  translation  of  the  word  Jehoshaphat,  from  the  Hebrew 
tongue,  being  no  other  than  these  express  words.  The  highest  hills 
and  the  lowest  valleys  were  from  the  earliest  times  esteemed  sacred, 
and  it  was  supposed  that  the  spirit  of  God  was  peculiarly  diffusive  in 
those  places.  Hutchinson. 

THE  ASHLAR.  205 

From  ttie  Betiev. 


Weary  hearts  are  weeping— careworn  and  oppreat. 

For  fhe  difltant  lOTed  one,  gently  laid  to  rest; 
Weeping,  sadlj  weeplnff,  o*er  the  nousehold  chain. 

Heretofore  so  perfect,  broken  dow  in  twain. 
And  we  Ioto,  in  fancy,  still  to  linger  there. 

Leaning,  sadly  leaning  o'er  the  vacant  chair; 
List'ning  for  the  dear  voice  that  is  silent  now; 

Watching  for  the  sunlight  of  a  glad  young  brow; 
Besting  'neath  the  shadow,  death's  dark  Ansel  flinga, 

When  beside  earth's  children,  droop  his  saole  wings. 
Ah  I  the  heart  ^ows  weary,  and  the  warm  tears  flow. 

As  we,  dreaming,  wander  back  to  "  long  ago," 
Bowing,  bending  earthward  I  neath  the  heart's  stem  strife, 

Mnrmoring  in  onr  anguish, "  such,  alas  I  is  life.*' 

Tes— bnt  ih&re  is  sinking;  'mid  the  hosts  above; 

And  redeemed,  made  perfect,  throuffh  a  Saviour's  love. 
The  freed  spirit,  bending  low  beside  uie  throne, 

Hvmns  eternal  praises  to  His  name  alone. 
Ah  I  she  knows  not  suffering,  grief,  nor  want,  nor  care, 

All  is  joy  and  gladness,  peace  and  sunlight  then. 
Cease  thy  weary  weeping — fbnd  hearts  stiU  thv  woe, 

Joy  that  f^m  earth's  sorrows,  she  wss  called  to  go; 
For  while  we  are  mourning -o'er  love's  frail  ties  riven. 

Angel  bands,  rejoicing,  welcome  her  in  heaven. 
Earth  is  full  of  sorrow,  toil,  an<i  pain,  and  strife; 

Who  would  not  exchange  it  for  eternal  Life  ? 

Duelling.—* The  great  object  of  masonry  is  to  cultivate  peace  and 
good  will  among  mankind,  and. allay  discord  and-  strife.  The  princi- 
ples of  the  Institution  influence  its  members  to  discountenance  aU 
evil,  vicious  and  barbarous  practices.  Its  most  excellent  tenets  are 
especially  incompatible  with  the  custom  of  duelling,  and  there  can  be 
no  doubt  that  any  masons  who  meet  for  the  purpose  of  deliberately 
blowing  out  each  other's  brains,  are  guilty  members,  and  should  be 
dealt  with  accordingly.  The  deed  is  black  in  the  sight  of  Heaven, 
and  viewed  with  abhorrence  by  men,  when  two  persons,  joined  by  no 
ties  of  friendship  or  regard,  but  who  have  long  cherished  a  mutual 
hatred,  slink  away  from  the  eyes  of  the  community  to  some  retired 
place,  and  there  with  deadly  weapons  seek  each  others  lives.  Poor 
and  miserable  commentary  upon  human  nature  1  What  shall  be  said 
of  masons  who  make  an  exhibition  of  it  ? 

206  THBA8HLAB. 

We  are  pleased  to  see  that  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Oalifomia  has  taken 
the  right  view  of  this  matter.  At  its  last  annual  commoninicationy 
it  approved  the  action  of  San  Joaquin  Lodge,  No.  19,  in  expelling 
one  of  its  members  for  fighting  a  dneL  The  Grand  Lodge  also 
adopted  the  report  of  the  Committee  on  Grievances,  to  whom  the 
matter  was  referred,  and  hj  ballot,  expelled  the  Worshipful  Master  of 
Los  Angelos  Lodge,  No.  42,  from  all  the  rights,  benefits  and  privi- 
leges of  Masonry,  for  fighting  a  duel  with  the  member  of  San  Joaquin 

We  trust  every  Grand  Lodge  in  the  Union  will,  if  necessity  re- 
quire it,  speak  in  the  same  tone,  and  manifest  the  same  spirit  Cali- 
fornia has  set  the  right  example. 


The  annual  communication  of  this  body  was  hold  at  Milwaukee  in 
June  last.  The  report  of  its  proceedings  indicates  that  the  Craft  in 
its  jurisdiction  is  making  healthy  progress.  The  whole  number  of 
Master  Masons  in  Wisconsin  is  about  fifteen  hundred.  The  follow* 
ing  are  the  present  officers  of  the  Grand  Lodge :  M.  W.  Henry  M. 
Billings,  G.  M.;  B.  W.  G.  Bouck,  D.  G.  M.;  Orlando  Foster,  G.  S. 
W.;  Haven  Powers,  G.  J.  W.;  Peter  Winten,  G.  T.;  Wm.  R.  Smith, 
G.  Sec;  Rev.  M.  Hoyt,  G.  Chap.;  W.  Famsworth,  G.  M.;  J.  M.  Todd, 
G.  Sword  Bearer ;  E.  F.  Ogden,  G.  S.  D.;  S.  A.  White,  G.  J.  D.;  S. 
Howe,  G.  P.;  C.  B.  Carrmgton  and  E.  Sumner,  G.  Stewards ;  B. 
Clewett,  G.  Tyler. 

During  the  last  current  year,  dispensations  were  granted  for  five  new 
lodges.  The  Grand  Master's  address  is  concise  and  appropriate,  and 
contains  many  useful  suggestiolis.  In  accordance  with  his  recom- 
mendations, the  Grand  Lodge  divided  the  State  into  districts  for  the 
purpose  of  instituting  an  uniformity  of  work — a  Deputy  Grand  Mas- 
ter to  lecture  in  each  district.  Agreeable  to  his  suggestion,  initio* 
tory  steps  were  taken  to  establish  a  school  for  the  destitute  orphans 
of  deceased  brethren. 

The  report  of  the  Committee  on  Foreign  Correspondence,  though 
comprised  principally  of  quotations  firom  other  documents,  is  interesi- 
ing  and  instructive. 

THE  ASHLAR.  207 


The  Committee  quote  from  the  report  of  the  Committee  in  Ten- 
nessee Lodge,  as  follows :  "  If  none  of  the  officers  he  present,  nor  any 
Past  Master  to  take  the  chair,  the  members,  according  to  seniority, 
shall  fill  the  chair,  and  shall  have  aU  the  rights  of  a  regularly  installed 
Master,  to  fill  vacancies.''  Commenting  on  the  Tennessee  doctrine, 
Bro.  King  of  New  York,  says : 

"  No  such  authority  can  be  found  in  the  ancient  Constitutions ;  nor 
do  we  think  that  any  instance  can  be  cited  anterior  to  1771,  where  a 
lay  member  performed  the  duties  of  the  Chair  in  a  regular  lodge. 
Since  that  time,  we  acknowledge,  the  doctrine  has*obtained  in  some 
jurisdictions,  but  it  has  grown  out  of  the  practice  originated  by  the 
seceding  irregular  Grand  Lodge  of  England,  whose  customs  and  usa- 
ges were  written  out,  by  Lawrence  Dermott,  the  greatest  innovator  of 
any  age,  unless  we  may  except  the  Chevalier  Ramsey.  There  may 
have  been  occasional  instances  where  "  old  Masons  "  have  been  called 
upon  to  preside  in  lodges,  and  even  in  the  Grand  Lodge,  but  we  think 
it  will  be  found,  in  all  cases,  that  they  had  previously  served  in  the 
Chair  of  a  lodge  as  Master.  •  •  In  the  absence  of  the  Master,  the 
Senior,  and  after  him  the  Junior  "Warden,  succeeded  to  the  Chair. — 
Without  one  of  these,  it  is  our  opinion  the  lodge  cannot  be  opened. 
After  being  opened  by  one  of  these,  a  Past  Master  may  preside." 

PAST  master's   degree. 

Treating  of  this  subject,  the  Committee  give  the  views  of  Bro.  A. 

G.  Mackey,  which  they  fully  endorse.     He  says  : 

"  There  is  no  doubt,  if  we  carefully  examine  the  history  of  Masonry 
in  this  country  and  in  England,  that  the  degree  of  P.  M.  was  origi- 
nally conferred  by  symbolic  lodges  as  honorarium,  or  reward  bestowed 
upon  those  brethren  who  had  been  found  worthy  to  occupy  the  orien- 
tal chair.  In  so  far  it  was  only  a  degree  of  office,  and  could  be  ob- 
tained  only  from  the  lodge  in  which  the  degree  had  been  conferred. 
At  a  late  period  it  was  deemed  an  essential  pre-requisite  to  exaltation 
in  the  degree  of  Royal  Arch,  and  was  for  that  purpose  conferred  on 
candidates  for  that  position,  while  the  Royal  Arch  degree  was  under 
the  control  of  the  Symbolic  Lodges,  but  still  only  conferred  by  Past 
Masters  of  the  lodge.  But  subsequently,  when  the  system  of  Royal 
Arch  Masonry  was  enlarged  and  extended  in  this  country,  and  Chap- 
ters were  organized  independent  of  the  Grand  and  Symbolic  Lodges, 
these  Chapters  took  with  them  the  Past  Master's  degree,  and  assumed 
the  right  of  conferring  it  on  their  candidates.  Hence  arose  the  anoma- 
ly that  now  exists  in  American  Masonry,  of  two  degrees  bearing  the 
same  name,  and  said  to  be  almost  identical  in  character,  conferred  by 
two  different  bodies  under  entirely  different  qualifications,  and  totally 
Afferent  purposes.  As  was  to  be  expected,  when  time  had  in  some 
degree  obliterated  the  details  of  History,  each  party  began  to  claim 
finr  itself  the  soyereign  virtue  of  legitimacy.  The  Paat  Masters  of 
the  Chapters  denied  the  right  of  Symbolic  Xjodges  to  oonfer  the  de- 


gree,  and  the  latter  in  their  retttm  asserted  that  the  degree  aa  confer- 
red in  the  Ohapter,  was  an  innoyation." 

The  Committee  further  quote  the  opinion  of  Bro.  King,  who 

**  There  is  another  report  in  the  document  before  us,  holding  the 
doctrine, '  that  the  Master  elect  of  a  lodge  is  entitled  to  installation 
without  having  received  the  degree  of  P.  M.,  which  properly  belongs 
to  a  Chapter,*  which  we  hardly  know  how  to  interpret,  yet  it  was '  con- 
curred in  *  by  the  Grand  Lodge.  If  it  was  intended  to  convey  the 
idea  that  the  Master  elect  of  a  lodge  could  be  installed  without  hay- 
ing received  the  installation  service,  which  is  a  part  and  parcel  of  the 
Past  Master's  degree,  we  think  it  is  clearly  erroneous ;  and  among  the 
Grand  Lodges  of  the  United  States  and  of  Great  Britain,  Florida 
stands  alone.  Nor  does  it  *  properly  belong  to  a  Chapter.*  The  legiti- 
mate ownership  of  that  degree  is  in  a  lodge  of  Past  Masters;  it  was 
never  heard  of  as  a  chapter  degree  until  the  organization  of  the  Gen- 
eral Grand  Chapter  of  the  United  States,  and  this  body  has  never 
dared  to  assert  exclusive  control  over  it.  Yet  a  liberal  interpreta- 
tion of  her  constitution  might  warrant  such  a  conclusion.  Past  Mas- 
ters, whether  members  of  Chapters  or  not,  have  an  ancient  and  im- 
prescriptible right  to  confer  the  degree,  and  the  body  which  seeks  to 
take  away  that  right,  justly  subjects  itself  to  the  charge  of  attempt- 
ing to  obliterate  a  custom  as  old  as  Masonry  itself" 

"  South  Carolina,  New  Hampshire,  and  several  other  states,"  says 
the  report,  ^  have  expended  much  learning  and  some  warmth  in  the 
discussion  of  the  several  questions.  We  have  given  more  space  to 
this  subject  than  it  really  deserves,  for  we  are  inclined  to  regard  it 
very  much  as  l^e  committee  in  Texas  does,  as  '^  much  ado  about 
nothing,"  and  as  having  little  to  do  with  Ancient  Craft  Masonry. 
The  important  question  in  the  whole  matter  is  the  assumption  by  some 
Grand  Chapters,  of  a  control  over  the  degree,  (regarding  it  as  a  ^ 
gree)  to  the  exclusion  of  the  right  of  symbolic  Lodges  to  confer  it  on 
the  several  Masters  elected  to  the  Oriental  Chair.  We  have  no  hesi- 
tation in  declaring  our  opinion  that  any  attempt  on  the  part  of  Grand 
or  Subordinate  Boyal  Arch  Chapters,  to  assume  to  themselves  the 
sde  control  of  the  Past  Master's  degree,  is  not  only  an  innoyation  on 
ancient  usage  and  custom,  but  a  positive  infringement  on  the  inherent 
rights  of  Symbolic  Lodges  to  confer  such  degree  on  the  Masters  of 
lodges  elect,  in  the  several  lodges  over  which  they  are  legally  called 
to  preside." 

The  Committee  make  some  very  sensible  suggestions  at  the  dose 
of  their  report,  recommending  Grand  Secretaries  and  Grand  Lodges 
to  furnish  properly  arranged  statistics  of  the  condition  of  the  Fra- 
ternity. In  this  respect  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Wiseonain  and  its  Seo- 
retary  have  set  a  very  good  example. 


Lettsk  of  B&o.  Macest. — ^The  following  extract  in  taken  from 
a  letter  of  Bro.  Maokey,  in  answer  to  an  inyitation  to  deliver  a  oonrse 
of  leotnrea  in  New  York,  on  masonic  subjects.  The  learned  Brother 
takes  a  view  of  the  Lsstitption,  which  will  commend  itsdf  to  every  re- 
flecting memher  of  the  draft: 

«  The  masses  of  onr  institution  have  been  too  long  content  to  look 
upon  it  as  invested  only  with  the  character  of  a  social  and  charitable 
flociety.  But  amiable  and  praiseworthy  as  are  its  tendencies  to  pro- 
mote brotherly  love,  and  to  relieve  distress,  these  are  not  its  only  ob- 
jects; and  all  intelligent  Masons  now  rejoice  that  a  better  era  has 
began,  imd  that  the  intellectnal  claims  of  the  Order,  and  its  vener- 
able position,  as  the  sole  remaining  representative  of  that  science  and 
philosophy  of  symbolism  which  was  once  the  conservator  of  all  the 
reli^on  and  aU  the  learning  of  the  ancient  world,  are  now  fully  recog- 
nized and  deemed  legitimate  subjects  of  consideration.  It  is,  I  may 
say,  to  the  study  of  Masonry  from  this  stand-point,  that  I  owe  all  the 
love  and  admiration  that  I  have  for  it,  and  I  am  confident  that  a 
similar  direction  of  study  must  be  attended,  to  others,  with  the  same 

*^  It  has  been  the  hope  of  elevating  the  literary  and  scientific  char- 
acter of  Masonry  by  presenting  it  in  such  an  aspect,  that  has  gov- 
erned me,  (if  I  do  not  deceive  myself)  in  all  that  I  have  heretofore 
written  on  the  subject  of  the  Order,  and  especially  in  the  preparation 
of  that  course  of  lectures  which,  under  your  fraternal  encouragement, 
I  propose  to  deliver. 

^  If^  in  addition  to  all  this,  these  lectures  shall  tend  to  promote 
brotherly  love  and  social  intercourse  among  the  Craft  in  your  city,  as 
I  trust  they  may,  for  ^  increase  of  knowledge"  should  always  be  ac- 
companied by  increase  of  love — ^then  I  know  of  no  other  inducement 
that  would  be  dearer  to  my  heart — ^for  the  Fraternity  of  your  juris- 
diction have  ever  been  distinguished  for  their  unfaltering  ddvotion  to 
the  Landmarks,  and  their  general  cultivation  of  the  literature  of  the 
Order.  The  reports  of  the  Committee  on  Foreign  Correspondence 
of  your  Lodge,  are  themselves,  and  have  been  for  years,  an  invalu- 
able accession  to  the  library  of  every  masonic  student  And  if  dis- 
cussions have  sometimes  arisen  among  you,  attributable  to  the  extent 
of  your  population  and  the  diversity  of  views  and  interests  which  are 
incidental  to  such  a  population,  they  have  been  heretofore,  and  will  be, 
I  have  no  doubt,  hereafter,  merely  as  the  transient  clouds,  that  will 
sometimes  obscure  for  a  moment  the  brightness  of  even  a  meridian 


22 — VOL.  I.  NO.  V. 

210  THB  ASHLAB. 


The  (Jrand  Enoampment  of  Knights  Templars  held  its  aiuraal 
assembly  at  Hartford,  in  Haj  last  There  were  four  subordinate 
bodies  in  the  jorisdiction,  which  were  represented,  to  wit:  Washing* 
ton  Enoampment,  No.  1,  Hartford;  New  Hayen Encampment, No.  2, 
New  Haven ;  Clinton  Encampment,  No.  3,  Norwalk ;  and  Colnm* 
bian,  No.  4,  Norwich.  A  resolution  was  passed  authorizing  the. 
issuing  of  (barters  for  two  new  Encampments,  one  to  be  located  at 
Bridgeport,  and  the  other  at  New  London.  The  following  was  tiie 
result  of  election  for  officers : — M.  £.  Sir  Benj.  Beecher ;  H.  E.  Sir 
William  E.  Sanford,  O.  H.;  M.  E.  Sir  Cyrus  Qoodell,  D.  Q. 
M.;  M.  E.  Sir  John  A.  M'Lean,  O.  G.;  M.  E.  Sir  G.  F.  Daskam, 
G.  C.  G;  Sir  W.  Hyde,  G.  P.;  Sir  Sam.  Tripp,  G.  S.  W.;  Sir  W- 
H.  Copp,  G.  J.  W.;  Sir  E.  J.  Storer,  G.  P.;  Sir  D.  Clark,  G.  T.; 
Sir  A.  Smith,  G.  S.  B.;  Sir  Howard  B.  Ensign,  G.  S.  B.;  Sir  A* 
Hamilton,  G.  Warden ;  Sir  L  Tuttle,  G.  S. 

The  principal  business  transacted  was  the  passage  of  the  following 

resolution : 

Besolved,  That  in  addition  to  the  several  degrees  required  by  the 
Constitution  of  the  Gkneral  Grand  Encampment  to  have  been  taken 
by  candidates  for  Knighthood,  this  Grand  Encampment  will  further 
require  that  applicants  in  this  jurisdiction  shall  hare  taken  the  de* 
grees  of  Boyal  and  Select  Master. 

The  Order  of  the  Knight  Templar  appears  to  be  in  a  rery  flourish^ 

ing  condition  in  Connecticut,  and  has  many  learned  members  there, 

whose  zeal  and  devotion  are  not  surpassed  by  those  of  Sir  Elnights 

in  any  part  of  the  country. 


Nine  subordinate  bodies  were  represented  at  the  last  annual  convo- 

oation  of  the  Grand  Chapter  of  Iowa,  at  Keosauqua,  in  June.    M. 

E.  T.  S.  Parvin,  Grand  High  Priest,  delivered  an  interesting  address 

from  which  we  make  the  following  extracts : 

Companions,  let  us  begin  the  labors  of  this,  our  Seoond  Convoca- 
tion, bv  looking  to  the  God  of  our  fathers  for  grace  in  our  hearts, 
that  with  one  accord  our  hands  may  be  strengthened  to  persevere  in, 

THB  ASHLAR.  dli 

and  raoeessfblly  aooomplish  the  great  nndertalcitig  in  whioh  we  have 
engftfled,  *^  to  redoable  our  endeavors  to  correct  me  vices,  purify  the 
morus,  and  promote  the  happiness  of  those  of  our  companions"  who 
have  pitched  their  tents  around  our  banners. 

Masonrr,  mj  companions,  goes  no  farther ;  *^  thus  far  shalt  thou 
oome,"  saith  the  great  I  Am,  and  woe  to  the  misguided  seal  of  that 
companion  who  seeks  to  do  the  Almighty's  work,  and  substitute  the 
moral  teachings  of  our  Order,  although  extracted  from  the  Sacred 
Law,  for  the  renewing  and  quickening  power  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  which 
alone  can  change  the  heart  of  man  and  make  it  a  spiritual  temple,  a 
fit  abode  for  the  Holy  Spiiit  to  dwell  in. 

Our  cause  often  greatly  suffers  by  the  over  sealous  efforts  of  well- 
meaning  members  of  our  Order,  who  claim  too  much,  and,  of  course, 
ask  too  much  from  those  upon  whom  the^  would  urge  our  claims  as 
oo-laborers  in  bettering  man's  condition  m  this  life,  and  manifestinff 
an  unwillingness  to  leave  to  the  Christian  the  conversion  of  the  soul, 
which  is  the  professed  object  of  the  religion  they  profess. 

Masonry,  in  no  one  single  respect,  conflicts  or  interferes  with  Chris- 
tianity; on  the  contrary,  goes  with  her  as  a  hand-maid  so  far  as  she 
can  go,  and  then  bids  her  '^  God  speed  thee"  on  thy  way. 

•  ••••••• 

Suspension — ^Its  Extent  and  Effect.  My  views  on  this  subject 
oorrespond  with  those  expressed  by  G.  W.  P.  Pike,  of  Arkansas,  that 
suspension  should  (and  to  be  valid,  must)  be  indefinite ;  that  is,  extend 
till  the  cause  which  produced  it  is  removed,  and  the  offender  cannot 
be  returned  without  a  ballot  in  his  favor. 

'  The  G.  G.  C.  has  enacted  that  a  suspension  in  a  Lodge,  shall  oper- 
ate de  facto  as  a  suspension  in  a  Chapter.  Why  should  not  the  con- 
verse of  this  be  the  case  7  ^<  'tis  a  proper  rule  that  works  both  ways." 
A  R.  A.  M.  is  suspended  from  the  Chapter,  and  all  R.  A.  Masons  are 
forbidden  masonic  intercourse  with  him.  And  how  can  they  associ- 
ate m  the  Lodge  with  one  whom  they  cannot  fellowship  in  the  Chap- 
ter—or is  the  obligation  of  symbolic  masonry,  that  we  shall  not  hold 
masonic  intercourse  with  a  suspended  member,  to  be  declared  of  no 

NoN-ApFiLiATsn  Masons. — ^I  am  clearly  of  opinion  that  sound 
policy  dictates  that  our  doors  should  be  dosed  against  all  non-afBlia- 
ted  Masons,  and  bee  leave  to  suggest  the  propriety,  nay,  necessity  of 
adoptmg  a  general  regulation,  providing  that  petitions  shall  be  re- 
oeived  for  the  degrees  or  membership  in  our  Chapters,  only  from  those 
who  hold  membership  in  some  Lodge  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
G.  L.  of  Iowa. 

The  following  persons  were  elected  officers : — M.  E.  Jas.  R.  Hart- 
sock,  G.  H.  P.J  E.  Horace  Tuttle,  K.;  E.  G.  W.  Teas,  S.;  Comp.  J. 
J.  Adams,  T.;  Comp.  T.  S.  Parvin,  Secretary. 

212  THB  ASHLAR. 




ZioQ  Lodge  met  on  the  7  th  of  Feb.,  1796,  at  the  house  of  Bro. 
James  Donaldson.  ^  The  Wonhipfnl  Master  opened  a  Fellow  Craft's 
Lodge,  when  Bro.  Hutchinson,  applying  to  become  a  member  of  onr 
body,  was  balloted  for,  and  was  negatived  by  five  black  beans."  ^  A 
Lodge  of  Entered  Apprentices  "  was  then  opened,  and  Wm.  Hasper 
and  Ebeneier  Mathew  Sanford  "  reoeived  the  first  degree." 

March  7th,  1796. — ^  It  was  agreed  nnanimously,"  says  the  record 
of  this  meeting,  ^  to  write  to  the  Grand  Master  of  Upper  Canada, 
communicating  our  authority  in  a  brotherly  manner." 

April  4th,  1796. — ^At  this  meeting  Bros.  Harper  and  Sanford  ^  re- 
ceived" the  degrees  of  Fellowcraft  and  Master  Mason;  Abraham 
Lovelock  ^  received  "  the  first  degree  on  the  2d  of  May,  and  the  Fel- 
low-craft's and  Master  Mason's  on  the  6th  of  June.  At  the  latter 
meeting,  '^  this  being  the  regular  night  of  electing  officers  for  the  en- 
suing six  months,  the  Senior  Warden,  Bro.  Rowe,  and  Junior  War- 
den [May]  stood  Ballot  for  the  Chair,  when  Br.  May  became  duly 
elected.  After  which  the  Master  elect  put  Br.  Howard,  Secretary, 
for  Senior  Warden,  and  the  Brethren  put  up  Buland,  Treasurer,  when 
Br.  Heward  became  duly  elected.  Afterwards,  Br.  Ruland  and  Br. 
Donovan  were  put  to  ballot  for  Jr.  Warden,  when  Br.  Ruland  was 
duly  elected.  Br.  Donoldson  was  unanimously  elected  Treasurer,  and 
Br.  Donovan  Secretary.  Agreed  unanimously  that  the  Brethren 
should  dine  together  the  24th  instant,  bemg  St  John's  day,  according 
to  custom,  and  to  assemble  at  one  o'dodL" 

The  follawing  is  the  record  entire  of  the  next  meeting: 

^  Dbtroit,  24th  June,  1796. 

^  Zion  Lodge  No.  10,  under  the  sanction  of  the  Orand  Lodge  of 
Lower  Canada,  met  in  due  form  at  the  house  of  James  Donaldson. 

Brethren  Present:  Br.  Jas.  Donaldson, in  the  Chair, 

Br.  Jas.  Rowe,  S.  W. 
Br.  Jas.  May,  J.  W., 
Br.  Bym,  P.  Master, 
Br.  Uoward,  Sec., 
Br.  Ruland,  Treas., 
Br.  Wheaton,  S.  D., 
Br.  Donovan,  J.  D., 
Br.  Sutherland,  T, 
Br.  Lovelock. 

THE   ASHLAR.  213 

^  The  W.  M.  opened  an  apprentice  lodge.  It  being  Si  John's  day, 
the  Brethren  dined  somptnoiisly  together,  after  whioh  proceeded  to 
the  installation  of  the  new  elected  officers  and  paid  them  the  homage 
dae,  agreeable  to  the  ancient  custom  of  Masons.  After  spending  an 
agreeable  evenrng,  the  lodge  was  closed  at  10  of  the  clock  in  perfect 
love  and  harmony,  and  adjourned  to  the  first  Monday  in  July 

July  1st,  1796. — ^  The  W.  M.  opened  an  apprentice  Lodge  when  it 
was  proposed  by  Br.  Treasurer  Donaldson  to  present  to  the  Grand 
Lodge,  under  whom  we  are  sanctioned,  a  sum  of  two  guineas  for  the 
relief  of  indigent  Brethren  wherever  found,  whioh  was  unanimously 
agreed  to.  It  was  further  agreed  that  the  Secretary  should  write  a 
regular  summons  to  all  the  members  of  this  Lodge  to  attend  every 
stated,  as  well  as  Lodges  of  Emergency,  which  is  to  be  handed  about 
by  every  brother  who  shall  receive  the  sama" 

If  the  above  regulation  were  adopted  now,  it  might  have  a  benefi- 
cial affect  on  some  Brethren. 

Ajigttst  1st,  1796. — ^  It  was  agreed  that  the  money  sent  by  Dan. 
Tuilos  and  Wm.  Shaw,  with  petitions,  should  be  forfeit  to  this  Body 
in  consequence  of  their  non-attendance,  agreeable  to  resolution  of  last 
lodge  night  It  was  further  agreed  that  in  consequence  of  a  letter 
from  Solomon  Gk)odrich  directed  to  Br.  Donaldson  on  the  subject  of 
money  due  him  from  Br.  Bowe,  that  Br.  Howe  should  remit  the  money 
or  give  good  Beasons  for  his  non-performanoa 

The  returns  to  the  Grand  Lodge  for  one  year  were  signed  in  Lodge 
Boom  by  the  present  and  past  officers.    The  Lodge  dosed,"  &c. 

Communications  were  held  on  the  5th  of  Sept,  3d  of  Oct,  and  7th 
of  Nov.,  but  no  busbess  or  work  was  transacted. 

Dec.  5th,  1796. — ^-  The  W.  M.  opened  an  apprentice  Lodge,  when 
the  absence  of  Br.  Buland,  as  Jr.  Warden,  was  considered  by  the 
Lodge  as  a  breach  of  the  Bye-laws,  and  accordingly  sentenced  to  pay 
ft  fine  of  two  shillings,  which  rule  should  stand  good  in  future  tomrd 
all  officers  absenting  themselves  in  like  manner." 

^  This  being  the  night  to  elect  the  officers  of  the  Lodge,  it  was 
unanimously  agreed  that  the  present  officers  should  remain  in  their 
difiiorent  stations  for  the  ensuing  six  months,  and  that  tiie  lodge  should 
assemble  and  dine  together  on  St  John's  day  agreeable  to  custom." 

^  It  is  unanimously  agreed  that  eaeh  visiting  Brotiier  may  be  al- 

214  THE  ASHLAR. 

lowed  to  Ainiiah  wbatever  sun  he  thicks  proper  for  the  benefit  of  in- 
digent Brethren,  but  to  contribute  nothing  towards  the  night^s  expen- 
ses. It  is  further  agreed  that  any  person  offering  himself  as  a  can- 
didate (thro*  a  member  of  this  lodge)  may  be  balloted  for  on  the  first 
night,  and  if  approved  of,  may  be  entered  at  any  time  by  informing 
and  calling  a  Lodge  of  Emergency,  said  candidate  defraying  the  ex- 
penses of  said  Emergency,  but  the  law  already  provided  for  this  pur- 
pose to  stand  good  in  every  other  respect" 

"  The  Brethren  dined  sumptuously  together  "  on  St.  John's  day, 
and  ^  spent  an  agreeable  evening."  Nothing  of  importance  was  done 
at  the  next  two  meetings. 

March  6th,  1797. — ^^  The  W.  M.  opened  an  apprentice  lodge  when 
it  was  unanimously  agreed  that  the  second  article  of  the  Bye-laws 
respecting  fines  to  be  paid  by  Brethren  absenting  themselves  from  the 
Lodge  should  in  future  be  strictly  adhered  to.  It  is  also  agreed  that 
any  person  who  has  already  been  initiated  into  any  part  of  the  mys' 
tery  of  Masonry  and  wishes  to  be  advanced  shall  pay  for  every  degree 
he  obtains  in  this  Lodge  the  sum  of  one  pound  five  shillbgs,  N.  Y. 
currency.  Every  Myon  is  allowed  to  visit  this  Lodge  as  often  as  he 
pleases,  providing  always,  he  pays  his  dividend  of  the  night's  expenses 
after  his  first  visit,  and  subject  to  the  resolution  of  the  5th  of  Decem- 
ber last." 

April  3d,  1797. — ^^  The  W.  M,  opened  an  apprentice's  Lodge.  Re- 
ceived a  letter  from  the  Secretary  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Lower 
Canada,  bearing  date  30th  January  last,  which  was  read  in  open 
Lodge  and  agreed  that  the  contents  should  be  attended  to." 

June  5th,  1797. — ^  The  following  Brethren  were  elected  to  serve 
as  officers  for  the  ensumg  six  months,  to  wit:  Br.  Heward,  Master; 
Br.  Ruland,  S.  W.;  Br.  McNiff,  J.  W.;  Br.  Wheaton,  Treas.;  and  Br. 
Donovan,  Sea"  Mr.  Nathan  Williams  was  ^  admitted  to  the  first 
degree  of  Masonry." 

June  21st, '97. — ^^'The  W.  M.  opened  an  apprentice  Lodge,  and, 
after  the  occasionalsofthe  day  over,  dined  sumptuously  together.  After 
dinner,  the  present  officers  were  installed  with  the  homage  agreeable 
to  the  antient  custom  of  Masons.  After  spending  an  agreeable  even- 
ing, the  Lodge  dosed  in  perfect  love  and  hannony,"  Aa 

THB  ASHLAB.  21& 


The  uuiiial  senion  of  the  Grand  Chapter  of  Yermoiit  was  held  at 
Boyalton  in  August  Its  proceedings  give  eyidenoe  of  health  and 
prosperity.  Grand  High  Priest,  Philip  0.  Tucker  deUvered  an  ex- 
cellent address,  from  which  we  may  quote  at  another  time. 

The  report  of  the  Oommittee  on  Foreign  Correspondence  is  a  brief 
review  of  the  reports  of  other  bodies.  It  speaks  of  the  Grand  Chap- 
ter of  Michigan,  as  follows : 

^  The  annual  convocation  of  this  Grand  body  was  held  at  Detroit 
on  the  8tii  day  of  January,  1855.  Their  Committee  on  Foreign  Cor- 
respondence regret  not  receiviDg  communications  from  all  the  Grand 
Chapters  of  the  Union,  and  we  notice  with  some  surprise,  that  Ver- 
mont was  classed  amongst  the  delinquents.  We  know  that  our  annual 
proceedings  of  1854,  were  duly  mailed  and  supposed  they  were  as  duly 
received.  We  folly  agree  with  our  Michigan  brethren  that  an  interchange 
of  the  proceedings  of  all  the  States  is  highly  important  to  the  further- 
ance of  the  interests  of  Boyal  Arch  Masonry,  that  each  may  be  ap- 
prised of  the  other's  doings,  and  all  work  together  with  that  noble 
emulation  of  who  will  best  work  and  best  agree.  We  trust  there  will 
be  no  failure  in  friture.  This  Grand  Chapter  has  appointed  a  com- 
mittee to  agree  upon  a  system  of  work^  and  have  instructed  the  sub- 
ordinate Chapters  to  conform  stricUy  thereto.  It  seems  to  us,  that 
the  better  way  would  have  been  to  have  appointed  a  committee  to  as- 
certain what  the  work  was,  as  prescribed  by  the  G.  G.  Chapter  of 
1850,  that  being  the  system  adopted  by  the  G.  G.  Chapter  in  default 
of  any  new  action  thereon." 

The  f ollowiDg  is  a  list  of  the  officers  for  the  current  year : 

M.  B.  Philip  C.  Tucker,  G.  H.  P.;  E.  John  S.  Webster,  D.  G.  H. 
P.;  E.  Thomas  H.  Campbell,  G.  K;  E.  Joshua  Doane,G.  8.;  JohnB. 
HoUenbeck,  G.  S.;  Samuel  S.  Brown,  G.  T.;  Bev.  0.  G.  Woodbury, 
Hartiand,  G.  C;  Bev.  M.  A.  Herrick,  Woodstock,  Ass't  G.  C;  & 
H.  Kilbom,  G.  M.;  C.  E.  Colston,  Hartiand,  P.  H.  Whitoey,  Wind- 
sor, Calvin  Sprague,  Plainfield,  N.  H.,  G.  Stewards ;  Samuel  Wilson, 
Yeigennes,  G.  L.;  Geo.  M.  Hall,  Swanton,  Ass't.  G.  L.;  Lewis  Emmons, 
Hartiand,  Ass't  G.  L.;  G.  Washburn,  Montpelier,  Ass't  G.  L.;  0. 
Parkhurst,  Boyalton,  G.  8.;  George  Miller,  Hartiand,  G.  T. 

216  THB  ASHLAB. 



This  body  whioh  oonTened  at  Royalton,  in  Atignst,  has  under  its 
jnriBdiotion  the  foUo^ng  subordinate  coonoils:  No.  1,  Golom- 
bofl,  at  St  Albans;  No.  2,  Yergennes,  at  Yergennes;  No.  3, 
Bennington,  at  Bennington ;  No.  4,  Montpelier,  at  Montpelier ;  No. 
5,  Burlington,  at  Burlington ;  No.  6,  Randolph,  at  Rojalton ;  No.  7, 
La  Payette,  at  East  Berkshire ;  No.  8,  Windsor,  at  Hartland.  On 
account  of  the  death  of  the  Most  Puissant  Orand  Master,  N.  B.  Has- 
kell, the  Deputy  Orand  Master  Philip  C.  Tucker,  assumed  the  Chair. 
In  his  address,  he  gi^es  a  brief  account  of  the  formation  of  the  Grand 
Council  and  its  authority.  ''The  Council,"  he  says,  ''whidi  organ- 
iied  this  Grand  Body  were,  Yergennes,  No.  1,  Burlington,  No.  2, 
Montpelier,  No.  3,  and  Randolph,  No.  4.  Councils  Nos.  2, 3,  and  4, 
have  applied  for  new  charters  under  ibis  organisation.  Council  No. 
1,  has  not  yet  done  so." 

He  continues :  There  was  formerly  a  Council  at  Windsor,  one  at 
St.  Albans,  and,  I  belieye,  one  at  Berkshire,  and  one  at  Bennington. 
The  four  Royal  Arch  Chapters  with  which  they  were  associated  at  the 
above  places,  are  still  in  existence.  There  were  other  Councils,  per- 
haps, at  places  where  there  were  other  Chapters,  now  extinct ;  but  I 
suppose,  when  those  Chapters  ceased  their  vitality,  the  Councils  then 
all  passed  to  a  like  common  fate. 

Our  Constitution  declares  the  right  of  this  Grand  Body  to  the  sole 
government  and  superintendence  of  all  Councils  of  Royal  and  Select 
Masters  in  the  State.  This  right  can  hardly  be  doubted.  The  Grand 
Chapters,  Grand  Encampments  and  Grand  Lodges  of  this  and  all 
other  States,  when  legitimately  formed  according  to  Masonic  rule, 
have  universally  acted  upon  this  right  as  an  inherent  one — as  one 
necessary  to  the  safe  regulation  of  the  locad  bodies  of  their  respective 
orders,  and  without  which.  Masonry  could  not  exist  in  its  purity  and 
strength.  The  four  Councils  who  formed  this  Grand  Body,  of  course, 
accede  to  this,  and  it  is  presumed  that  the  prinmple  will  be  acknowl- 
edged by  all  other  Councils  within  the  State.  Without  adopting  it, 
the  harmony  and  usefulness  of  the  Order  would  be  essentially  dis- 

Gamaliel  Washburn  was  elected  Most  Puissant  Grand  Master, 
Joshua  Doaue,  D.  P.  G.  M.;  S.  H.  Peirce,  T.  I  G.  M.;  J.  B.  HoUen* 
beck,  G;  R.;  0.  Williams,  G.  T.;  Sam.  Wilson,  G.  0.  of  the  G.  C; 
L.  B.  Englesby,  G.  M;  Rev.  0.  G.  Woodbury,  G.  C;  Sam.  Wilson, 
G.  Sec.;  T.  H.  Campbell,  G.  P.;  and  C.  E.  Colston,  G.  Sentinel 

THB  ASHLAB.  217 



"  Two  are  better  Uian  one ;  becaose  thej  hsTe  a  good  reward  for  their  labor." 

When  Philadelphia  was  about  to  be  evacuated  bj  the  British  army, 
under  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  June  18,  1778,  there  was  a  merchant,  one 
Hubbard  Simpson,  largely  engaged  in  the  sale  of  English  goods,  who 
had  become  highly  obnoxious  to  the  American  residents,  for  supply- 
ing the  British  commander  with  mercantile  facilities  and  with  infor- 
mation, that  had  been  used  to  the  detriment  of  the  American 

This  man  was  in  high  repute  with  Sir  Henry  and  his  immediate 
predecessor,  Lord  Howe.  From  the  former  he  now  receiTcd  a  notifi- 
cation in  time  to  enable  him  to  sell  his  goods  and  depart  under  the 
protection  of  the  British  army. 

It  was  not  possible,  however,  to  dispose  of  so  large  a  stock  at  short 
notice.  To  sell  upon  a  credit  was  impracticable,  so  far  as  any  of  the 
American  merchants  were  concerned,  and  as  for  those  in  the  tory  in- 
terests, they  were  not  to  be  trusted.  To  make  a  cash  sale,  in  the 
present  state  of  the  funds,  was  impossible.  Thus  Mr.  Simpson  re- 
volved the  matter  in  his  mind  till  the  very  day  preceding  the  evacua- 
tion. A  final  notice  from  Sir  Henry  found  him  undecided,  sitting  in 
his  crowded  warehouse,  soon  to  be  devoted  to  spoliation  and  fire  by 
the  bcensed  Americans. 

Now,  this  man  was  a  member  of  the  Masonic  fraternity.  Before 
the  breaking  out  of  strife,  he  had  held  a  distinguished  place  in  the 
provincial  liodges.  Although  his  understanding  of  right  and  wrong, 
in  the  present  war,  differed  from  that  of  the  majority  c^his  country- 
men, yet  the  most  zealous  patriot  could  not  accuse  him  of  inoonsit- 
teney  or  turpitude.  What  he  had  professed  to  be  from  youth — » 
warm  loyalist — ^he  still  maintained ;  and  this  had  led  him  to  adopt 
the  unpopular  side  in  the  revolutionary  struggle,  and  to  follow  the 
British  army,  even  at  the  expense  of  a  large  part  of  his  property. 

As  things  now  stood,  he  was  likely  to  lose  more.  Already  he  had 
begun  to  contemplate  the  idea  of  throwing  open  the  doors  and  de- 
parting, when  a  rap  was  heard  without,  and,  in  answer  to  his  invita- 
fion,  an  old  friend,  Mr.  Jonas  Lee,  entered,  and  asked  for  a  coe- 

ference.  _^______^________^____ 

•  UghU  tad  BlMriowi  of  rkMBUMoiiTy, 
23 — ^VOL.  I.  NO.  V. 

218  THE   ASH  LAB. 

This  geattemao,  oome  at  so  oritical  a  moment^  was  a  person  of  note 
in  the  city — one  who  had  soiFered  more  than  most  others  for  his  at- 
tachment to  liberty — and  a  zealous  Mason. 

For  three  years  and  upward  no  intercourse  had  been  held  between 
tiie  pair,  once  fraternally  intimate ;  they  had  only  acknowledged  each 
other's  acquaintance  by  a  nod  of  recognition  when  they  met  in  the 

The  object  of  the  present  call  was  stated  in  a  few  words. 

''  My  old  friend  and  brother,  I  have  heard  of  your  approaching 
danger,  and  am  come  to  offer  you  a  seryice.  We  have  taken  oppo- 
site sides  in  politics ;  but  you  have  sustained  your  choice,  like  my- 
self, at  great  sacrifices ;  and,  while  I  can  but  regret  that  you  are 
arrayed  against  our  common  country,  I  yet  respect  your  honesty  of 
purpose.  Masonry  knows  no  principle  but  duty,  and  this  is  yonr 
hour  of  depression ;  therefore,  am  I  come.  My  influence  is  now  in 
the  ascendant,  and  I  hereby  offer  it  to  you  in  brotherly  truth.  For 
old  time's  sake,  I  will  take  charge  of  your  property,  otherwise  the 
spoil  of  our  soldiers,  before  to-morrow  morning,  seU  it  for  you  at  the 
best  time  and  adyantage,  and  hold  the  proceeds  subject  to  your 

The  grateful  merchant  was  profuse  with  his  thanks. 

*^  None  of  that,  brother  Simpson.  My  own  heart  is  a  sufltcient  re- 
ward. You  can  say  all  that  when  we  meet  again.  Time  presses^ 
Tou  are  in  immediate  and  great  danger." 

A  clear  sale  was  forthwith  made  of  the  whole  property,  amounting^ 
to  more  than  fifty  thousand  dollars.  No  documentary  evidences  rel- 
atire  to  the  debt  were  retained  by  Mr.  Simpson.  Prudence  pointed 
out  this,  as  the  only  course,  that  promised  a  successful  result 

At  parting,  while  yet  the  boat  was  waiting  at  the  pier,  and  the  drums 
of  the  American  advanced-guard  were  sounding  in  the  suburbs  of  the 
city,  Mr.  Simpson  took  a  gold  piece  from  his  purse,  broke  it  in  two 
parts,  and  handing  one  to  his  noble-hearted  friend,  observed :  "  Tou 
and  I  used  to  debate  the  purpose  of  the  ancient  tessera ;  now  we  will 
make  it  a  practical  question.  Whoever  presents  you  with  this  frag- 
ment of  gold,  to  him  I  authorize  you  to  render  up  whatever  in  your 
hands  belongs  to  me.     Farewell." 

Years  rolled  by,  and  Jonas  Lee  beard  no  more  of  his  old  friend. 
With  great  difficulty,  and  by  the  aid  of  powerful  friends  at  Head 
Quarters,  he  had  succeeded  in  disposing  of  the  property  without  much 
loss ;  and  by  a  judicious  use  of  the  money,  he  had  become  rich.  Old 
age  then  crept  upon  him.    His  daily  walks  about  the  city  began  to 

THB   ASHLAB.  219 

1)e  Bhortenecl.  The  almond  tree  flonriahed.  The  grasshopper  began 
to  be  a  burden.  From  jear  to  year,  he  drew  nearer  to  his  own  man- 
sion, and  finally  confined  himself  within  his  retired  apartment,  to  wait 
for  the  Summoner  of  all  flesh. 

One  day,  as  he  was  reclining  in  the  listlessnegs  of  old  age,  with  bat 
the  Word  of  Ctod,  and  the  person  of  his  good  wile,  for  companionship, 
and  the  voices  of  his  grand-children  ringing  from  the  next  room,  in 
happy  harmony,  he  was  accosted  by  a  beggarly-looking  yoxmg  man, 
who  prayed  a  gift  of  money,  "  for  a  poor  shipwrecked  foreigner,  who 
had  lost  his  all,  and  barely  escaped  with  life  itself"  . 

Jonas  Lee  was  not  a  person  to  refuse  such  a  demand.  He  made 
bim  a  bonntifol  gift  of  money,  clothes,  and  kind  words.  But  when 
the  foreigner  was  abont  to  depart,  he  walked  np  to  Mr.  Lee's  couch, 
and  pressing  his  hand  with  thankfulness,  he  dropped  into  it  a  worn 
and  ragged  piece  of  metal,  and  asked  him  if  he  would  accept  that 
piece  of  gold  as  a  token  of  a  poor  beggar's  gratitude  1 

There  was  somethiug  peculiar  in  the  foreigner's  tone,  which  led  Mr. 
Lee  to  draw  out  his  spectacles  and  examine  the  ofiering  intently. 
What  was  the  surprise  of  his  wife  to  see  him  rise  from  his  chair, 
draw  a  similar  fragment  from  his  bosom,  where  it  had  been  suspended 
by  a  ribbon  for  a  long  time,  and  applying  the  pieces  together,  to  hear 
him  triumphantly  declare :  "  They  fit,  they  fit  I  the  broken  tessera  is 
complete !  the  union  is  perfect !  thank  Ood,  thank  GK>d,  my  brother 
is  yet  alive  I" 

The  foreigner  turned  out  to  be  the  youngest  son  of  Mr.  Simp- 
son, who  had  been  shipwrecked,  as  he  stated,  to  the  great  hazard  of 
his  life.  Preserving  the  golden  fragment,  he  had  landed  at  Phila- 
delphia, ragged  and  poor,  charged  by  his  father  with  a  message  to 
Mr.  Lee.  Why  the  former  had  so  long  delayed  his  claim,  does  not 
appear.  The  history  informs  Tis,  however,  that  he  had  followed  the 
British  army  through  the  remainder  of  the  war ;  amassed  a  large 
fortune,  by  some  successful  government  contracts ;  gone  to  England ; 
embarked  in  extensive  speculations  there ;  and  finally,  retiring  from 
business  immensely  wealthy,  was  made  a  baronet,  for  his  loyal 

His  son  was  received  with  open  arms,  and  introduced  into  the  first 
circles  of  Philadelphia.  Report,  concerning  the  Masonic  part  of  the 
transaction,  became  public,  and  gave  a  new  impetus  to  the  Order. 

220  THE   ASH  LAB. 

Bat  when  a  full  aocoant  of  his  stewardiship  was  prepared  by  Mr. 
Lee,  and  the  property,  both  principal  and  interest,  tendered  to  the 
young  man,  the  proffer  was  met  by  a  letter  from  Sir  Hubbard  Simp- 
son, just  received^  in  which  he  declined  receiving  a  shilling  of  it,  and 
presented  it,  with  his  warmest  regards,  to  his  old  friend  and  brother 
Jonas  Lee. 


DxnoiT,  Dec  lOtib,  1855. 

Bbotbie  Wnrosr : — ^Woold  toq  be  kind  enough  to  answer  thiongli  the  pages 
of  your  inTaluable  jonrnal  the  following  aueries  : 

1.  Can  a  petition  be  withdrawn,  after  tne  committee  appointed  to  report*  baa 
done  so,  unfavorably,  but  preyious  to  the  passing  of  the  ballot 

2.  Can  a  petition  be  withdrawn  after  a  committee  has  been  appointed,  to  en- 
quire into  tne  character  of  the  applicant,  previous  to  said  committee  reporting. 

Fraternally  yours, 


Aooordiog  to  ancient  usages,  it  is  considered  by  many  learned  Ma- 
sons, that  a  petition  cannot  be  withdrawn  after  its  presentation.  The 
Grand  Lodge  of  Oalifomia  has  resolved,  "•  That  a  petition  for  initia- 
tion or  membership,  presented  to  a  sabordinate  lodge,  becomes  the 
property  of  the  lodge,  and  caH  on  no  consideration  be  withdrawn,  bat 
a  ballot  most  in  all  cases  be  had  on  the  report  of  the  committee." 
The  committee  on  foreign  correspondence,  of  the  Orand  Lodge  of 
Wisconsin,  say  they  ^  beliere  this  to  be  sotmd  masonic  nsage.'' 

The  questions  of  our  correspondent  are  decided — as  f$x  as  this 

jurisdiction  is  concerned — ^by  the  Grand  Lodge.    The  8th  section  of 

article  5,  of  tiie  constitution,  says: 

No  candidate  for  initiation  can  withdraw  his  petition  after  the  same 
has  been  referred  to  a  committee,  without  tiie  concurrence  of  tw<>- 
thirds  of  the  members  present 

By  this  we  are  led  irresistibly  to  infer  that  a  petition  ma^  be 

withdrawn  at  any  time  before  baUot  by  a  two-third  vote. 

THE  ASH  LAB.  221 


Austin,  December,  25,  1855. 

Bro.  Weston  : — ^I  haye  jast  completed  my  labors  for  this  Masonic 
year,  and  think  it  may,  perhaps,  be  interesting  to  some  of  your 
readers  to  know  how  the  Order  is  prospering  in  this  State. 

I  commenced  my  labors  immediately  after  the  dose  of  the  session 
of  oar  last  annual  Grand  Communication,  by  visiting  lodges  that  I  had 
officially  visited  the  year  previous,  and  was  much  pleased  with  the 
proficiency  they  had  made  in  so  short  a  time,  and  with  the  laudable 
ambition  manifested  to  excel  in  the  Masonic  work. 

During  the  year,  I  have  visited  all  the  lodges  in  this  jurisdiction 
except  one.  So  far  as  regards  those  lodges  that  I  was  not  called  to 
visit  last  year,  I  cannot  speak  so  understandingly,  because  I  do  not 
know  what  was  their  condition  before,  but  suffice  it  to  say,  that  they 
are  now  doing  well  and  are  exhibiting  a  commendable  zeal,  not  only  in 
doing  good  work,  but  in  the  selections  of  material  upon  which  to  work, 
and  there  never  was  a  time  when  Masonry  was  in  as  flourishing  a  con- 
dition as  at  the  present.  We  number  among  our  initiates  men  of  the 
first  dass,  rank  and  condition — statesmen,  farmers,  clergymen,  law- 
yers, mechanics,  gentlemen  and  scholars,  who  deem  it  not  derogatory 
to  their  dignity  to  level  themselves  with  the  Fraternity,  extend  their 
privileges  and  patronize  their  assemblies ;  and  in  passing  from  point 
to  point,  a  person  is  forcibly  impressed  with  the  high  tone  and  noble 
bearing  of  the  lodges  and  members  generally,  both  in  city  and  coun* 
try,  through  the  length  and  breadth  of  our  prosperous  and  happy  State. 

I  was  forcibly  struck  with  the  exhibitions  of  this  principle  among 
our  brethren  in  the  Upper  Peninsula,  as  well  as  at  Mackinac,  who 
guard  the  portals  of  their  lodges  with  the  utmost  vigflance  and  care ; 
and  at  Ontonagon,  I  discovered  the  footprints  of  our  venerable  friend 
and  brother,  the  Hon.  E.  Smith  Lee,  who  labored  so  ardently  there, 
as  well  as  elsewhere,  to  promote  the  interests  of  our  time-honored 
Order  in  this  jurisdiction,  and  to  whom,  with  a  host  of  others  who 
wrought  in  unison  in  removing  the  rubish  for  the  building  of  that 
stupendous  monument  of  excellence-  which  has  inunortalized  their 
names,  be  praise  jmd  excellence  ascribed ;  and  when  they  fall,  may  it 
be  on  duty,  and  may  their  mantles  rest  upon  those  who  will  do  honor 
to  their  memories,  as  well  as  to  the  cause  they  have  so  nobly  espoused  I 

Brethren  of  the  mystic  tie,  permit  me  to  tender  to  you  my  thanks, 
and  express  my  gratitude,  for  the  cordial  reception  and  kind  and  gen- 
erous hospitality  which  I  have  received  at  your  hands  during  the  time 
that  I  have  endeavored  to  serve  you ;  and  may  you  share  largely  in 

the  benificence  of  our  Supreme  Grand  Master  above ! 

Bjzla  Oogshall,  O.V.  it  L. 



Hon.  E.  B.  Amos,  Past  Grand  Master  of  the  Orand  Lodge 
of  Illinois,  has  receiyed  the  appointment  of  the  United  States  Counsel 
for  Hamburg,  Germany.  Bro.  A.  is  a  native  of  Vermont,  and  in  his 
thirtj-sizth  year. 

Look  out  for  Him. — ^A  man  named  Samnel  B.  Phillips,  who 
professes  to  be  a  Mason,  has  imposed  upon  some  members  of  the 
Fraternity.  He  is  an  Irishman,  about  six  feet  high,  fair  complexion, 
of  genteel  address,  and  has  a  defect  in  his  left  eye.  He  has  in  his 
possession  a  Masonic  diploma  granted  by  some  Lodge  in  Ireland,  and 
is  an  arrant  impostor. 

Impostors. — ^A  fellow  who  calls  himself  Ansel  L.  Burton,  but 
whose  real  name  b  Ansel  L.  Bradbury,  has  been  defrauding  the 
Brethren  in  Maine.  He  borrowed  money  on  the  strength  of  his  being 
a  Mason.  He  professes  to  have  been  a  purser  in  the  navy.  He  is  a 
large,  heavy  man,  with  dark  hair  and  eyes,  and  whiskers. 

An  expelled  Mason,  named  Wm.  McEinney,  has  been  imposmg  on 
the  Craft  in  Ohio.  He  is  from  Georgetown,  Kentucky,  (Mount  Ver- 
non Lodge). 

"Ths  Lights  and  Shadows  of  Faebmasonrt.'' — This  is  the 
title  of  a  volume  containing  about  four  hundred  pages  of  miscellane- 
ous matter,  by  Robert  Morris,  E.  T.,  editor  of  the  American  Free- 
mason. The  pieces  which  it  contains  have  been  published  before,  and 
are  generally  interesting.  The  work  is  published  by  J.  W.  Leonard 
&  Co.,  of  New  York,  and  its  typographical  appearance  does  credit  to 
that  well-known  and  enterprising  house. 

The  Illustrated  Annual  Register  of  Rural  Affairs  and 
Cultivator  Almanac  for  1856. — This  is  a  very  neat  little  book  of 
:two  hundred  and  eighty-eight  pages,  containing  a  large  amount  of 
useful  and  practical  information,  such  as  fanners  and  mechanics  should 
desire  to  obtain.  It  is  illustrated  with  one  hundred  and  fifty  engra- 
vings, of  houses,  fruit,  mechanical  inventions,  cattle,  swine,  &o.  We 
consider  this  the  most  instructive  book  of  the  kind  that  has  come  to 
our  knowledge,  and  cheerfully  recommend  it.  It  is  for  sale  at  the  store 
of  Messrs.  S.  I).  Elwood  &  Co.,  Jefferson  Avenue,  Detroit. 

THE  ASH  LAB.  223 

Macut'b  Masonic  Lexicon. — ^We  btTe  reoeiyed  from  the  pabliaherfli 
Mofls  &  Srother,  of  Philadelphia,  a  copy  of  a  new  and  improved  edition 
of  thifl  yalnable  work,  which  contains  a  well  execnted  engraying  of  tiia 
author.  The  eminent  ability  of  Bro.  Mackey,  and  his  long  and  dili- 
gent study  of  Masoniy,  have  peooliarly  fitted  him  to  impart  informa- 
tion rejecting  our  Order.  We  regard  his  opinions,  rdatiye  to  all 
matters  pertaining  to  Masonic  history  and  jariBprndence,as  yery  high 
authority.  Among  the  scholars  of  our  Association,  he  stands  prominent 
for  his  capacity  and  acquirements.  Every  lodge  should  have  his 
Lexicon,  and  each  Brother  who  desires  to  obtain  a  large  amount  of 
information  in  a  small  compass,  and  at  little  cost,  should  purehase  itb 

The  Private  Gokeesfondencb  of  Henet  Olat,  Edited  bt 
Oaltin  Oalton,  L.  L.  B.,  Professor  of  Public  Economt, 
TRiNrrr  College.  New  Tore:  A.  S.  Barnes  &  Co.,  51  and  53 
John  Street. — This  volume  will  be  wel^med  by  the  American 
people — ^by  men  of  all  parties — as  a  national  work.  The  life  and 
character  of  Henry  Olay  are  familiar,  and  have  caused  a  nation  to 
love  him  and  mourn  his  loss.  For  the  first  time  his  private  corres- 
pondence— ^whioh  reveals  the  workings  of  the  inmost  heart  of  the 
great  patriot— are  laid  before  the  world.  This  will  have  a  strong  in* 
fiuence  in  moulding  the  opinions  of  posterity  respecting  the  motives 
which  influenced  his  public  actions. 

The  volume  before  us  is  beautifully  printed  on  good  paper,  com- 
prises six  hundred  and  thirty-six  pages,  and  contains  letters  of  many 
eminent  men,  which  were  addressed  to  Mr.  Olay.  It  is  an  exceedingly 
valuable  contribution  to  American  literature,  and  should  need  no  re- 
commendation in  this  country. 

The  work  is  sold  by  subscription  only.  Kerr,  Morley  db  Co., 
Agents,  Detroit 

Encampments  in  Canada. — There  are  three  Encampments  in 
Canada.— <<  The  Hugh  de  Payens,  at  Kingston,"  ^  The  OeofErey  de  St. 
Aldemar,"  at  the  city  of  Toronto,  «  The  William  de  la  More,"  *  The 
Martyr,'  at  the  city  of  Quebec.  The  officers  of  the  Provincial  Grand 
Conclave  of  Knights  Templar,  are : — Grand  Commander,  Captain  W. 
T.  B.  McLeod  Moore,  Ottawa  ;  Deputy  Grand  Commander,  James 
Alexander  Henderson,  Kingston ;  Grand  Prior,  Colonel  Alexander 
Gordon,  B.  E.,  Kingston ;  Grand  Prelate,  Bev.  J.  F.  Lundy,  D.  0. 
L.,  Grimsby ;  Grand  Captains  Commanding  Columns,  Samuel  Bioh- 


erton  HannalK,  Toronto,  and  Thomas  Douglas  Harbgton,  Quebec; 
Grand  Registrar,  Samuel  Deadman  Fowler,  Kingston ;  Grand  Treas- 
urer, Samnel  Staples  Finden,  Belleyille ;  Grand  Chamberlain,  James 
Fitsgibbon,  Ottawa;  Grand  Hospitaller,  Thomas  Gibbs  Bidont, 
Toronto;  Grand  Erpert.  Franois  Richardson,  Toronto;  Grand  Stan- 
dard Bearers,  Bllery  Wanzer  Palmer,  ^  Beanseant,"  Kingston,  and 
George  Dnggan,  Junior,  Toronto ;  Grand  Almoner,  John  George 
Howard,  Toronto ;  Grand  Director  of  Oeremonies,  William  George 
Storm,  Toronto ;  Grand  Aaid-de-Camp,  Frederick  W.  Cumberland, 
Toronto;  Grand  Captain  of  Lines,  John  Kerr,  Kingston;  Grand 
Sword  Bearer,  Alfred  Argle  Campbell,  Belleville ;  Grand  Heralds, 
William  Hurray  Jameson,  Toronto,  and  James  Hill  Rowan,  Kngston. 

Ofpi€?br8  for  thb  Ensuino  Year. — Jackson  Chapter,  No.  3: 
Benj.  Porter,  Jr.,  H.  P.;  J.  L.  Mitchell,  K.;  Jos.  T.  Titus,  S.;  J(^n 
Gellespie,  C.  H.;  Wm.  G.  TutUe,  P.  S.;  R.  8.  Cheney,  R.  A.  C; 
Chas.  A.  Weismore,  G.  M.  First  VaQ ;  John  R.  King,  G.  M.  Seoond 
Yail;  J.  Hastings, G.  M.  Third  Yail;  A.  Foster,  Treasurer;  A.  A. 
Henderson,  Secretary. 

Jackson  Lodge,  No.  17 : — ^Benj.  Porter,  Jr.,  W.  M.;  John  Gelles- 
pie, S.  W.;  Clark  Cole,  J.  W.;  A.  Foster,  Treas.;  A.  A.  Henderson, 
Sec'y.;  B.  F.  Eggleston,  S.  D;  J.  Hastings,  J.  D. 

Michigan  Lodge,  No.  50 :— R.  S.  Cheney,  W.  M.;  J.  L.  Mitchell,  S. 
W.;  F.  Farrand,  J.  W.;  A.  Pickett,  Trees.;  Chas.  GUbert^  Seo'y.; 
Jos.  F.  Titus,  8.  D.;  B.  Miller,  J.  D. 

The  Ghrand  Master  of  Oregon,  in  his  annual  address  in  May 
last,  declares  the  remarkable  and  gratifying  fact  that^  since  the  G.  L. 
Session  of  the  prerious  year,  not  a  death  had  occurred  in  the  entire 


In  Zion  Lodge  No.  1,  Detroit,  from  Nov.  10  to  Deo.  10,  Chas.  C. 
Warren,  H.  D.  Harris,  Thos.  Mayberry,  and  Dan.  Stewart 

In  Tyre  Lodge  No.  18,  Coldwater,  from  Nov.  10  to  Dec.  10,  John 
C.  Montgomery  and  Dr.  L.  C.  Marsh. 

In  Lansing  Lodge  No.  33,  from  10th  November  to  10th  Decern* 
ber,  J.  C.  Bailey. 

THB  ASH  LAB.  225 

In  Detroit  Lodge  No.  2,  S.  S.  Barrows,  E.  J.  WooUej,  F.  Neria, 
H.  G.  Panons,  B.  S.  Bigelow. 


In  Lapeer,  Nov.  Ist,  by  Bev.  W.  H.  Smith,  Bro.  I.  W.  Teller,  to 
Elizabeth  H.  Shafer. 

Not.  15th,  by  Bev.  Orin  Whitmore,  Bro.  T.  J.  Wells,  to  Miss  D. 


At  Lapeer,  on  the  14th  of  November  last,  Captain  Charles  Harris. 

With  regret  we  announce  the  death  of  this  veteran,  whose  connten- 
ance  we  hoped  to  see  at  the  next  meeting  of  the  Grand  Lodge.  The 
practical  benefit  which  he  experienced  from  masonry,  when  his  life 
was  spared  by  men  who  were  dead  to  every  obligation  bnt  those  of 
our  ancient  institution,  made  him  a  walking  evidence  of  the  lasting 
and  ennobling  influence  of  the  principles  and  precepts  of  the  Order. 
He  died  in  the  fullness  of  years,  at  the  age  of  sixty-six.  He  has  gone; 
but  his  character  and  reputation  are  left  as  rich  legacies  for  his  pos- 
terity,  and  convince  us  that  by  the  benefit  of  the  pass  he  has  gained 
ready  admission  into  the  celestial  Lodge  above,  where  the  Supreme 
Architect  of  the  Universe  presides.  The  following  notice  appeared 
in  the  Lapeer  Democral : 

^  Capt  H.  has  been  a  resident  of  this  town  about  17  years,  and  was 
highly  respected  as  an  affectionate  husband,  a  kind  parent,  and  a  good 
citizen.  By  a  life  of  honest  industry  he  had  surrounded  himself  with 
all  the  comforts  of  a  thrifty  and  independent  farmer.  Sudi  men, 
when  they  die,  are  not  only  a  loss  to  tneir  families  and  immediate 
friends,  but  the  whole  community  feels  the  loss. 

Oapt.  H.  was  bom  in  Newbury,  Mass.,  and  spent  his  youth  and 
much  of  his  manhood  as  a  sailor.  He,  for  many  years,  commanded  a 
merchantman  in  the  Liverpool  trade,  and  whue  master  of  the  brig 
Beuben  &  Eliza,  he  and  his  whole  crew  were  captured  by  the  noto- 
rious pirate,  Gibbs.    His  mate  and  one  other  man  made  their  escape. 

Capt.  H.  and  his  men  were  brought  upon  deck,  and  the  work  of 
death  commenced  ;  and  while  he  was  forced  to  witness  what  he  could 
not  prevent — the  cold-blooded  murder  of  his  men,  as  one  by  one  they 
were  dispatched,  and  sent  unaneled  into  the  next  world — and  think- 
ing of  home  and  family,  that  he  never  expected  to  see  again,  he  thought 
that  Gibbs,  as  desperate  and  awfulljr  wicked  as  he  was,  might  be  a 
brother  Mason.  He  made  a  sign  which  none  but  those  who  had  been 
ih(mgkt  worthy  would  notice,  and  there,  while  engaged  in  the  terrible 
24 — vou  L  HO.V. 

2St6  THE  A8HLAB. 

destruction  of  his  brother-man — ^with  his  handfl  all  orimioiied  with 
human  ffore,  did  the  keen  eye  of  the  desperate  wretch  reoognise  thai 
sign,  and  then  did  his  heart  melt  with  feelings  of  compassion  for  a 
brother  Mason,  and  for  the  time  being  the  demon  forsook  him  and  his 
manhood  returned.  Oibbs,  at  the  imminent  peril  of  his  own  Ufe, 
saved  that  of  Capt  Harris,  who  was  q[>ared  to  liye  many  long  years 
with  his  fiunily  and  frienda 

In  Lansing,  Deo.  6th,  of  Typhoid  feyer,  Daniel  Sprague,  aged  22 

[The  subject  of  the  abore  notice,  was  a  worthy  young  man,  esteemed 
and  beloved  by  a  large  circle  of  friends  in  Lansing.  His  father  and 
fitmily  reside  in  New  York,  though  he  has  a  brother  and  sister  in 
Detroit.  It  seems  hard  for  a  young  man  to  be  sick  and  die,  away 
from  home ;  but  aside  from  this  consideration,  Mr.  Sprague  had  the 
attention  of  kind  friends,  and  what  is  better  still,  his  sister  from  De- 
troit was  with  him,  the  last  week  of  his  illness,  to  cheer  him  by  her 
presence,  and  to  smooth  his  dying  pillow. 

He  was  buried  with  masonic  honors,  on  the  8th,  and  notwithstand- 
ing the  inclemency  of  the  weather,  there  was  a  large  attendance,  and 
sympathy  for  the  afflicted  seemed  to  pervade  the  whole. 

Thtu,  like  ahadowB  gliding  o'er  the  plain. 

Or  clotids  that  rcul  saooesiive  on, 
Uon's  busy  generations  Pttw, 

And  while  we  gms^  tneir  forms  are  gone.        e.  w.  &] 

At  a  special  Communication  of  Lansing  lodge  No.  33,  of  whiohthe 
deceased  was  a  member,  held  Thursday  evening,  Deo.  13,  1855, 
the  following  preamble  and  resolutions  were  unanimously  adopted : 

Whereas,  It  has  pleased  the  Supreme  Grand  Master  and  Ruler  of  the  Unirerae 
to  call  from  labor  on  earth  to  himself  in  Heaven,  our  worthy  Brother  Daniel 
Sprague,  who  departed  this  life  on  the  (>th  day  of  December,  ltiS5,  aged  22  yean; 

Be$olvfd,  That  in  the  departure  of  our  beloved  and  lamented  brother,  his  be- 
reaved family  have  lost  an  affectionate  and  sincere  friend  and  relative— onr 
\vdsB  a  worthy  member,  and  society  an  upright  and  honorable  eitiasen. 

Metolvod,  That  we  sympathise  most  sincerely  with  the  aged  parents,  brothers, 
sisters  and  other  relatives  of  our  departed  Brother  in  this  oiflictive  bereavement; 
that  we  feel  the  poverty  of  language  to  administer  consolation,  and  can  only 

J)oint  them  to  the  sublime  and  consolatory  teaching  of  gospel  grace;  that  we 
erven tly  commend  them  to  Him  who  tempers  the  wmd  to  the  shorn  lamb;  and 
while  we  acknowledge  the  insufiiciency  of  words,  however  well  intended  to  re- 
pair their  loss,  we  would  bid  them  sorrow  not  as  those  without  hope,  and  dii«ct 
them  to  the  glorious  faith,  that  he  is  "not  lost,  but  gone  before." 

Bewlved,  That  these  resolutions  be  published  in  The  AsHLAa,  and  in  the  Lan- 
sing papers,  and  that  our  Secretary  be  directed  to  present  them  under  the  Seal 
of  ue  Lodge,  to  the  relatiyta  of  the  deceawd. 

£.  B.  HaaaniiLii^  w,  Xi 
8.  P.  Head,  Act  Sec*y. 


Binra  or  SuBsoiiBKBir— The  enterpriaa  in  which  we  hare  eBgsged,  of  eitab> 
liflhing  a  Masonic  Magaiine  in  this  jnriadiction^  is  one  of  great  magni* 
tnde,  and  can  be  BooceflsfuUy  carried  on  only  by  a  liberal  palvonage  from  the 
Fraternity  of  the  State.  T|^  far  onr  sabacribenb  with  the  exception  of  a  yvrj 
limited  number,  hare  been  obtained  by  onr  personal  solieitation.  We  now  de« 
sire  onr  patrons  in  each  lodge,  who  think  this  periodical  worthy  of  support,  to 
procure  for  us  a  few  new  subscribers,  and  send  us  their  names  at  the  meeting  of 
the  Ghrand  Lodge.  If  each  lodge  will  furnish  a  few  names,  -the  aggregate  will 
be  a  great  assistance  to  us.  Brethren,  by  attending  to  this  matter,  will  oonfisr  a 
special  fsTor. 

Onr  Febmry  number  may  not  be  ianied  till  a  &w  days  after  theregnlar 
time  of  pnblieation,  aa  we  shall  endesTor  to  give  a  report  of  bodnssi  ol  impor« 
tance  whichshall  be  faaasacted  in  the  Grand  Lodge. 

YniTB  Amokotbs  BBxranxir. — ^At  a  meeting  of  the  Fenton^ille  Lodge,  which 
we  attended  sinee  the  issue  of  onr  last  number,  we  had  the  pleaeore  of  being 
present  at  the  raising  of  two  candidates.  The  Brethren  in  this  body  have  not 
enjoyed  the  benefits  of  a  oonTenient  room.  They  are  soon  to  more  into  new 
apartments  and  will  then  have  very  pleasant  quarters. 

Erom  Fentonyille  we  proceeded  to  Argentine,  where  we  wera  very  hospitably 
entertained  by  that  true  man  and  Mason,  Bro.  Isaac  Wixom,  M.  D,  He  ia 
laboring  sealously  for  the  adrancement  of  the  Graft,  and  exerts  that  influeneey 
lo  which  his  ability  and  acquirements  entitle  him.    Prosperity  attend  him] 

BrnxnroRAiCr— Here  we  unexpectedly  met  Bro.  BelaCogshall,  and  found  him, 
as  usual,  deroted  to  the  business  of  hii^  office.  He  presided,  during  the  raising 
of  a  candidate,  and  sustained  the  high  reputation  which  he  has  won  as  a  critical 
and  accurate  worker.  We  were  pleased  to  learn  from  bim  that  the  new  lodge 
at  Owasso,  of  which  Bro.  Quaclcenbush  is  Master,  is  in  a  very  flourishing  con- 
dition. We  regreted  exceedingly  that  we  oould  not  risit  its  members.  We  at- 
tended k  regular  communication  at  Birmingham,  and  were  gratified  to  meet  on 
the  level  with  Bro.  Almon  Patridge,  W.  M^  and  other  Indy  Masonic  Brethren. 
On  the  36th  of  last  month  the  newly  elecM  offioets  were  to  be  instslled  by  Bro. 
Jacokes  of  Pontiac 

OixAKDAieuA  AHD  OxFOBD. — ^At  theso  plaoep  ihe  Breliiten  gaye  eridence  of 
seal  and  actirity.  We  were  disappointed  ift  not  seeing  Bro.  Jesse  Decker,  Mas-* 
ter  of  the  lodge.  To  his  son,  Brob  Moraldus  Dedker,  we  return  thanks  for  his 
attention.  Bn».  R  J.  Bdl,  we  Immd  htterasted  in  ail  mattsni  pertaining  to  the 
Ot$&i  and  aetire  aa  umnL 

228  THE   ASHLAR. 

LAPKsm. — ^A  tedious  ride  over  bad  roads  carried  is  to  this  plaee.  The 
graeable  impreanons  of  the  jonniej  irere  quickl j  obliterated  by  the  kind  atten- 
tion, extended  to  tn  by  the  Brethren.  One  cannot  meet  such  Masons  ss  J.  M. 
Wattles,  K.  B.  Eldridge  and  H.  K.  White,  and  go  away  dissatisfied.  It  is  not 
nnoonrteons  to  saj  that  the  Brethren  here  surprised  ns  by  their  proficiency  in 
the  work.  As  Ceu*  as  we  had  an  opportunity  of  judging,  they  hsTe  an  exceedingly 
aeenrate  knowledge  of  the  rituaL  The  lodge  has  just  fitted  np  a  new  and  pleu- 

AxvoKT. — A  daifs  ride — the  most  tedious  we  ever  experienced — carried  ns  from 
Lapeer  to  this  town.  Bro.  H.  D.  Fitch,  W.  M.,  extended  the  hand  of  welcome, 
and  will  reoeire  our  thanks  for  his  kindness.  Under  his  guidance^  Almont 
Lodge  is  rapidly  progressing,  having  made  much  improTement  during  the  last 
year.    ICay  it  continue  to  flourishi 

KoMxo. — ^We  stopped  only  two  or  three  hours  in  this  place,  during  which  time 
Bro.  Sidney  Eggleeton,  whose  hesrt  is  of  large  dimensions,  laid  us  under  obli- 
gations. We  also  enjoyed  an  interview  with  Bros.  A.  B.  Castle  and  (k  Chandler. 
The  lodge  here  has  an  exceedingly  ftice  room,  well  equipped. 

Haooxb. — We  had  time  to  see  only  a  few  Brethren  here.  Br.  Bently,  W.  M., 
we  were  fortunate  enough  to  find  at  home.  His  proficiency  and  seal  are  prover- 
bial among  the  Craft  in  his  section.  May  he  long  be  continued  in  his  present 
sphere  of  usefulness  I 

Mt.  CLKMxsrs. — Worshipful  Master  Carter  gave  us  a  courteous  welcome.  Our 
visit  here  was  a  flying  one.  To  Bro.  Wm.  J.  Conger  we  would  express  thanka 
for  personal  attentions. 

Buffalo^ — In  this  city  we  spent  three  days,  visited  the  Encampment,  the 
Chapter  and  three  lodges.  The  Fraternity  in  this  place  give  indubitable  signs 
of  healthy  advancement ;  they  are  energetic,  and  display  a  true  devotion  to  the 
interests  of  the  Order.  We  never  saw  the  Past  Master's  degree  so  well  conferred 
any  where  else  as  we  did  here.  It  could  not  be  done  better.  Among  the  dis- 
tinguished members  whom  we  had  the  pleasure  of  meeting,  were  Bros.  Austin. 
Evans  and  Famam.  We  were  particularly  fortunate  in  meeting  Bro.  H.  W. 
Wilson,  M.  D.,  whose  disinterested  endeavors  in  behalf  of  the  Fraternity  deservs 
the  highest  conunendation.  He  has  a  Masonic  heart  "sa  well  as  a  Masonic  head. 
To  him,  and  also  to  Bro.  Jonathan  Austin,  our  sincere  than]^s  are  returned  for 
personal  iavors.    We  hope  to  visit  our  Brethren  in  Buffiilo  again  soon. 

Masonzo  Lxbraat. — ^We  have  received  a  communication  from  Bro.  Czar  Jones, 
respecting  the  Universal  Masonic  Library,  published  by  J.  W.  Leonard  &  Co., 
K.  Y,  This  work  is  a  republication,  in  thirty  volumes,  of  the  old  stadard  works 
on  Masonry,  from  Anderson's  Constitutions  of  1723,  to  the  latest  works  of  ack- 
nowledged value.  The  volumes  average  400  pages,  the  whole,  when  completed* 
covering  1,200  pages.  The  eight  volumes  already  issued*  contain  the  follow- 
ing works: 

VoL  L—- 1.  Dictionary  of  Symbolical  Masonry,  (Olivw ;)  3.  Book  of  the  Lodge, 
(Oliver.)  VoL  IL— 1.  Symbol  of  Glgry,  (Oliver ;)  2.  Spirit  of  Masonry,  (Hutch- 
inaon.)  YoL  IIL— 1.  Illustrations  of  Masonry,  (Preston.)  YoL  lY.— 1  Anti- 
quity of  Freemasonry,  ( Oliver;)  2.  Discourses  on  Masonry,  (Harris.)  YoL  Y.— 1. 
History  of  Masonry,  (Oliver;)  2.  Mirror  for  the  Johannite  Masons,  (Oliver;)  3. 

THE  ASHLAB.  22» 

Star  in  Om  Eatt^  (OUrer.)  YoL  IV.-^l.  DiiqiiltttiQDS  upon  Masonry,  (Calecftt;) 
S.  Mawmie  Manual,  ( Aahe.)  Vol.  YII.^l.  Beyelation»  of  a  Square,  (Oliyer;)  % 
Jntrodnotion  to  Freemasonry.  YoL  YUL— 1.  History  of  Initiation,  (Oliyer;)  2. 
History  and  Illnatrations  of  Masonry. 

We  need  not  say  that  the  works  here  presented  are  snch  as  erery  person 
should  possess.  Oliver's  reputation  as  a  learned  and  accomplished  man  and 
aeholar  is  as  wide  spread  as  the  world ;  and  the  productions  of  Hutchinson, 
Preston;  Harris  and  Ashe  are  the  sources  where  we  obtain  an  accurate  knowl- 
edge of  the  land  marks  of  tho  Order. 

The  remainiug  twenty-two  yolumee  will  be  issued  at  the  rate  of  two  per  month 
and  will  contain  the  remainder  of  Oliver's  writings,  together  with  those  of  Ba- 
gon,  Morris,  Gadicke,  Clavel,  Salem,  Towne,  Laurie,  and  many  others  of  Euro- 
pean aud  American  celebrity. 

Bro.  Jones,  who  is  agent  for  tibia  wwk,  will  supply  those  who  wish  to  sub- 
scribe for  it 

NuMBSB  Three. — Bro.  Oliver  says  at  the  building  of  the  Temple,  the  number 
three  was  peculiarly  exemplified.  There  were  three  Grand  Masters,  three  pla- 
ces where  the  materials  were  prepared,  and  the  edifice  had  three  divisions. 
Amongst  the  workmen  were:  Harodim,  300;  Menatachim,  3,300;  Andonirom, 
30,000;  Master  Masons,  3,600,  <ftc.  And  the  dimensions  of  the  Temple  were  in 
exact  proportions  with  the  three  concords  in  music  The  height  was  thirty  cu- 
bits, and  the  length  three  times  greater  than  the  breadth.  The  harmony  and 
symetry  of  these  three  dimensions  were  as  grateful  to  the  eye  as  harmony  in 
music  is  ravishing  to  the  ear. 

Ball  at  EIalaxazoo. — On  the  20th  of  last  month  while  sojourning  acciden- 
tally at  Ealamaaoo,  we  had  the  pleasure  of  attending  the  annual  ball  of  Fire 
Company  No,  2,  of  that  delightful  city.  Over  twenty  firemen  from  Detroit — 
principally  of  Eagle  Company  No.  2— were  present  by  invitation.  The  party 
was  a  very  elegant  one,  and  displayed  to  advantage  the  fashion  and  beauty  of 
the  place.  Every  thing  paased  off  pleasantly ;  and  on  the  following  day  the 
guests  from  Detroit  were  entertained  with  a  sumptuous  dinner.  The  reputation 
of  the  people  of  Kalamasoo  for  hospitality  was  well  sustained. 

'  I  have  ever  felt  it  my  duty,**  said  the  late  Earl  of  Dunham,  on  a  publio 
occasion, "  to  support  and  encourage  the  principles  and  practice  of  Freemasonry 
because  it  powerfully  develops  all  sociid  and  benevolent  affections*  because  it 
mitigates  without,  and  anihilates  within,  the  virulence  of  political  and  thedcgi- 
eal  controversy;  because  it  affords  the  only  neutral  ground  on  which  all  ranks  and 
classes  can  meet  in  perfect  equality,  and  associate  without  degradation  or  morti- 
fication, whethier  for  purposes  of  moral  instruction  or  social  intercour9eJ* 

M.  E,  R.  P.  Dunlop,  M.  I.  G.  M.,  has  appointed  Comp.  O.  W.  Chase  ol 
Brunswick,  aa  Grand  Lecturer  for  the  State  of  Maine,  for  the  degrees  of  B^ 
and  S.  M. 

230  THB  ASHLAR. 

OmoxBS  or  Kalaxaioo  OBAnm  Va  13»  Ibr  tike  eniaing  year  2— Oomp.  W^ 
a  Banflom,H.  P.;  F.  Booker,  King;  T.  0.  Biownell,  Beribe;  M.W.  Benowg,  a 
H.;  O.H.  Biowa,P.S.;  O.H.  Goodale, B. A. O.;  A.  B. Drake*  Thiid  VaU;  K 
H.  Porten  Seoond  Vail;  A.  Q.Hopkioa  Finrt  Vail;  S.BL Porter,  Secy^  ^<^ 
Starke  J,  Traaaorer. 

BAT»-0aopn&— Intheleetareaiiaedattlie  remal  of  MaMiuy  in  1717,  tiM 
foUowing  pnniahment  waa  inflicted  on  a  oowan :  *  To  be  plaoed  mder  theesvea 
of  a  bonae  in  rainy  weather,  till  the  irater  mna  in  at  hia  ahooldeni  and  out  at 
biaaboea."  Tbe  French  ratber  extend  thia  paniahment :  "Letbimbepotim- 
dar  a  gutter,  pump  or  ibnntain,  until  be  ia  weat  finom  bead  to  faot"  Hence  m 
tiateer  ia  called  an  eaTea«dropper. 

In  early  dayn^  when  Maaonry  waa  yomg, 
And  heaTenly  mnaie  dwelt  upon  her  tongae» 
Oeleatial  aweetneaa  tempered  every  grace, 
Wilb  radiant  glory  beaming  from  her  face; 
Her  flowing  raiment  pure  aa  virgin  anow. 
Or  ikbled  field  where  fkireat  lilies  grow. 
A  milk-white  lamb  ran  sporting  by  her  aide; 
And  innocence  her  manner  dignified. 
Her  whole  deportment — ^harmony  and  love, 
Temper*d  with  meekness  from  redms  above. 
A  biasing  star  T]pon  ber  front  she  wore; 
An  emblem  of  integrity  she  bore. 
Where'er  ahe  trod,  the  sciences  aroae; 
Where'er  she  breath'd,  confusion  aham'd  ber  ibea; 
Diamay'd  they  fled,  nor  dared  to  look  bdiind. 
For  feea  of  bv  were  foea  of  bnman  kind. 

We  have  received  Graham's  Magazine  for  January.  This  is  one  of  the 
best  periodicals  in  the  country.  The  nmnber  before  ns  is  filled  with  interesting 
and  racy  matter.  ««_^_^_ 

Qp  We  have  received  (be  Kaaonic  Journal,  Bra.  Obaae,  and  have  witfc  mneh 
pleaanre  plaoed  it  on  onr  exchange  list 

A  Good  Toisr.^Woman— the  morning  star  of  oar  youth;  the  day  star  of  oar 
manhood;  the  evening  atar  of  our  old  age.    God  bless  our  stan. 

We  shall  in  our  next  number  commence  a  list  of  the  officers  lately  elected 
by  the  different  lodges  in  the  State  for  the  enauing  year. 

We  return  tbanka  to  Bro.  Ifforria  for  a  copy  of  the  volume  ITo.  3  of  bia 
valuable  periodicaL 

A  lodge  eaniiat,ai  an  extra  oomnnmieation,  npeaUamnd,  or  altera  raso- 
Intion  that  baa  been  adopted  at  a  previouB  regular  ona  IClosn; 

VOL  n.  DETROIT,  FEBRUARY,  1857.  NO.  VI 


It  is  by  ibrpia,  ^mbola  and  aUegories  that  Masonry  eodeaTors 
to  imprees  Tipon  the  mind  Trise  and  eeriona  tmths.  Only  by  a  oor- 
reot  understanding  of  the  means  employe*!,  can  we  thoronghly 
comprehend  the  leasoD  tanght.  Seldom,  if  ever,  does  tbe  candi- 
date fiiUy  comprehend  and  appredate  the  beaotilhl  rites  of  .the 
Lodge.  The  member  finds  tbem  a  grand  study  which  is  constant- 
ly revealing  some  hidden  treasure,  and  shedding  more  light  across 
his  path,  ibideed  the  intelligent  Mason,  who  baa  devoted  jeszs  to 
Uie  investigation  of  our  sdence,  is  snrpriaed  and  deUghted  as  he 
makes  discoveries  where,  as  he  thought,  he  had  culled  every  gem. 

The  third  degree,  when  rightly  viewed,  is  probably  the  most 

Bulidime  and  instructive  in  our  Order.    It  famishes  a  theme  for 

contemplation  and  research,  which  has  taxed  the  greatest  intellecta, 

wiSie  it  puts  to  the  teat  the  moral  conrage  of  all  who  pass  through 

28 — VOL.  n.  HO.  VI. 

282  THE    ASHLAR. 

its  ordeal.  Few,  we  are  forced  to  believe,  of  those  who  have  aeen 
it  repeatedly  conferred,  comprehend  it.  To  each,  it  brings  home 
a  realizing  sense  of  that  last  great  change  which  awaits  us  on  this 
earth;  on  each,  it  leaves  an  indellible  impression  never  forgotten — 
never  erased;  but  only  the  student — only  he  who  looks  upon  Mar 
sonry  as  a  lofty  and  ennobling  sdenoe,  filled  with  mysteries  which 
require  much  research  to  find  them  out,  can  properly  appreciate 
the  symbols  and  rites  of  the  third  degree. 

As  an  illustration  of  our  remarks,  we  ask  how  many  have  ever 
bestowed  attention  upon  the  passage  of  Scripture  employed  on 
the  solemn  and  impressive  occasion — ^how  many  understand  or  can 
explsun  it?  It  is,  indeed,  most  appropriate  for  the  purpose  for 
which  it  is  intended,  but  must  appear  like  a  mere  fiurce  to  those  who 
look  upon  it  as  so  much  Greek  or  Hebrew.  , 

The  passage  selected  from  the  Bible  is  intended  to  represent 
the  body  of  an  aged  man  as  a  house. 

The  following  commentary  upon  it  is  given  upon  it  by  Rev. 
Adam  Clark,  D.  D. 

**  !the  keepers  of  the  hattse  shall  trenible-^^ — Another  dgn  of  old 
age;  the  hands  and  arms,  the  means  of  averting  danger,  shall  be- 
come paralytic. 

**  The  strong  men  shaB  bow  themselves.^ — ^The  legs,  formerly 
robust  and  able  to  support  the  body,  shall  totter  with  extr^ue 

"  The  grinders  shall  cease  because  they  are  fewJ^ — The  teeth 
which  grind  the  food,  as  the  mill  stone  grinds  the  com,  shall  be- 
come loose  and  ML  out. 

•*  Those  that  look  out  of  the  windows  be  darkened?^ — ^The  eyes 
shall  loose  their  fitculty  of  sight.  Obscurity  of  vision  is  an  invari- 
able accompaniment  of  old  age. 

•*  The  doors  shall  be  s/iiU  in  the  streets^  when  the  sound  of  HiA 
grinding  is  lowJ^^ — ^The  doors  represent  the  lips,  and  the  cavity  of 
the  mouth  is  called  the  street,  because  it  is  the  way  by  which  the 
food  passes  to  the  stomach.  The  meaning  of  the  expression  ia,  that 
the  teeth  being  gone,  the  old  man  no  longer  chews,  but  noiseless- 
ly mumbles  his  food,  and  closes  his  lips  in  the  act,  to  preserve  the 
particles  from  felling  out.  This  is  the  usual  mode  of  mastication 
in  the  very  aged. 

"  The  sound  of  the  grinding  is  very  Iwjo^ — ^No  noise  is  made 
in  eating,  because  the  teeth  are  lost  or  become  so  infirm  as  not  to 

THS    ASBLAR.  288 

ihetr  being  closed  together,  and  the  month  being  kept  shut 
to  hinder  the  food  from  falling  out,  the  somid  in  eating  is  hardly 

^^AndheshaU  rise  tg»  ai  the  voice  of  the  Hrd.^^ — So  great  \b 
the  wakefulness  of  old  age,  that  its  deep  is  disturbed  even  by  the 
chirping  of  the  sparrow. 

^And  all  the  daughters  of  music  shaU  be  brought  low^ — ^The 
voice  becomes  tremukms  and  feeble,  and  the  hearmg  becomes  ob- 
tuse. The  daughters  of  music  is  a  hebraism  for  the  voice  and 
ear,  the  organs  used  in  the  production  or  enjoyment  of  musical 

''  They  shall  be  afraid  of  that  which  is  Ai^."— Those  heights 
which,  in  the  days  of  their  youth,  they  would  have  ascended  with 
ease  and  alacrity,  the  aged  now  look  upon  with  hesitation  and  fear. 

^^  And  fears  shall  be  in  the  way?^ — ^They  are  filled  with  appre- 
hension of  imaginary  dangers,  which  they  have  neither  the  sight 
to  avoid,  nor  the  strength  to  overcome. 

"  The  almond  tree  shall  flourish?^ — ^The  hair  shall  become  gray. 
The  flowers  of  the  ahnond  tree  are  white,  and  hence  when  the 
tree  is  flouridiing,  and  full  of  them,  it  is  compared  to  the  hoary 
head  of  age. 

^'  Th^  grasshopper  shaU  be  a  burden.^ — ^To  the  imbecility  of  old 
age,  the  lightest  thing,  even  a  grasshopper,  becomes  an  oj^resssve 

**And  desire  shall  faH?^ — ^The  appetites  and  desires  of  nature 
cease  with  the  departure  of  youth. 

"  Jfim  goe^  to  his  long  home?^ — ^Literally  **to  the  house  of  his 
age" — ^the  grave,  which  is  the  last  house  and  shelter  fer  the  ma> 
terial  body. 

"  The  mourners  go  about  the  streets?'^ — ^This  refers  to  the  east- 
em  custom  of  employing  official  mourners,  who  made  public 
lamentaticm  in  the  streets  for  the  dead. 

^'  The  silver  cord  be  loosedJ*^ — ^The  spinal  marrow,  is  called  the 
silver  cord,  from  its  silvery  whiteness.  The  loosening  of  the  sil- 
ver  cord  is  the  cessation  of  all  nervous  sensibility. 

"  The  golden  bowl  be  brokenJ^ — ^The  brain  is  called  the  golden 
bowl  from  its  yellow  cover.  Death  approaching,  it  is  unfit  to  per- 
/ormits  functions. 

**  The  pitcher  be  broken  cU  thefountain.^^^^The  pitcher  meant 
the  vena  cava,  or  great  veins  which  carries  the  blood  to  the  right 
ventricle  of  the  heart,  here  called  the  fountain. 

284  THE    ASHLAR. 

^  The  fohed  broken  at  the  dstem.^ — Bj  the  wheel  k  meand 
the  aorta,  or  great  artery  which,  receiviBg  its  blood  from  the  left 
yentride  of  the  heart,  or  cistern,  distributes  it  through  the  body; 
and  thus  ^^the  duet  ehall  return  to  the  earth  ae  it  kkm,  and  the 
epirit  ehaU  return  to  God  who  gave  HJ*^ 

•  •• 

Masonic  History. — ^In  attempting  to  evolve  a  history  of  Free- 
masonry, Ve  are  met  at  the  threshhold  by  difficulties — arising  out 
of  the  very  nature  of  things — that  no  other  historian  has  to  en* 
counter.  He  who  chronicles  the  rise  and  fidl  of  empires,  has  a 
mine  of  materials  at  his  command,  in  the  written  and  imperishable 
records  of  the  times  he  would  portray.  Theories,  sects,  and  reli- 
^ons  from  the  aggressive  and  proselyting  spirit  whidi  ever 
animates  their  disciples,  leave  an  impress  upon  the  times  in  which 
they  exist,  which  the  lapse  of  centuries  cannot  obliterate.  All  along 
the  highway  of  the  past,  there  are  thickly  strown  the  footprints  of 
the  tlungs  which  h>ave  been;  stamped  in  the  crimson  records  of 
desolating  war,  or  chiselled  on  the  storied  monument,  or  traced  on 
the  teQ-tale  parchment,  to  which  the  historian  may  turn  for  the 
waif  and  woo^  out  of  which  to  weave  the  webb  of  the  world's 
eventful  story.  It  is  not  so  in  regard  to  Freemasonry.  EssentiaUy 
not  an  intermeddling  institution,  receiving  none  into  its  commu- 
nion but  such  as  freely,  voluntarily,  and  without  solicitation,  ask 
admisffion  to  its  benefits  and  privileges;  keeping,  through  a  long 
succession  of  ages,  no  records  of  its  achievements  but  '^the  atten- 
tive years,  the  silent  tongues,  and  the  Mthful  breasts,"  of  its  vota- 
ries; transmitting  its  tenets  and  its  laws  from  one  generation  to 
another,  solely  through  the  medium  of  oral  tradition ;  the  archives 
of  nations  furnish  few  or  no  memorials  of  its  existence,  save  in  the 
persecutions  it  has  endured  froiu  the  jealousy  of  tyrannic  power, 
the  intolerance  of  priestcraft,  and  the  bigotry  of  bloated  supersti- 
tion. It  is  not  wonderful,  therefore,  that  its  early  history  should 
be  to  the  uninitiated  as  a  ^^  sealed  book,"  which  even  the  ^^  masters 
in  our  Israel"  find  too  feebly  illuminated  by  the  dim  twilight  of 
our  tradition  to  read  inth  accuracy  and  precision. — l^om  an  Ad- 
drees  by  Bro.  J.  S,  M^Mahon. 



Vq  9t9»  JS«  C*  CotRnittCl* 

Oh,  there  is  a  time,  in  our  Joyous  spring  of  youth, 

When  we  think  not  that  cares  and  sorrows  are  to  come ; 

When  life  is  but  a  round  of  smiles  and  songs  of  truth,—- 
A  peaceftU  and  a  pleasant  dream, 

Beplete  with  childhood's  glee,  and  sounds  of  home, 
O'er  which  lore's  day-star  sheds  her  bri^test  beun. 

The  bud  then  bursts  its  tender  shell. 
And  the  young  flow'ret  opens  to  the  day; 

Fond  luUiibies,  IUds  zephyrs,  swell 
O'er  it  HOftly,  in  life's  sweet  budding  May. 

Then  there  are  moments  in  this  <niward  struggling  life 
When  our  hearts  do  melt  with  lore,  pure  and  manful  lore; 

We  lose  our  grosser  elements ;  we  cease  from  strife^ 
And  are  all  spirit  for  a  time; 

Our  thoughts  are  blent  with  angel  thou^^ts  above, 
And  upward  towards  a  higher  life  we  climb. 

The  flower  then  blooms  In  beauty  bright, 
And  sparkling  dew-drops  tremble  on  its  stem, 

While  odors  sweet,  <»  pinioos  Ught, 
Are  softly  wafted  from  the  flow'riiig  gem. 

Ah  I  there  are  hours  of  bitter  grief  befell  us  here, 
Which  are  more  dark  and  sorrowfrd  when  youth  has  fled ; 

They  weigh  us  down,  and  fill  our  hearts  with  awftil  ftsir 
Of  something  dreadAil  yet  to  come; 

The  fltftil  gleams  of  light  that  o'er  us  theu  are  shed. 
Just  light  our  pathway  onward  to  the  tomb. 

Ah !  then,  the  once  bright  flower  doth  fede, 
And,  leaf  by  leaf,  it  scattereth  at  last ; 

Lonely  it  droops  in  deep'ning  shade, 
Its  odors  wasted  by  life's  winter-blast 

Ha !  there  are  flitting  moments,  when  we  dare  not  think 
What  we  may  be  in  our  more  g^ding  little  hour ; 

A  chill  pervades  the  heart — the  pulses  throb — we  sink— 
The  last  pale  gleam  of  light  has  fled;-^ 

We  sigh — we  gasp — we  lose  all  sense — aU  power— > 
We  cease  to  sigh — to  gasp —  we  're  dead. — 

All  pale  and  wither'd,  blanched  an4^  torn, 
Tne  flower  now  lies  cmsh'd  upon  its  bed ; 
,         '        Its  sisters,  bending  o'er  it,  mourn. 

And  their  warm  tears,  like  pearly  dew-drops,  shed. 


«Oos8*ASTX»,  Deo«mb«r  90tb,  186S. 

396  THB    ASHLAR. 


We  have,  in  a  previoos  number  of  Th:k  Abhlab,  indioated  our 
opinion  respecting  the  General  Grand  Bodies  of  the  United  States, 
From  what  we  haTe  been  able  to  learn  respecting  their  recent  ses- 
sions at  Hartford,  we  see  no  reason  to  change  our  view*.  Our 
attention  has  just  been  attracted  to  this  subject  bj  a  report  made 
to  the  Grand  Encampment  of  Ohio,  in  which  its  authors  take  the 
ground  that  the  mission  of  the  General  Grand  Encampment  is 
julfilled,  and  that  it  will  soon  cease  to  exist.  Their  views  are  thus 
briefly  expressed: 

It  was  unquestionably  a  judicious  policy  on  the  part  of  the 
eminent  knights  who  took  upon  themselves  the  organization  of  the 
General  Grand  Encampment  of  the  United  States.  There  were 
at  that  time  but  few  encampments  on  this  continent,  and  they  dt- 
uate  in  various  and  independ^t  jurisdictions.  With  these  few 
and  isolated  exceptions,  the  entire  country  was,  to  TempUur  Ma- 
sonry, a  vast  unoccupied  field.  There  was  great  reason  to  api>re> 
hena  that  in  a  promiscuous  exercise  of  authority  in  tihe  propagation 
of  the  orders  in  that  field,  a  contrariety  of  interests  might  lead  to 
conflicting  claims  to  jurisdiction,  with  no  common  umpire  to  which 
the  parties  might  resort  for  an  authoritative  adjustment  of  their 
respective  claims;  and  thus  reproach  be  brought  upon  our  hon- 
ored bannersi  and  discord  and  confusion  reign  in  oar  otherwise 
peaceful  asylums.  The  prudent  forecast  of  our  fathers  foresaw 
these  evils,  and  prevented  them,  by  the  organization,  by  common 
consent,  of  a  body  with  jurisdiction  co-extensive  with  the  geo- 
graphical limits  of  our  country.  This  jurisdiction  has  been  wisely 
ana  prudently  maintained,  until  a  sufficient  number  of  constituent 
encampments  being  duly  organized  in  a  State  to  warrant  the  for- 
mation therein  of  a  Grand  Encampment;  when  Templar  jurisdic- 
tion within  soch  limits  has  been  devolved  upon  such  State  Grand 
Encampments.  Within  the  few  years  past  this  process  has  been 
going  n>rward  at  a  greatly  accelerated  pace,  until  comparatively 
uttle  remains  to  the  General  Grand  Encampment,  beyond  the  new 
and  yet  unoccupied  territories.  We  see  no  reason  to  apprehend 
that  this  celerity  in  the  progress  of  the  Christian  Orders  will 
hereaflier  tarry  in  the  rear  of  the  tide  of  population. 

This  view  of  the  subject  leads  us  to  contemplate  the  time  as- 
now  not  &r  remote,  when  the  General  Grand  Encampment  will 
haye  fuUy  and  honorably  accomplished  its  misdon.  It  will  then 
be  no  longer  a  self-sustaming  institution;  for,  ujplike  natural  bod- 
ies, its  resources  and  natural  force  are  abated  in  proportion  that 
its  functions  are  extended.  When  State  Grand  Encampments, 
shall  exist  in  the  now  unoccupied  territories,  no  independent  re- 

THE    ASHLAR.  $$9 

flonroe  will  remsdn  to  sustain  the  General  Orand  Encampment; 
and  the  same  prudential  forecast  that  fiity  years  ago  prompted  our 
jbthers  to  the  orgamssation  of  that  body,  will  warrant  us  now  in 
antidpating  its  near,  inevitable,  and  ultimate  destiny.  It  would 
seem  not  merely  the  dictate  of  common  prudence,  but  the  impe- 
rious dntT  of  the  Grand  Encampments,  to  be  taping  their  ends, 
at  an  early  day,  with  reference  to  this  event.  When  all  (or  nearly 
sJl)  the  States  shsJl  be  possessed  of  their  own  Grand  Encamp- 
ments, the  jurisdiction  proper  of  the  General  Grand  Encampment 
will  be  circumscribed  to  the  narrowest  limits,  and  its  pecuniary 
resources  proportionally  diminished.  It  follows,  of  natural  neceft- 
fflty,  th^t  the  body  itself  must  then  either  fidl  into  insignificance 
and  neglect,  or  be  maintained,  a  splendid  bauble,  at  the  expense 
of  its  constituent  bodies.  Veneration  for  the  memories  of  the 
^reat  and  worthy  men  who,  at  the  time,  seeing  its  necessity,  gave 
K>rm  and  vitality  to  that  body — ^respect  for  the  eminent  moral 
worth  and  talents  of  those  who  have  suocessivelv  administered  its 
affairs,  during  its  period  of  useftilness — and  a  fihal  regard  for  the 
institution  itself-— all  conspire  to  invoke  at  the  hands  of  the  frater- 
nity, proper  measures  to  spare  that  body  the  humiliation  of  such 

The  same  remarks  will  apply  with  equal  force  to  the  General 
Grand  Chapter.  That  body  is  now  a  great  expense  to  Royal  Arch 
Masons  in  the  different  States,  and  confers  comparatively  few  ben- 
efits, like  the  G.  G.  £.,  it  cannot  c<»iveniently  meet  more  than 
onoe  in  three  years;  and  so  seldom  are  its  convocations,  and  so 
little  unanimity  usually  prevails  respecting  mooted  topics,  that  its 
labors  are  almost  powerless  for  any  considerable  degree  of  good. 
Under  these  circumstances,  it  is  well  for  every  Royal  Arch  Ma* 
son  to  consider  whether  the  General  Grand  Body  should  be  per- 
petuated— ^whether  he  is  willing  to  be  taxed  to  sustain  it.  We  are 
as  willing  as  any  one  to  see  the  organization  of  the  National  Ma* 
sonic  Bodies  continued,  if  they  are  of  suffident  servioe  to  the  Craft; 
bnt  we  are  in  &vor  of  dissolving  them  as  soon  as  they  accomplish 
the  end  for  which  they  are  designed,  or  become  an  incubus  upon 
the  Fraternity. 

•  •• 

Many  Masons  suppose  that  our  institution  consists  of 
nothing  but  the  work  and  lectures.  Those  are  merely  the  tools 
by  which  we  seek  to  construct  the  moral  edifice — ^they  are  ^^^^ 
the  means  by  which  we  accomplish  a  great  moral  good.  Iiiu 
important  truth  should  never  be  forgotten. 


VoB  Tbb  Aablab. 
THS    BSD    GB08S    KNIGHTS* 


Vl  9n»  C^Mts  Jl.  null. 

Which  it  greatest,  the  strength  of  Wine,  of  the  King,  of  Wodmo,  or,  of 
Tmtbl— Dabhtb,  Knro  of  Psbbia. 


How  strong  Ib  Wine !  it  canseth  all  to  err, 
Who  to  calm  temperance  excess  prefer ; 
Under  its  inflnence  the  mind's  undone, — 
The  poor  man  and  the  rich  become  as  one, 
Their  thoughts  are  tum'd  to  jollity  and  mirth, 
Sorrow  and  debt  despise,  and  pride  of  birth; 
The  miserable  man  forgets  his  woes. 
Neglects  his  kindred,  mingles  with  his  foes ; 
The  yirtnoos  heart  a  Ticions  course  defenda, 
And  draws  its  sword  against  its  truest  friends.-— 
How  strong  is  Wine,  that  forceth  to  these  things  I 
Ib  it  not  greater  than  the  power  of  Kings  1 


The  great  Creator,  when  he  form*d  our  race, 
To  aU  hia  creatures,  each  BBBign'd  a  place, 
And  man  ordain'd  the  master  of  the  whoto. 
To  rule  and  gorem  them  without  control; 
But  men  thmoselyes  by  man  must  be  restrain'd. 
And  Khigs  and  Princes  this  great  power  attain'd. 
Now,  those  who  rule  all  sublunary  things 
No  earthly  power  oontrols;  and  such  are  Kings. 


The  strength  of  Wine  is  not  to  be  deny'd, 
It  lightens  poverty,  and  humbles  pride ; 
Neither  is  that  of  Kings,  whate'er  its  source, 
Which  binds  so  many  men  by  will  and  force :  • 
But  yet  the  fl^wn  of  Women  fiur  excels 
The  force  of  Wine  and  Kings ;  with  magic  Bpella 
She  capUvates  her  yotary  by  her  charms, 
And  he's  content  to  die  within  her  arms.  ^ 


Though  Wine  by  tirengih  should  rule,  by  wi§dom  Kings, 
Though  Woman's  heavaty  partial  durance  brings. 
Yet  all  their  powers  shall  fail  and  fade  like  youui. 
And  Wudom,  Strtnffih  and  Betiufy  dwell  with  Tbuth; 
For  neither  Beau^,  mighty  Kings,  nor  Wine 
Hath  power  and  majesty,  fUr  Truth  1  like  thine. 

*  TbSm  jfUmoe  of  poetry  we  reeently  reeetved  from  Bra  Joeeph  Crovell,  of  Maine.  Be 
Wiltee  u :  "  Ineloeed  with  this  I  tend  yoa  e  oopy  whidh  I  heve  tekeo  from  mmaag  the 
rabblfh,  whloh  I  have  been  overheollng  theee  long  winter  eventnge.  Am  It  hae  lun  in 
^lerkneet  for  etanoet  half  a  oentory,  I  think  it  worthy  a  apare  page  in  Turn  Abklab,  If  yoa 
■hevld  hAve  one,  and  think  it  worthy  of  preaerratloo.'* 

THB    ASHLAR.  289 

Thy  Judgments  Jiut,  thy  precepts  ever  pan, 

In  all  Ticissitodee  shall  still  endure; 

Thy  fruits  are  not  the  pleasures  of  an  hour, 

And  ages  yet  unborn  shall  own  thy  power; 
For  neither  Beauty,  mighty  Kiqgs,  nor  Wine 
Hath  power  and  ini^esty,  fidr  Truth !  like  Uiine. 

AD  else  is  evanescent,  ftdse  and  frail, 

All  else  deceives,  but  thou  shalt  nev^r  fail; 

At  thy  approach  Hypocrisy  shall  flee, 

For  Wisdom,  Strength  and  Beauty  dwell  with  thee ; 

Thou  stiU  shalt  blossom  in  immortal  youth 

For  ever,  blessed  be  the  Gk>d  of  Truth ! 
For  neither  Beauty,  mighty  Kings,  nor  Wine 
Hath  power  and  m^esty,  flilr  Truth  1  like  thine. 

•  e» 

Wbittss  fob  Ths  Ashlai. 



Sa  fl^sim  Jbusn. 

Chaptbb  v. 

It  was  the  27th  of  May,  H0I7  Thursday  Asoensioii  day.  The 
oapitol  city  of  Bordeaux  was  filled  with  pageants  and  processions; 
the  splendid  oeremonies  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  lost  none 
ol  their  imposing  grandeur  in  the  hands  of  the  munificent  Arch-> 
l>i8hop,  Bertrand  de  Qot.  The  Cathedral  of  St.  Andrews  was 
festooned  with  flowers,  the  columns  hung  with  garlands  and  the  altar 
biased  with  gold  and  jewels.  The  Archbishop  officiated,  glittering 
like  a  meteor  in  his  gorgeous  robes,  and  surrounded  by  a  multitude 
of  priests.  Therpeople  gazed  with  reverential  awe,  as  the  majestic 
Archbishop,  leaning  upon  his  crosier,  pronoimced  in  solemn  tones 
bis  apostolic  benediction.  The  services  being  over,  with  slow  and 
dignified  step,  surrounded  by  his  officers  and  proceeded  by  his 
cross-bearers,  the  Archbishop  moved  down  the  aisle,  and  out  at 
the  great  portal.  While  crossing  the  square,  towards  his  palace,  a 
chaplain  pressed  up  to  him,  and  whispered  something  in  his  ear. 
A  change  came  over  his  &ce,  his  cheek  blanched,  and  a  frown  set- 
tled on  his  brow.  He  dismissed  his  train  in  the  hall,  and  retired 
to  his  private  apartments. 

**My  lord,"  said  the  fidr  Countess  of  Perigord,  who  had  pre- 
ceded the  Archbishop  from  the  church,  ^^thon  dost  look  angry. 
Hast  aught  evil  happened  thee  since  we  left  St.  Andrews?" 

240  riTHE    ASHLAR. 

**Yea;  messengen  have  arrived  from  that  beaat,  Philip  of 
^Vance.    Tis  some  new  quarrel**  .... 

Here  he  was  intemipted  by  the  entrance  of  a  page,  who  gave 
the  Archbishop  a  letter  closed  with  a  miken  thread,  the  ends  of 
which  were  secured  by  a  large  waxen  seal. 

The  prelate  tore  the  letter  roughly  open,  and  read.  The  con- 
tents produced  a  great  change.  He  smiled,  re-read  the  letter,  and 
turning  to  the  Countess,  said : 

*^  This  seems  a  repentant  son  of  the  Church,  this  King  of  France ; 
we  must  not  reject  the  penitent.  He  invites  us  to  meet  him  se- 
cretly, on  matters  that  greatly  interest  us;  and  we  will  go.** 

"But,  my  lord,  does  Philip  give  security  for  thy  safe  return?** 
mquired  the  Countess  in  a  tender  voice. 

"He  does,**  replied  the  prelate.  And  kissing  the  beautiful  hand 
of  the  lady,  he  left  the  apartment. 

In  less  than  half  an  hour,  Bertrand  dc  Got  issued  forth  from  a 
private  door  of  the  palace,  mounted  a  strong  horse,  and  set  out  in 
a  northerly  direction.  The  Archbishop  rode  weU,  and  he  rode 
fihst.  On  the  evemng  of  the  second  day,  he  drew  bridle  at  a  large 
gate,  above  which,  and  towering  over  the  surrounding  trees,  rose 
the  walls  and  pinnacles  of  a  noble  abbey.  Dismounting,  he  ap- 
plied for  admiadon.  As  he  entered,  he  inquired  of  the  porter, 
whether  the  Count  de  Puelle  had  arrived  there  thai  day. 

"Not  an  hour  ago,"  replied  the  porter.  "Who  is  it  that  wishes 
to  see  him?    I  am  to  admit  no  one  without  warning.** 

"TeU  him  it  is  Father  Bertrand,  the  poor  priest  of  St.  Andrews 
of  Bordeaux,**  replied  the  Archbishop,  in  a  whining  voice. 

The  porter  withdrew,  leaving  the  weary  prelate  standing  in  the 
corridor  alone.  Returning  in  a  few  moments,  and  leading  the 
way  through  the  long  winding  stone  cloisters,  the  porter  ushered 
the  Archbishop,  unannounced,  into  a  small  room,  closed  the  door, 
and  departed.  At  a  table  before  him,  entirely  alone,  sat  Philip 
the  Fair,  dressed  in  exceedingly  plain  garments,  and  looking  some- 
what aged  and  care-worn  mnce  the  prelate  had  last  seen  him,  but 
Still  the  most  splendid  looking  gentleman  in  Europe. 

The  prelate  bowed  low,  but  remained  silent;  and  Philip,  with- 
out rising,  gazed  into  his  face  with  a  dark  and  searching  smile. 
Bertrand  de  Got  advanced  to  the  table,  not  knowing  what  to 
think  of  his  strange  reception,  and  regarded  the  King  inquiringly; 
neither  uttered  a  word.  There  those  two  vile  men  were, — the  one 
had  come  to  purchase,  and  the  other  to  sell,  his  soul. 


THE    ASHLAR.  241 

FUIip  se^xied  aatiflfied  with  the  man,  for  he  broke  the  siknce, 
by  asking  in  %  very  distinct  t<«ie,  not  taking  hifl  eyes  from  the  pre- 
.  late's  face, — 

"Wilt  thou  be  I^ope?" 

Had  a  thunder-bolt  discharged  at  his  feet,  the  astonished  pre-. 
late  could  not  have  been  more  amazed;  but  ho  was  too  much  ao* 
customed  to  dealing  with  great  things  to  show  ail  the  surprise  he 
felt.  Since  his  elevation  to  the  Arch-Episcopal  dignity,  he  had 
Jived  in  continual  disputes  with  Philip;  nevertheless,  he  grappled 
with  the  question  at  once,  and  boldly. 

"  Sire,  considering  all  things,  I  should  have  thought  myself  the 
very  last  man  thou  wouldst  have  chosen,  or  the  condave  would 
deot.  However,  this  much  I  will  vouch  for :  should  thy  Majesty 
so  honor  me,  and  they  so  &vor  me,  both  shidl  find  that  I  am  na 
longer  the  Archbishop  of  Bordeaux.'* 

"  We  care  not  what  they  find,  but,  my  good  lord,  iw  expect  to 
find  a  difference.  It  pleaseth  us  to  see  men  taken  in  their  own  net 
sometimes.  Now,  it  is  sm][^y  because  they  thought  thee  the  very 
iMt  man  we  would  select,  that  the  Catigan  fiu^on  have  placed  thy 
name  upon  this  paper.  Thou  wilt  notice  that  it  contains  three,'' 
said  Philip,  pushing  an  open  letter  across  the  table  to  the  prelate. 
He  added :  ^From  these  the  Orsini  &ction  are  to  choose  one,  and 
we  are  to  name  that  one.  We  have  found  thee,  my  lord,  an  unruly 
Bishop,  a  oontumadous  Archbishop;  but,  methinks,  thou  wilt 
maht  the  very  Pope  we  needJ*^ 

"  Thou  wUt  always  find  me  gratefol  for  thy  Majesty's  &vofi, 
and  submissive  in  all  things  to  thy  better  judgment,"  replied  the 
Archbishop,  blandly. 

'^But  we  must  have  certaintie»^8omething  more  definite  than 
vague  assurances.  Five  positive  engagements  thou  must  enter 
into  first.    Stop  I  we  will  put  down  the  conditions." 

And  Philip,  taking  the  back  of  the  letter  wrote  rapidly  upon  it. 
When  hehad  finished,  he  drew  the  lamp  towards  ium,  and  read 

*^ First,  thou  must  reconcile  us  p^ectly  with  the  Church;  sec- 
ond, thou  must  annul  all  eccledastical  censures  against  our  person, 
ministers,  subjects  and  alHes;  third,  thou  must  grant  us  three- 
tenths  of  the  church  revenues,  in  our  kingdom;  fourth,  thou  must 
authoritatively  condemn  the  memory  of  Pope  Bonifece  VHI." 

The  King  paused,  not  with  the  slightest  appearance  of  doubt^ 

242  THE    ASHLAR. 

for  he  looked  firmly  into  the  prelate's  eyesi  but  with  that  calm, 
deliberate  halt,  employed  by.  orat<»r8  to  render  what  they  are 
about  to  say  more  impressiye. 

*^The  fifth,''  said  Philip,  in  c<»itinuation,  ^^we  shall  keep  to 
ourselves  for  the  present,  bat  shall  acquaint  thee  with  its  import 
at  the  proper  time  and  place." 

Bertrand  de  Got  had  bowed  his  head  at  each  of  the  four  oofOr 
ditions ;  when  Philip  finished  speaking,  he  bowed  his  head  onoe 
more.  The  King  saw  that  he  was  resolved  to  purchase,  at  any 
price,  the  power  which  the  tiara  invested.  So,  patting  the  paper 
towards  him,  he  said,  with  one  of  his  triomphant  laaghs, — 

^^  When  thy  Eminence  signs  that,  thoa  shalt  be  Pope." 

The  Archbishop  of  Bordeaux,  withoat  the  slightest  hedtationy 
signed  the  paper.  PhOip,  rising,  laid  his  hand  smartly  up<m  the 
prelate's  shoulder,  and  said: 

*^To  conmience  with,  we  congratulate  thy  Holiness  for  dedaon, 
which  promises  well  for  the  future. 

^^Sire,  it  gives  me  joy  to  know  that  thy  Majesty  has  penetra- 
tion saffident  to  judge  so  justly  of  my  devotion  to  thy  servioe; 
and  in  the  anhappy  differences  that  agitated  our  past  interoouiae)  I 
have  had  in  view  thy  real  interests." 

"Hal  my  Mend,  we  understand  each  other  now,"  replied  Philqs 
in  a  sneering  tone;  and  taking  a  large  sealed  letter  firom  the  inner 
pocket  of  his  doublet,  he  added,  "  that  goes  to  Rome." 

The  poor  priest  of  St.  Andrews  eyed  with  great  interest  the 
sealed  packet  which  was  to  elevate  him  far  above  the  kings  of 
Europe  in  power.  The.King  blew  a  sommons  flyman  ivory  whistle, 
and  a  courier,  booted  and  spurred,  made  his  appearance. 

"Albretto,  bear  this  letter  to  the  condave." 

And  the  interview  ended.* 

Both  the  Orsini  and  Catigan  faction  were  surprised  at  the 
nomination;  but  they  were  bound  by  their  compact.  Bertrand 
de  Got  was  elected  JPope,  and  assumed  the  title  of  Clement  Y. 
His  coronation  took  place  at  Lyons,  in  June  and  to  the  consterna- 
tion of  aU  Europe,  save  Philip,  he  fixed  his.  residence  at  Avignon, 
in  France. 


*Thi8  intemew,  conTeraatioa,  and  compact,  between  Philip  aod  Bertnnd 
de  Got,  are  no  flctioD,  whatever,  and  the  aathor*B  imagination  haa  nothing  to  do 
with  them.  All  the  hiatoriana  of  the  Temple  agree  upon  the  tranaaction,  and 
their  accounta  bat  slightly  difBsr, 

THE    ASHLAR.  248 

Bertraad  de  Gk>t  in  the  chair  of  St  Peterl  Yes,  a  man  no- 
torious for  his  excesses, — a  man  who  Eved  m  open  oonoabinage  with 
the  wife  of  the  governor  of  Bordeaux, — a  man  whose  adulterous 
soul  was  festering  in  every  species  of  sin, — stood  opon  the  pinnade 
of  Christ's  Church  on  earth,  to  rule  the  consciences  of  men* 

Clement  proceeded  in  all  haste  to  execute  the  four  specified 
conditions  of  the  bond. 

To  reconcile  an  offending  monarch  to  the  Church;  to  annul 
ecdeaastical  censures;  to  grant  Churdi  property  for  secular  pur* 
poses,  was  nothing  very  new  or  alarming.  To  condemn  the  mem- 
ory of  a  defunct  Pope  might  possibly  form  an  unpleasant  prece- 
dent, but  this  was  a  very  different  task  from  the  fifth  condition* 
What  was  it,  but  the  destruction  of  the  Order  of  the  Temple? 
Can  any  one  doubt  it,  from  the  train  of  circumstances  that  foUowed 
Bertrand  de  Gk)t'8  elevation  to  the  papal  authority  ?  Philip  might 
weQ  be  cautious,  even  towards  the  creature,  whose  soul  he  had 
purchased,  till  he  had  in  some  measure  prepared  the  way  for  a 
proposal  the  most  monstrous,  the  most  fiightful  that  was  ever  made 
by  one  man  to  another — that  of  assailing,  condemning,  and  de- 
stroying an  Order,  which  had  been  the  bulwark  of  Europe,  the 
defense  of  the  Holy  Land,  and  the  nurse  of  every  manly  senti- 
ment  for  centuries.  It  implied  falsehood,  injustice,  oppresaon, 
cruelty  and  murder.  Philip  might  well  keep  his  secret,  and  i^ 
serve  his  explanation  of  the  fifth  fearful  condition,  until  the  mind 
of  his  bondman  was  &miliarized  by  degrees  with  the  contempla- 
tion of  such  deeds. 

Why  did  Philip  seek  the  destruction  of  the  Order  of  the 
Temple?  He  mounted  the  French- throne  when  only  seventeen 
years  of  age,  and  very  soon  began  to  show  those  germs  of  avarice, 
which  afterwards  ripened  to  ftdl  maturity.  Philip  was  a  cold,  cal« 
culating,  remorseless  man,  and  an  ambitious,  tyrannical  prince. 
His  barbarous  treachery  to  Guy  de  Dampierre,  Duke  of  Flanders, 
left  a  stain  upon  his  memory  that  nothing  could  efface.  His  first 
act  at  his  trade  of  oppression,  was  to  break  up  the  great  feudal 
power  of  his  barons,  in  order  to  briiig  their  noble  revenues  into 
the  royal  treasury.  But  the  independent  barons  rose  ea  masse^ 
and  reedsted  the  encroachments;  and  Philip,  instead  of  acquiring 
the  vast  provinces  of  France,  impoverished  himself  so  much  that 
there  was  not  a  nobleman  in  France  but  was  better  served  than 
his  King.     Failing,  his  next  scheme  was  to  debase  the  national 

944  THE    ASHLAR. 

ooai  to  ODe-seventb  of  its  nominal  vidue.  The  inclemeiit  winter 
of  1290,  followed  a  bUgiited  harrest,  bread  was  iscaroe,  and  the 
iron-alloyed  money  worthless.  The  wolves  ravaged  the  oountry, 
and  prowled  through  the  streets  of  Paris.  Hnman  nature  could 
hold  ont  no  longer!.  The  peojde  rose  in  rebellion,  and  roshed  to 
Paris,  where  they  were  joined  by  its  trades-people.  Inibriatedby 
taxes  borne  long  and  impatiently,  the  mob  pillaged  the  houses  ci 
the  Ministers,  and  menaeed  the  safety  of  Philip.  He  hurried  from 
the  Louvre,  and  took  refuge  m  the  strong  and  defensible  buildings 
of  the  Temple  House.  Hie  Templars  gare  him  honorable  shelter 
'— closed  their  gates  upon  his  enemies,  and,  m  case  of  an  assault, 
promised  solemnly  to  protect  his  person  to  the  last  extremity.  But 
the  selfish  King  required  more.  The  people  had  followed,  invest- 
ed the  Temple  House,  and  swore  they  would  stone  Philip  into  sur- 
render; whereupon  he  ordered  the  Templars  to  cut  down  and  dis- 
perse the  people.  This  they  refused  to  do ;  as  they  were  forbidden 
by  the  most  holy  vows,  ever  to  draw  their  swords  against  their  fel- 
low-christians,  except  in  self-defense.  However,  after  two  days^ 
through  the  pacific  influence  of  the  Templars,  the  peojde  were 
quieted,  and  tranquillity  was  restored.  The  King,  having  escaped 
a  fiite  he  most  justly  deserved,  returned  to  his  palace,  with  hate 
wrangling  in  his  heart  towards  the  Templars.  In  the  mean  sjHiit 
of  retaliation,  he  attributed  the  whole  insurrection  to  the  Order, 
because  their  r^it  rolls  firom  their  numerous  estates,  that  yielded 
them  princely  revenues,  had  suffered  in  consequence  of  the  de- 
basement of  the  coin. 

Baffled  a  second  time,  Philip  dared  to  brave  the  colossal  power 
of  the  Pope.  He  seized  the  tithes  of  the  Church  throughout 
France,  for  which  act  he  was  excommunicated  by  Bonifiice  VTIL 
In  revenge  he  seirod  the  person  of  the  Pope;  and  every  indignity 
and  insult  that  brutish  rage  could  devise  was  heaped  upon  the  aged 
PontifT.  The  Templars  sided  with  the  Pope;  came  to  the  rescue 
and  delivered  him  fi-om  the  hands  of  the  fiendish  Cologna,  Philip^i 
emissaries.  But  the  poor  Pope  died  shortly  afterwards,  from  the 
effects  of  ill  treatment  received  at  their  hands. 

This  was  a  great  crime  in  the  eyes  of  Philip ;  but  be  dissembled, 
knowing  that  under  such  a  man  as  Benedict  XL  it  would  be  im- 
possible to  execute  his  scheme  for  the  destruction  of  the  Temple. 
As  no  plan  for  taking  vengeance,  or  stripping  them  of  their  ex- 
ceeding wealth,  could  suggest  itself  so  long  as  the  tiara  was  worn 

THE    ASHLAR.  346 

hf  %  Pontiff  incl^peiideiit  of  the  power  of  Franoe,  he  oonoentn^ 
ted  all  hia  energiea,  tH  his  strength,  aUhisresooroes,  and  so  &rhaa 

[7b  h9  «mimu$d,[ 

•  •• 


East  SAanrAw,  January  24th,  1857. 

Ton  see  by  the  date  of  this  letter,  my  dear  AbhtiAB,  that  I  am 
in  the  midst  of  the  immense  tracts  of  pine  wood  lands  which  form 
a  large  part  of  the  wealth  of  Michigan,  and  which  have  enriched, 
and  are  enriching,  many  thousands  of  her  citizens.  This  place 
is  edtnated  on  Saginaw  river,  twenty  miles  from  its  month.  Its 
growth  has  been  rapid,  and  it  stiU  continues  to  increase  and  flomv 
ish  in  spite  of  the  large  fires  which  have  consumed  its  buildings 
and  the  great  expense  to  which  it  has  been  subjected  in  converting 
the  wilderness  into  an  abode  of  civilization  and  refinement.  East 
Saginaw  commenced  its  existence  ox  years  ago,  and  is  in  its  swad* 
dling  clothes,  yet  it  has  not  less  than  twenty-two  hundred  inhabi- 
tants, some  fine  brick  blocks,  several  elegant  dwelling  houses,  and 
society  distinguished  for  its  intelligence  and  refinement.  Every 
thing  here  gives  indubitable  evidence  of  progress.  In  addition  to 
the  many  outlays  of  money  for  improvements,  the  citizens  have 
just  paid  seven  thousand  dollars  towards  a  machine  for  dredging 
the  river  and  rendering  it  navigable  in  the  dry  seasons. 

The  people  here  enjoy  the  cold  winters.  Social  amusements 
are  abundant.  Sleigh  rides,  balls  and  parties  are  firequent,  and 
various  kinds  of  game  afford  pleasure  to  the  sportsman.  On  my 
way  from  Flint  to  this  town,  a  gentleman  pointed  out  to  me  a 
place  where,  but  a  short  time  since,  he  saw  sixteen  deer  cross  the 
plank  road  in  less  than  five  minutes.  Bears  sometimes  visit  the 
village.  Last  &11,  one  that  ventured  near  dwellings  was  pursued  by 
some  dogs.  Bruin  became  frightened,  and  instead  of  '^  making 
tracks,"  as  they  say  here,  for  the  woods,  he  followed  the  most  conspi* 
cuous  high-ways  and  by-ways ;  and  being  pressed  somewhat  close- 
ly by  his  pursuers,  sought  to  find  a  safe  retreat  in  a  foundry.  The 
door  being  closed  against  him,  he  entered  the  window  without 
regard  to  the  sash,  which  he  broke  into  a  hundred  pieces.    Finding 

246  THE    ASHLAR. 

the  asylum  &r  from  beinga  safe  one,  he  passed  through  it|  makin|^ 
his  egress,  as  he  had  his  ingress,  through  a  window. 

The  inhabitants  of  this  region  are  not  shnt  oat  from  Detroit 
and  the  east  by  the  snows  of  winter.  A  stage  leaves  here  every 
morning,  which  passes  through  Flint,  and  connects  with  the  cars  at 
Fentonville  in  the  afternoon,  so  that  a  person  who  leaves  here  in  the 
morning  can  arrive  in  the  City  of  the  Straits  by  tea-time.  The 
stage-ride  is  a  cold  and  tedious  one,  which  few  would  be  tempted 
to  take  for  pleasure. 

I  arrived  here  about  eight  o'clock  last  evening,  and  have  not 
as  yet  seen  any  of  the  Brethren,  except  my  warm-hearted  friend, 
M.  G.  Hesfl.  I  learn  that  the  Lodge  is  doing  finely.  Harmony 
prevails,  and  though  a  good  deal  of  Masonic  work  is  don^  the  tim- 
ber is  good. 

I  left  Detroit  on  the  afternoon  of  the  27th  of  December.  The 
same  evening  I  had  the  pleasure  of  presiding  in  Acacia  Lodge  at 
Pontiac,  and  conferring  the  third  degree.  Bros.  Darrow  and 
Eliott  were  present,  and  a  goodly  number  of  the  Brethren.  Bro. 
Cudworth,  who  had  just  been  elected  W.  M.,  I  had  the  pleasure 
of  meeting. 

Wednesday  morning  I  visited  Clarkston,  for  the  first  time.  I 
found  my  old  friend,  Bro.  John  Davis,  alias  "  Uncle  John,"  with 
his  great  heart  overflowing  with  kindness  and  good  will  Would 
that  every  Lodge  had  members  as  generous  and  disinterested  as  he ! 

Wednesday  evening  found  me  at  Fentonville,  where  I  had  the 
pleasure  of  meeting  the  Brethren  in  the  Lodge  room,  and  holding 
Masonic  intercourse  with  them,  for  the  "purpose  of  instruction.'* 
Bro.  Geo.  Leroy  has  been  elected  W.  M.,  and  under  his  guidance, 
I  think  there  is  no  reason  to  doubt  that  the  Lodge  will  prosper 

Thursday  morning  I  paid  a  short  visit  to  Hawley,  after  which  I 
proceeded,  via  the  Railway,  to  Corunna,  where  I  met  Bros.  E.  F. 
Wade,  D.  Mountfort,  and  others.  Thursday  afternoon  I  arrived 
at  Owasso,  where  I  was  welcomed  in  New  Year  style  by  Bro.  B. 
O.  Williams,  as  warm-hearted  a  Mason  as  ever  lived.  His  hospi- 
tality is  rendered  doubly  pleasant  by  the  genial  spirit  in  which  it  is 
tendered.  Owasso  Lodge  is  doing  well,  and  is  composed  of  the 
best  materials.    Bro.  Quackenbush  is  still  in  the  East. 

I  arrived  in  the  city  of  Flint  on  Friday  noon.  There  I  found 
Bros.  J.  B.  Hamilton  and  C.  K.  Williams,  whose  kindness  will  not 

THE    ASHLAR.  24Y 

'he  soon  forgotten.  Bro.  W.  is  High  Priest  of  the  Chapter,  and 
W.  M.  of  the  Lodge,  and  deseryes  great  credit  for  his  activity 
and  Masonic  zeal.  His  Chapter  has  exalted  daring  the  past  y«ar 
twenty-seven  candidates — a  larger  amount  of  work,  probably,  than 
has  been  done  by  any  other  similar  body  in  the  State. 

Before  closing  this  letter,  I  might,  perhaps,  appropriately  say 
a  few  words  respecting  the  New  Year,  but  what  can  be  written  upon 
a  subject  which  has  been  harped  upon  and  harped  upon  till  every 
one  is  tired  of  it?  Were  it  not  too  late,  I  would  wish  every  one 
a  "  Happy  New  Year."  As  it  is,  I  will  express  the  desire  that  all 
Masons  will  form  a  new  determination  to  perform  their  duty  dur- 
ing the  next  twelve  months,  and  advance  the  interests  of  our 
order.    There  is  need  of  reform  among  the  Craft,  and  no  time  is 

more  appropriate  to  institute  it  than  this. 

A.  w. 

•  ♦• 


The  Grand  Chapter  of  Royal  Arch  Masons  of  the  State  of 
Michigan,  met  at  Masonic  Hail  in  Detroit,  on  the  Idth  day  of 
January,  A  L.  5857,  M.  E.  Grand  High  Priest,  Michael  Shoemaker 

Among  the  standing  committees,  the  following  was  appointed: 
On  charters  and  dispensations,  F.  Hall,  B*  Porter,  jr.,  and  W.  C. 
Ransom.  The  M.  E.  Grrnd  High  Priest  then  delivered  a  well 
written  and  eloquent  address,  which  may  be  found  in  another  part 
of  this  number  of  Thb  Ashlab.  We  would  commend  it  to  the 
careftil  perusal  of  every  Mason,  as  it  is  laden  with  golden  thoughts 
which  no  member  of  our  Order  can  disregard,  without  slighting 
the  lessons  inculcated  in  the  several  degrees.  A  charter  was  gran- 
ted to  Washington  Chapter  at  Flint,  which  had  been  acting  under 
4iq)en8ation  for  nearly  a  year. 

A  petition  of  Companions,  Horace  S.  Roberts,  AHyn  Weston, 
Geo.  B.  Ensworth,  Wm.  E.  Oven,  Gordon  Campbell,  and  others, 
asking  for  a  charter  for  a  new  Chapter,  to  be  called  Peninsular 
Chapter,  and  to  be  held  in  the  city  of  Detroit,  was  referred  to  the 
standing  committee.  The  petition  was  recommended  by  Lansing 
Chapter  and  Jackson  Chapter,  in  accordance  with  a  provision  of 
the  Constitution  of  the  Grand  Chapter  of  Michigan,  adopted  one 
26 — vou  n.  NO.  VI. 

248  THE    ASHLAR. 

year  ago.  The  oommittee  made  a  report  in  &yor  of  granting  the 
prayer  of  the  petitioners;  which,  after  a  lengthy  and  animated 
debate,  was  adopted  by  a  dedmye  majority. 

The  foDowing  were  elected  officers  for  the  ensuing  year. 

Comp.  8.  C.  Coffinbnry,  G.  H.  P. 
**      H.  B.  Shank,  D.  6.  H.  P. 
"       P.  French,  G.  K. 
«       P.  Hall,  G.  S. 
«       R.  S.  Cheney,  G.  Sec 
"       W.  H.  McOmber,  G.  Treas. 
Rev.  S.  S.  Brown,  G.  CSiaplain. 
"       S.  B.  Brown,  G.  C.  of  the  H. 
"      R.  W.  Landon,  G.  R.  A.  C. 
"       S.  Blanchard,  G.  L.  and  Vis. 
^The  following  resolution  was  reported  by  Comp.  Coffinbnry, 
chairman  of  a  committee  to  whom  was  referred  a  portion  of  the 
G.  H.  Priest's  address. 

Reaolvedy  That  is  the  sense  of  this  Grand  Chapter,  that  the 
General  Grand  Chapter  has  &iled  in  accomplishing  the  object  for 
which  it  was  established;  that  the  prosperity  of  R.  A.  Masonry 
in  this  Grand  Jmisdiction,  if  not  embarrassed,  certainly  is  not  pro- 
moted by  its  continuance;  that  the  General  Grand  Body  ought  to 
be  dissolved,  and  its  constitution  derogated. 

After  some  discussion,  the  resolntion  was  adopted. 
This  brief  synopsis  comprises  all  the  business  of  any  importance 
which  was  transacted. 


'^'Solomon  haying  already  settled  himself  firmly  in  his  king- 
dom, and  having  brought  his  enemies  to  punishment,  married  the 
daughter  of  Pharaoh,  King  of  Egypt,  and  he  also  built  the  walls 
of  Jerusalem  much  larger  and  stronger  than  those  that  had 
been  before,  and  thence  forward  he  managed  public  affiiirs  very 
peaceably;  nor  was  his  youth  any  hindrance  in  the  exercise  of 
justice,  or  in  the  observation  of  the  laws,  or  in  remembrance  of 
what  charges  his  father  had  given  him  at  his  death,  but  he  dis- 
charged every  duty  with  great  accuracy,  that  might  have  been 
expected  from  such  as  are  aged,  and  of  the  greatest  prudence.'' 

THE    ASHLAR.  249 


(DstjTSBaD  Av  Tn  Amival  OovTOOATiov  or  nn  QmiVD  OBArtam  or  Miobiaav,  Jam, 

lani.AL.  68(7.} 

Most  Excsllemt,  and  Excellent  CoicpAinoifs: 

The  seasons,  in  their  wonted  course,  have  again  brought  as  to 
the  time  prescribed  by  the  Constitution  of  the  Grand  Chapter  for 
its  Annual  Convocation;  and  we  are  now  assembled  in  accord- 
ance with  its  behest,  to  consider  the  action  of  the  past  and  to  de- 
termine the  course  of  the  future. 

The  past  year  has  been  one  of  unriTalled  prosperity,  not  only 
with  our  beloved  Institution,  but  in  all  the  varied  and  extensive 
interests  of  the  people  of  the  State  and  the  nation.  Peace  has 
reigned  within  our  borders; — the  pestilence  which  stalketh  at 
noonday  has  kept  afar  bff;  the  Earth  has  given  forth  her  increase, 
and  the  voice  of  a  united  and  happy  people  is  raised  in  thankful- 
ness to  the  Supreme  GraAd  High  Priest  of  Heaven  and  Earth, 
for  the  untold  blessings  which,  in  His  wise  providence  and  for  no 
merit  of  ours.  He  has  with  so  bounteous  a  hand  bestowed  upon  us. 

The  exalted  position  of  our  people  in  all  which  constitutes  true 
greatness  should  teach  us  how  sacredly  we  should  regard  institu- 
tions which  have,  under  the  blessings  of  a  kind  Providence,  pro- 
duced such  results;  and,  with  hearts  overflowing  with  gratitude^ 
we  should  return  our  most  profound  thanks  to  the  Giver  of  every 
good  and  perfect  gift  for  having  cast  our  lot  in  this  favored  land. 

The  influence  of  the  principles  of  Masonry  in  producing  these 
happy  results  are  unknown  to  the  world  at  large,  but  there  are 
none  others  which  are  so  universal  in  their  application;  and  they 
are  as  efiective  in  their  operation  as  they  are  widely  difiused. 

The  principles  of  our  Order  being  farthest  removed  from  poli- 
tical questions,  feelings,  or  prejudices,  exercise  the  most  happy 
and  decided  influence  on  the  stormy  passions  which  political  di^ 
ferences  evoke.  The  spirit  of  Brotherly  Love,  Relief,  andTruth, 
operate  upon  the  stormy  passions  of  men  like  oO  poured  up- 
on the  troubled  waters;  and  where  strife,  discord  and  hate  seem 
likely  to  exert  their  malign  influence,  and  lead  men  to  listen  to 
their  passions  rather  than  to  their  reason,  the  happy  influence  of 
our  principles  intervene,  and  peace  and  concord  rule  in  their  stead. 
Thus,   "unseen  and  unfelt"  save  by  the  Brotherly  Love  and 

260  THE    ASHLAR. 

Hanuony  which  it  has  ^'  contribnted  to  produce,'^  has  Masonry  pur- 
sued the  even  tenor  of  its  way,  and  by  its  system  of  umversal 
brotherhood,  has  exerted  an  influence,  as  limitless  and  as  effectual 
as  it  has  been  silent  and  unobserved. 

These  considerations,  should  lead  us  to  a  becoming  diffidence 
in  ourselves  and  in  our  individual  opinions,  and  should  induce  us  in 
all  things  to  consult  the  Great  Lights  in  Masonry,  and  to  direct 
our  footsteps  in  the  paths  they  open  to  our  view;  for  if  we  will 
allow  ourselves  to  be  guided  by  their  wisdom,  we  can  lay  aside  all 
selfish  considerations  and  be  governed  by  those  ennobling  princi- 
ples which  never  lead  the  judgment  astray.  We  find  in  every 
Lodge  and  Chapter  the  greatest  diversity  of  bentiment  on  every 
subject ;  here  is  every  shade  of  opinion  on  every  question ;  here 
every  political  party — every  form  of  religious  worship  is  represent- 
ed; and  yet  under  the  benign  influence  of  Masonic  principles,  they 
blend  into  a  harmonious  whole.  If  there  are  any  exceptions  to 
this;  if  occasionaUy  we  find  a  want  of  fraternal  spirit;  if  we  find 
that  our  Brethren  and  Companions  ha^e  lost  sight  of  our  land- 
marks and  are  afloat  on  the  sea  of  error,  without  chart  or  compass, 
and  consequently  likely  to  be  wrecked  on  the  shoals  of  discord,  or 
cast  away  on  the  cold,  bleak  rock  of  selfishness, — we  have  but  to 
recur  to  the  groundwork  of  our  faith;  we  have  but  to  refer  him 
to  that  duty  which  should  be  his  pride, — and  if  he  was  ever  worthy 
the  profession  he  has  assumed,  he  will  at  once  discard  every  un- 
kind, every  unselfish  feeling,  and  heartily  join  his  Companions  in 
that  action  which  will  most  promote  the  interest  of  an  institution 
to  which  he  owes  so  much. 

The  business  transactions  since  our  last  convocation  have  been 
but  few. 

In  February  last,  the  number  of  Companions  required  by  the 
Constitution,  possessing  the  proper  qualifications,  and  duly  recom- 
mended, applied  for  a  dispensation  for  a  Chapter  to  be  located  in 
the  City  of  Flint,  in  the  County  of  Genesee,  to  be  called  Wash- 
ington Chapter.  On  the  twenty-seventh  day  of  March,  a  dispen- 
sation in  due  form  was  granted,  under  which  our  Companions 
of  that  thriving  and  enterprising  city  have  been  doing  work, 
honorable  to  themselves  and  creditable  to  the  Fraternity.  The 
application,  dispensation,  and  all  action  under  them  will  be  sub- 
mitted for  your  approval,  and  for  such  fiirther  action  as  the  good 
of  the  Order  may  require. 

THB    ASHLAR.  251 

On  the  twenty4liird  day  of  Jannary,  I  visited  Ionia,  accompa- 
nied by  onr  E.  D.  Orand  High  Priest,  Comp.  Shanks,  our  E.  Grand 
Seoretary,  Comp.  Cheney,  and  Comp.  Porter,  High  Priest  of 
Jackson  Chapter,  and  dniy  constituted  Ionia  Chapter,  No.  14,  and 
instaUed  the  officers.  We  remained  with  Ionia  Chapter  some 
days,  during  which  time  there  was  good  work  done;  and  judging 
from  the  specimens  brought  up  for  inspection,  the  conclusion  is 
irresistible  that  Ionia  Chapter  will  very  soon  take  rank  as  one  of 
the  first  Chapters  in  this  State.  The  skill  of  her  workmen,  bfrt 
more  especially,  and  what  is  the  cause  of  that  ^kill,  the  truly  ma- 
sonic spirit  manifested  and  the  energy  with  which  the  work  of  love 
was  entered  upon, — are  sure  auguries  of  success.  In  Ionia  Chap- 
ter the  Companions  wished  to  obtain  not  only  the  honors  of  the 
Degrees,  but  also  that  knowledge  which  alone  can  make  those 
honors  of  the  slightest  value,  without  which  they  are  worse  than 
useless,  of  no  benefit  to  the  possessor,  and  of  discredit  to  the 

There  was  in  K"ovember  last  an  application  for  a  dispensation 
fi)r  a  Chapter  to  be  located  at  Utica,  in  Macomb  County;  as  the 
recommendation  of  the  nearest  Chapter  (Oakland  Chapter,  No.  6), 
was  not  in  the  form  prescribed  by  the  Constitution,  the  dispensa- 
tion was  not  granted,  but  the  Companions  were  assured  it  wotild 
be,  if  the  requirements  of  the  Constitution  were  complied  with. 
The  petition  was  returned,  and  no  further  action  has  been  taken. 

There  was  also  last  week  an  application  for  a  dispensation  for 
a  Chapter,  to  be  located  at  Eaton  Rapids,  in  Eaton  County;  but, 
in  view  of  the  near  approach  of  the  meeting  of  the  Grand  Chap- 
ter, they  were  requested  to  apply  directly  to  this  body. 

I  attended  the  meeting  of  the  General  Grand  Chapter  of  Royal 
Arch  Masons  for  the  United  States  of  America,  held  in  the  City 
of  I  Hartford,  in  September  last;  our  E.  Grand  Scribe,  Comp. 
Booher,  and  Comp.  Roberts,  of  Monroe  Chapter,  were  also 

The  business  transacted  was  of  an  unimportant  character;  but 
some  propositions  were  submitted  for  consideration  and  future  ac- 
tion which  are  worthy  your  attention.  There  were  important 
amendments  to  the  constitution  of  the  General  Grand  Chapter, 
proposed,  and  the  attei^tion  and  action  of  the  several  Grand  Chi^ 
ters  urgently  requested.  I  would  recommend  that  this  Grand 
Chapter  give  the  action  of  the  General  Grand  Chapter  consideiv 

302  THE    ASHLAR. 

«tion,  and  that  yon  take  such  action  thereon  as  maj  be  deemed 

for  the  best  interest  oi  Royal  Aieh  Masonry,   llie  amendments  pro* 

posed  will  be  found  in  the  proceedings  of  the  General  Grand 

Chapter.    The  action  of  the  General  Grand  Chapter  in  reference 

to  the  necessity  of  a  unanimous  ballot,  though  our  work  is  in  strict 

oonfonnity  thereto,  will  be  found  worthy  your  notice. 

The  wisdom  of  the  course  of  this  Grand  Chapter,  in  relation 

to  the  establishment  of  a  uniform  system  of  work,  has  been  most 

signally  vindicated  and  endorsed  by  the  action  of  the  General 

Grand  Chapter,  which  at  its  last  session  adopted  the  following 

resolution : 

"Rs$dhedt  That  this  General  Grand  Chapter  having  tailed  to  determine  on 
Bxxy  specific  mode  of  work,  it  is  urgently  recommended  to  the  officers  of  the 
Gimnd  Chapters,  by  caref^  inyesti^Uon,  to  make  themselres  acquainted  with 
the  ancient  work  of  the  Order,  and  to  disseminate  it  among  their  respectiTe 


This  having  "&iled  to  determine*'  by  the  General  Grand  Qhap- 
ter,  is  a  most  significant  acknowledgment  of  its  uselessnees;  and 
this  is  a  difficulty  which  cannot  be  remedied,  as  all  know  who  have 
attended  either  of  the  last  two  sessions  of  that  body — ^the  failure 
is  radical,  the  disease  incurable,  and  the  only  object  which  in  the 
least  justifies  such  an  organization  cannot  be  accomplished. 

.  The  spirit  shown  in  the  various  subordhiate  Chapters  in  this 
State  for  the  adoption  of  the  work  approved  by  this  Grand  Chap- 
ter has  been  most  commendable;  and  I  would  tender  to  the 
Chapters  which  I  have  visited,  and  to  those  with  whom  I  have 
corresponded^  my  warmest  thanks  for  their  efficient  co-operation 
in  fiilly  and  firmly  establishing  a  system  of  work,  which  is  not  only 
uniform,  and  made  authoritative  by  the  Grand  Chapter,  but  is  also 
sanctioned  by  time,  and  in  accordance  with  the  ancient  and  estab- 
lished landmarks  of  the  Order.  If  there  is  any  feeling  existing 
against  the  work  which  is  now  in  universal  use  in  this  State,  it  has 
not  been  brought  to  my  knowledge.  I  think  all  concur  in  the 
wisdom  and  the  necessity  of  the  action  of  this  Grand  Chapter  in 
adopting  and  enforcing  a  uniform  system  of  work  and  lectures. 

The  Royal  Arch  Mason  who  has  a  proper  knowledge  of  his 
duties,  his  obligations  and  his  privileges,  will  meet  all  differenoea 
of  opinion  in  the  true  spirit  of  brotherhood,  looking  not  to  his  own 
advancement,  governed  by  no  narrow  or  selfish  interest  or  preju- 
dice, but  by  the  broad,  the  universal,  the  fititemal  princi]^es  of 
his  profession;  he  will  view  all  questions  calmly  and  dispassion- 

THE    ASHLAR.  358 

vfcely;  he  will  hear  pfttieiity,  deHbente  maturely,  and  dedde  aa 
he  may  think  the  interest  of  the  great  body  of  Royal  Aroh  Ma- 
sonry may  demand.  That  which  is  for  the  greatest  good  of  the 
whole  is  in  reality  best  for  aU,  though  some  may  yield,  for  the  ben- 
efit of  the  entire  body,  some  portion,  if  not  of  their  privileges,  yet 
of  their  cherished  feelings  and  convictions. 

Let  US  all,  my  Companions,  be  actuated  by  this  spirit  during 
this  session  of  the  Grand  Chapter,  and  our  action  wiQ  reflect  credit 
upon  the  Institution,  and  do  justice  to  our  profession. 

Companions  :  In  obedience  to  a  custom  which,  from  its  uniform 
observance,  has  become  a  law  in  this  jurisdiction,  I  shall  proceed 
to  submit  for  your  consideration  a  few  thoughts  upon  our  moral 
obligations  as  men  and  as  Masons. 

In  so  doing,  I  shall  regard  the  end  which  I  suppose  is  most  in^ 
tended  to  be  subserved  by  the  .obligation  thus  imposed  upon  the 
presiding  officer  of  this  Grand  Chapter,  and  submit  such  thoughts 
as  will  be  most  worthy  the  attention  of  the  uninformed  and  the 
non-affiliated,  rather  than  address  myself  to  your  understanding. 
I  shall  assume,  what  to  me  appears  should  be  the  true  object, 
that  in  these  addresses  the  end  and  aim  should  be  to  ^^  dispense  light 
and  truth"  to  the  uninformed  wherever  dispersed  throughout  the 
world.  Tou,  my  Companions,  who  are  honored  with  seats  in  this 
Grand  Chapter,  should,  by  your  intimate  knowledge  and  practice 
of  all  the  precepts  of  Masonry,  be  above  the  necessity  of  having 
them  pointed  out  to  you  by  your  presiding  officer;  and  yet,  such 
is  the  weakness  of  human  nature,  and  such  also  the  beauty,  the 
purity,  the  sublimity  of  Masonic  principles,  that  none,  the  most 
worthy,  or  the  most  exalted,  can  reflect  upon  them  without  beneflt. 
The  fountain  of  Masonic  knowledge  furnishes  a  perpetual  stream 
of  which  none  can  partake  without  being  strengthened  and  im^ 
proved  thereby,  without  being  thereafl^er  better  enabled  to  meet 
the  good  and  the  evil  of  this  life,  and  better  fitted  to  discharge  the 
duties  of  men  and  Masons. 

Our  institution  in  all  its  teachings,  in  the  whole  force  of  its 
litual,  has  a  tendency  to  develop  all  that  is  good  in  man.  The  end 
which  must  result  from  a  proper  understanding  of  Masonic  prin- 
•ciples  is  the  highest  moral  and  intellectual  culture  which  man  can 
attain.  From  so  pure  a  fountain  no  stream  can  flow  which  has 
the  least  taint  of  uncleanness.  Those  members  who  are  unable  to 
^Ximprehend  its  sublime  teachings,  and  cannot  reasonably  rise  above 

354  THB    ASHLAR. 

the  weakness  inctdent  to  our  fiJkn  nature^  are  to  be  looked  upon 
yrith  charity,  and  judged  leniently;  but  Royal  Axdx  Maaonry 
mast  be  measured  by  no  suoh  standard,  for  their  filings  are  not 
because  of  their  relations  with  the  Fraternity,  but  in  direct  viola- 
tion of  them. 

That  knowledge  of  the  principles  of  our  Order  which  all  should 
have  who  have  attained  the  sublime  degree  of  the  Royal  Arch,  can- 
not be  acquired  without  benefit.  The  close  study  of  the  precept43  of 
Masonry  must  make  an  impression  on  any  mind,  and  will  make 
itself  manifest  in  the  fraternal  love  which  its  possessor  will  display 
towards  all  affiliated  witli  Imn.  When  we  see  pride,  envy,  jeal- 
ously, or  unkind  feeling  exhibited  among  Companions,  there,  we 
may  rest  satisfied,  is  an  nnmasonic  heart  or  an  uninstructed  head — 
there,  is  one  who  has  received  the  degree  of  the  Royal  Arch  with* 
out  the  least  comprehension  of  its  beauty  or  its  utility.  The  be- 
nefident  light  of  Masonic  knowledge  has  never  dawned  upon  his 
benighted  soul;  he  is  still  grovelling  in  the  thick  darkness  of  igno- 
rance— a  darkness  not  more  deplorable,  on  his  own  account,  than 
on  that  of  the  Subordinate  Chapter  to  which  he  may  belong,  and 
of  the  Grand  Chapter.  From  such,  and  such  only,  do  those  diffi- 
culties arise  which  appear  occadonly  in  our  midst,  and  threaten  to 
disturb  the  harmony  of  our  beloved  Institution. 

In  former  times,  our  Fraternity  were  Operative  as  well  as  Spec- 
ulative Masons;  the  moral  teachings  were  not  only  impressed  by 
symbolical,  but  also  by  actual,  works.  The  ancient  Brother  was 
taught  to  lay  the  fotmdation  of  his  Masonic  principles'  broad 
and  deep  as  that  of  the  Cathedral  which  he  was  buildiug ;  every 
step  in  the  progress  of  the  edifice  was  a  lesson  to  his  high^ 
and  nobler  nature,  and  he  could  well  realize  that,  as  the  durability 
and  the  beauty  of  his  operative  labors  depended  on  the  skill  and 
the  time  which  were  expended  upon  it,  so  would  the  result  of  hk 
q>eoulative  labors  depend  upon  the  same  cause;  and  he  would 
as  soon  have  thought,  by  Operative  Masonry,  to  have  built  castlea 
in  the  air,  as  to  be  true  to  his  duty  and  his  obligations  as  aSpeo^ 
ulative  Mason  without  an  appreciating  knowledge  of  its  work  and 
lectures — ^without  a  full  understandiog  of  the  application  and  the 
wisdom  of  those  principles  which  furnish  the  material  for  thia 
moral  temple,  and  by  which  aloQ.e  it  can  be  perfected. 

Now,  the  labor  of  the  Craft  is  confined  to  Spe<»ilatlve  Maaonrj 
only;  and  as  we  have  lost  the  benefit  of  those  symbols  which  oon* 



0taotly  addrested  themselres  to  the  eye,  and,  throngh  that  and 
the  experience  of  dailj^  labor,  to  the  undentanding,  -we  should  tbe 
more  earefiilly  and  heedfully  imprefls  our  minds  with  the  impoor- 
tance  of  oonstruoting  in  onr  hearts  a  moral  and  Masonic  edifioe 
which  wiU  not  be  overtmned  by  the  storm  of  passion,  nor  mider- 
mined  by  the  quick-sands  of  temptation.  If  any  fiul  to  do  this, 
they  cannot  plead  ignorance  as  an  excuse;  for  no  Mason  is  so,  ex* 
cept  throngh  his  own  gross  and  culpable  negligence.  The  design 
of  a  perfect  life  is  before  him,  his  work  is  all  laid  ont  on  the  trestle- 
board,  the  plans  are  all  drawn  by  the  great  Master  of  the  Uni- 
verse, the  materials  are  all  fiumished  and  ready  at  Us  hand;  he 
has  himself  the  fiillest  confidence,  nay,  the  absolute  knowledge, 
that  the  edifice,  if  constmcted  according  to  his  Masonic  principles 
and  obligations,  will  be  as  perfect  as  is  possible  for  human  nature 
to  attain. 

From  the  foundation  to  the  last  finishing  stroke,  so  complete 
are  the  plans,  he  never  vfied  be  doubtful  as  to  the  design  or  the 
material  From  the  time  of  his  initiation  to  the  dose  of  his  pil- 
grimage— fi:om  the  cradle  of  Masonry  to  his  grave — ^the  Ma^n 
never  need  hesitate  as  to  the  course  he  should  pursue ;  however 
great  the  exigency,  the  principles  of  Masonry  rise  to  the  occasion, 
and  a  recurrence  to  its  teachings  will  always  fiunish  a  safe  and 
reliable  rule  of  guidance.  There  is  no  period  of  life,  and  no 
occurrence  in  life  to  which  they  are  not  applicable;  and  as  the 
Speculative  Mason  advances  in  the  degrees,  he  is  taught  to  ad- 
vance his  idea  of  the  necessity  of,  and  the  result  attending,  the 
attempt  to  attain  perfectability. 

At  his  initiation  he  is  taught  the  form,  supports,  covering,  fur- 
niture, ornaments,  lights  and  jewels  of  a  Lodge ;  how  it  is  situated, 
and  to  whom  dedicated.  These  lessons  are  aU  emblematic  of  the 
same  operations  in  constructing  the  moral  and  intellectual  character 
of  the  Mason.  And  as  the  higher  degrees  teach  him  how  the 
Lodge  or  Chapter  diould  be  finished  and  fimiished,  so  are  they 
emblematic  of  those  prind^des  whidi  best  serve  to  teach  the  unr 
derstanding,  to  ennoble  the  feelings,  to  give  that  perfect  selfreti 
anee,  yet  humble  trust,  which  are  all  necessary  to  form  tiie  pore 
lad  upright  Mason. 

To  construct  this  edifice — more  worthy  the  admiration  of  the 
beholder  than  was  that  glorious  Temple  which  King  SokmuMi 
erected,  and  which  '^he  dedicated  to  the  Most  ffigh  God,''  and 

856  THE    ASHLAR. 

more  acoeptaUe  to  Deity  than  was  that  offering,  though,  as  a 
token  of  divine  approval,  ^^the  fire  oame  down  firom  Heaven  and 
eonsomed  the  bomt  offerings  and  the  sacrifioes,  and  the  glory  ot 
the  Lord  filled  the  house''; — to  attain  thia  noble  end,  the  moat 
gloriona  for  which  man  can  strive,  the  Ffeemason  has  not  only  the 
necessaiy  designs  laid  down  on  the  trestle-board  of  life — is  not 
only  provided  with  all  the  material,  but  he  is  also  furnished  with 
the  requisite  tools  and  implements,  and  taught  their  use.  None 
are  wanting,  firom  those  necessary  to  measure  and  lay  out  the 
work  to  those  used  to  give  the  finishing  touch  to  the  elaborate 
ornaments  which' must  always  adorn  so  complete  an  edifice. 

The  Liitiate,  clothed  in  the  emblem  of  innocence,  is  fiimished 
with,  and  taught  the  use  of^  those  tools  which  are  necessary  *%o  fit 
us  as  living  stones  for  that  spiritual  building,  that  house  not  made 
with  hands,  eternal  in  the  heavens."  He  is  taught  that  Wisdom, 
Strength,  and  Beauty,  are  the  supports  of  our  Institution ;  that  its 
oovering,  the  star-decked  heavens,  can  only  be  reached  by  the 
exercise  of  Faith,  Hope,  and  Charity;  that  the  Holy  Bible  is  the 
inestimable  gift  of  God  to  man,  and  should  be  the  rule  and  guide 
of  his  faith.  He  is  taught  to  regard  Brotherly  Love,  Relief  and 
Truth  as  articles  of  his  faith,  ever  to  be  remembered  and  prac- 
ticed. The  importance  of  the  four  cardinal  virtues, — Temperance, 
Fortitude,  Prudence  and  Justice — ^are  forcibly  impressed  upon  his 
mind,  and  their  practice  enjoined  as  part  of  his  duty. 

As  he  advances  further,  work  Lb  laid  out  to  aid  the  onward  pro- 
gress of  his  Masonic  life  and  its  duties,  and  again  all  the  tools,  im- 
plements and  materials  are  fiimished  him:  he  also  realizes  some  of 
the  results  flowing  from  the  onward  progress  of  the  practice  of 
Masonic  precepts ;  Peace,  Unity  and  Plenty  are  introduced,  and 
man's  whole  nature  begins  to  acknowledge  the  benefits  of  the  dis- 
cipline to  which  he  has  subjected  himself.  His  attention  is  now 
called  to  the  contemplation  of  the  Heavens  and  the  Earth,  of  the 
planetary  revolutions,  and  to  the  phenomena  of  nature,  and  he  is 
thereby  inspired  with  reverence  for  the  Deity.  The  different  or- 
ders of  architecture  are  explained,  and  impress  the  reflective 
mind  with  the  absolute  necessity  of  some  complete  syirtem  in 
fi:>rming  the  character  of  man.  As  either  of  the  orders  of 
architecture,  if  strictiy  carried  out,  will  render  the  edifice  com- 
plete, will  make  it  alike  useful  and  beauti&l,  so  may  MamMis, 
under   tbe    quickening  spirit  of  Masonic  principles,  in  their 

THE    ASHLAB.  357 

ynaoGQB  ooii€liti<»i8  of  life,  build  up  a  perfect  oluuwoter.iii  the 
"^^  Order"  which  they  have  choeen,  or  in  which  their  lot  has 
been  casti  and  become  not  only  uaefiil  members,  but  each  an  or- 
nament to  society.  The  senses  of  our  nature  are  also  analyzed 
for  his  benefit:  he  is  taught  that  these  convey  fiur  more  impresdye 
lessons  when  viewed  through  the  medium  of  the  greater  and 
leaser  lights  of  Masonry.  The  liberal  arts,  and  their  importance,  are 
also  explained  to  him,  and  their  value  taught  by  the  aid  of  the 
same  great  luminaries,  whose  light  is  so  penetrating  that  no  error 
can  escape  detection,  so  effulgent  that  no  plea  of  ignorance  can 
avail  him  who  has  been  permitted  to  drink  at  the  fount  of  know- 
ledge,  lighted  by  their  rays.  Not  only  are  the  purest  of  morah 
enforced  by  the  most  impressive  emblems,  but  the  danger  and  the 
folly  of  violating  the  principles  of  the  Order  are  also  strikingly 
exemplified.  The  name  of  him  who  laid  down  his  life  rather  than 
betray  his  trust  is  held  in  sacred  reverence,  while  those  of  his 
murderers  are  regarded  with  the  deepest  detestation ;  and  all  are 
handed  down  as  beacons  to  light  us  on  our  pilgrimage  through  life, 
showing  us  what  to  imitate  and  what  to  avoid — all  most  deeply 
impressed  upon  the  mind  by  the  solemnity  with  which  the  instruc- 
tion is  imparted,  and  that  impression  sought  to  be  confirmed  by 
the  greater  light  of  the  Christian  Dispensation. 

In  the  symbolical  degrees  are  inculcated  those  principles  which 
are  the  foundation  of  all  that  is  good,  of  all  that  is  beautiful  in 
the  human  character,  of  all  that  which  most  conduces  to  the  per- 
fection of  wisdom  and  happiness. 

In  the  Chapter  degrees,  the  design  of  the  master  workman  is 
continued,  and  the  temple  which  is  there  commenced,  is  here  fin- 
ished— ^is  here  carried  to  its  full  perfection,  and,  after  being  com- 
pleted, is  adorned  with  all  the  lights,  furniture  and  jewels  which 
the  most  exalted  principles  can  furnish,  and  which  make  the  moral 
edifice  complete  in  all  its  parts. 

The  working  tools  of  the  Mark  Master  ^^demonstrate  the  ad- 
vantages of  discipline  and  education^' ;  and  by  the  moral  which  is 
enforced  by  their  use,  he  is  taught  to  be  content,  to  curb  ambition, 
to  repress  envy,  to  moderate  anger,  and  to  encourage  good  dis- 
positions, from  which  are  derived  that  happiness 

'^  Which  nothing  earthly  gives  or  can  destroy." 

The  Mark  Master  is  taught  the  danger  of  relying  upon  the 
works  of  any  but  himself;  and  as  the  Operative  Mason  is  not 

858  THB    ASHLAR. 

entitled  to  wages  for  work  which  is  not  his  own,  so  the  Specolfttrre 
Mason,  in  bnildmg  the  nobler  temple,  the  house  not  made  with 
hands,  learns  by  impressiye  lessons  that  the  principles  which  ftnish 
sad  adorn  his  character  most  be  real  and  not  pretended,  or  their 
assumption  not  only  will  not  be  rewarded,  but  will  lead  him  to 
ntter  confnflion  and  disgrace.  There  again  are  the  lessons  of 
heaven-bom  Charity  most  beantifully  wrought  into  the  moral 
structure  so  as  to  be  made  to  pervade  all  its  parts,  and  the  worthy 
Mark  Master  realizes  that  '4t  is  more  blessed  to  give  than  to 

receive,"  that  . 

"  The  drying  of  a  single  tetr  hu  more 
Of  honest  fame,  than  shedding  seas  of  gore." 

The  great  dei^ign  which  pervades  all  nature,  and  teaches  us  to 
reverence  and  adore  the  Supreme  Architect  of  the  TTniverse,  and 
the  possible  importance  of  that  which  may  m  our  fallible  judg- 
ment appear  useless,  are  most  beautifully  and  impressively  taught 
us  when  we  are  reminded  that,  in  the  great  plan  of  the  Universe, 
as  in  the  building  of  King  Solomon's  Temple,  the  last  "  stone  *» 
wanted  may  be  the  first  made.  The  danger  of  judging  men  or 
things  by  appearances  we  can  never  forget,  after  learning  that  the 
stone  which  the  builders  rejected,  possessing  merits  to  them  un- 
known, became  "  the  head  stone  of  the  comer." 

The  Royal  Arch  Mason  is  taught  that  in  the  constmction  of 
character,  as  in  Operative  Masonry,  there  must  be  self-support, 
self-reliance ;  that  the  precepts  and  principles  which  have  been  in- 
culcated are  but  the  frame-work  over  which  the  "arch"  of  his 
character  is  "turned."  In  the  Chapter,  he  is  taught  to  place  the 
key-stone,  and,  removing  the  framework  and  the  rubbish,  to  let 
his  character  stand  forth  in  its  own  strength,  in  the  full  effulgence 
of  the  noon-day  sun ;  and,  if  his  practice  correspond  with  his  pro- 
fession, he  will  do  so  confident  that  not  a  flaw  or  blemish  can  be 

Thus  will  Masonic  virtue,  manly  vigor,  and  humble  trust,  allied 
with  the  most  complete  self-reliance,  develop  the  true  Mason,  and 
will  join  to  promote  the  success  of  the  man,  and  the  good  of 
Bodety.    Of  such  the  record  wOl  be, 

"  So  he  stood  in  his  integrity,  Jnst  and  firm  of  purpose, 
Aiding  many,  fearing  none,  a  spectacle  to  angels  and  to  men: 
Tea^<when  the  shattered  globe  shall  rock  in  throes  of  dissolution, 
Still,  win  he  stand  In  his  integrity,  sablime,— an  honest  man." 


From  the  initiatoiy  to  the  Royal  Arch  Degree,  all  the  teaohinga 
of  Maaonry  impress  apon  as  the  necessity,  if  we  would  be  true 
to  our  obligatioDS,  of  repressing  all  the  worst,  aU  the  baser,  and  of 
cultivating  all  the  higher  and  nobler,  qnalities  of  manhood.  Our 
attention  and  reflection  are  condnuaily  excited  by  the  oontempli^ 
tion  of  all  those  attributes  which  tend  to  ennoble  man,  to  raise  him 
sboYe  the  low  and  vile  instincts  which  may  have  attached  to 
him,  and  to  eifable  him  to  attain  that  enviable  state  in  which  he 
can  ^^  practice  all  of  those  duties  out  of  the  Chapter  which  are 
inculcated  in  it." 

There  is  no  one  point  outside  oi  our  mysteries  which  should  so 
commend  our  Institution  to  our  own  esteem,  and  to  the  admiration 
of  the  world,  as  its  continued  and  unchangeable  existence.  This 
result  is  more  to  be  ascribed  to  its  principles,  than  to  the  wisdom, 
the  number,  or  the  worth  of  its  members. 

The  merits  of  our  Institution  are  not  due  to  the  high  character 
of  her  members,  but  very  many  owe  their  character  to  her  teach- 
ings. In  the  study  and  practice  of  her  principles  were  laid  the 
foundation  of  many  a  manly  character  which,  but  ibr  her,  would 
never  have  been  reared;  and  of  them,  or  upon  them,  was  the 
superstructure  of  character  built  of  those  known  in  history  as  the 
wisest  and  best  of  men.  Our  Institution  cannot  be  improved 
by  the  most  exalted  wisdom,  or  the  most  eminent  worth;  ibr  in 
these  qualifications  the  highest  and  the  purest  &11  far  short  of  her 
impressive  teachings. 

These  thoughts  should  impress  our  minds  and  influence  our 
actions.  If  we  cannot  add  to  the  merit  of  Masonic  principles,  we 
may,  and  should,  attempt  to  do  them  justice  by  our  conduct,  and 
thus  sustain  the  character  of  the  Institution  with  the  world.  Ma- 
sonry has  (^n,  perhaps  always,  suffered  from  the  fisdlure  of  her 
members  to  observe  her  principles,  to  carry  into  their  lives  her 
sublime  teachings;  they  have  failed  to  let  the  world  note  that 
Brotherly  Love  and  Charity  which  could  not  but  be  observable 
in  their  conduct  were  it  to  correspond  with  their  professions. 

The  wisdom  of  goodness  is  nowhere  more  deadly  Vindicated 
than  in  Masonry.  There,  while  the  culture  .of  the  intellectual 
is  everywhere  advocated,  the  great  force  of  the  teachings  are 
directed  to  the  improvement  of  the  moral  man,  to  the  elevatk>n 
of  his  moral  character.  Nowhere  is  it  so  eieariy  indicated  that 
man^s  happiness,  his  value,  his  usefulness,  are  in  proportion  to  the 

260  THB    ASHLAR. 

high  moral  tone  wfaidi  govern  his  words  and  aot8,'a»  in  IVecK 

While  to  the  thoughtless  this  may  appear  nnimportant,  to  tiie 
reflective  mind;  to  those  accnstomed  to  trace  effects  to  their  canses^ 
this  will  at  once  furnish  a  key  to  the  antiquity,  to  the  unchanged 
ableness,  to  the  usefulness  of  Freemasonry. 

There  is  great  significance  in  the  fiict  that  Masonry  has  ensted 
so  long  that  'Hhe  memory  of  man  runneth  not  to  the  contrary.*^ 
It  is  the  force  of  its  prindples  which  has  safely  carried  it  through 
all  Ages,  has  upheld  it  in  every  clime,  which  has  endeared  it  ta 
men  of  every  condition,  of  aU  sects  or  creeds,  without  distinction 
of  race  or  color.  None  other  of  the  institutions  of  men  have  the 
the  ^me  universality  as  Masonry;  and,  not  only  do  we  find  it  in 
all  dimes  and  in  every  tongue,  but  we  find  it  essentially  the  same 
under  all  the  different  circumstances  of  its  existence ;  not  only  is 
it  the  only  institution  whose  principles  and  whose  government  are 
the  same  in  all  times,  all  places,  and  all  languages,  but  what  is 
more  strange  and  more  commendable,  more  to  its  credit,  and 
establishing  most  clearly  all  that  its  most  ardent  fiiends  claim  for 
it,  we  find  all  differences  of  opinion,  whether  moral,  religions,  or 
political,  and  all  differences  of  condition  laid  aside  in  the  sacred 
precincts  of  our  Lodges  and  Chapters.  Tliere,  the  true  Mason 
divests  himself  of  every  feeling,  of  every  prejudice,  and  in  the 
panoply  of  Masonic  principles,  impenetrable  to  every  other  con< 
sideration,  meets  his  Brother  and  Companion  with  true  fhitemal 
feeling;  there  we  only  know  each  other  as  Masons,  and  there  we 
receive  those  lessons  of  true  wisdom  which  teach  us,  not  only  in 
our  intercourse  with  them,  but  with  the  world,  to  be  guided  by 
the  spirit  of  Brotherly  Love  and  Charity,  and,  finally,  to  regard  alt 
men  as  brethren.  Elevated  by  its  principles  above  the  HabiHty 
which  attaches  to  all  institutions  which  are  based  upon  the  feelings 
or  interest  of  mankind.  Masonry  has  endured  while  thrones  have 
fallen,  dynasties  have  changed,  kingdoms  have  appeared  and 
disappeared  from  the  map  of  the  world. 

Its  organization  precluding  it  from  mingling  in  any  of  the 
various  struggles  of  the  day  or  age,  while  questions  of  religious 
belief  or  of  political  opinion  have  agitated  whole  nations  and 
continents.  Masonry,  protected  by  its  pure  and  conservative  prin- 
ciples, has  pursued  the  even  tenor  of  its  way,  uninterrupted  and 
unintermpting,  and  can  be  traced  through  every  form  of  govern* 

THE    ASHLAR.  261 

meaty  throi^li  every  reXigioiiB  creed  or  dogma,  the  same  oonflenr»t 
tive,  selfrdymg,  8d£ezi8ti&g  Lustitiitioii ;  neither  giving  nor  receiv-. 
ing  aught  from  rehgions  or  political  dHFerences,  it  can,  in  the 
ample  majesty  of  its  own  identity,  be  traced  through  all  the 
ages  of  thexworld  which  have  left  us  a  history,  till  it  is  lost  in  the 
mythical  traditions  of  earliest  antiquity.  Through  all  these  ageS| 
in  every  generation,  among  the  first,  always  of  the  noblest,  names 
of  history,  those  whose  high  moral  worth  have  called  from  the 
historian  an  especial  tribute,  have  been  members  of  our  Order. 
From  the  time  of  the  earliest  records,  or  the  most  remote  tradi-. 
tion,  to  the  present  day,  there  has  been  no  exception  to  this  rule. 
And  as  it  applies  to  time,  so  does  it  to  the  differences  known  among 
men;  for  in  every  country,  of  every  creed,  of  every  shade  of  politi- 
cal belief  the  first,  the  noblest  and  the  best  have  been  Masons;  and 
frequently  many  of  these  differences  are  found  in  the  same 
Lodge  or  Chapter,  yet  with  true  Masons  always  found  harmonizbg^ 
Under  every  form  of  government,  the  Mason  is  a  freeman — ^free 
in  his  dominion  over  himself  his  love  for  his  kind,  his  charity  for 

all  men. 

"Who  then  is  tne'i  The  wise,  who  well  maintalDB 
An  empire  o'er  himself;  whom  neither  chains, 
Nor  want,  nor  death,  with  slavish  fear  inspire; 
Who  holdly  answers  to  his  warm  desire; 
Who  can  Ambition's  vainest  gifts  despise; 
Firm  in  himself,  who  on  himself  relies; 
Polished  and  roond,  who  nms  his  proper  course. 
And  breaks  misfortune  with  superior  force." 

Thus  dad  in  the  triple  armor  of  Charity,  Integrity,  and  Self- 
reliance,  the  Mason,  confident  in  the  purity,  and  therefore  the 
immutabOity,  of  his  principles,  fears  no  evil,  and  regards  all  other 
of  the  institutions  of  men  as  liable  to  change  but  that  of  the  Fra- 
ternity. If  any  is  attempted  by  the  over-zealous,  the  misguided, 
or  the  uninformed,  the  attempt,  striking  against  the  conservative 
rock  of  our  principles,  &lls  harmless  to  the  ground;  and,  if  per- 
sisted in,  serves  but  to  confound  and  put  to  confusion  those  who 
would  lay  their  sacriligious  hand  on  the  venerable  structure.  Hie 
wisest,  most  reliable,  and  most  conservative  members  of  our  Or- 
der, those  who  always  renst  any  attempt  to  remove  the  landmarks, 
are  those  who  are  best  skilled  in  her  mysteries,  who  best  un» 
derstand  her  principles,  and  therefore  most  likely  to  l^ve  the  best 
knowledge  of  her  perfections.  *  M 

Finally,  my  Companioivs,  in  our  fiatemal  assodalm  we  not 
only  form  the  most  lasting  and  disinterested  friendships,  but  we 

!262  THE    ASHLAR. 

leam  to  make  ourselyee  worthy  of  the  name  of  "  Mend."  By  it^ 
are  inculcated  those  valuable  moral  tenets  which  elevate  ua  in  the 
soale  of  humanity,  and  which,  will  make  our  friendahip  desirable^ 
or  worthy  of  cultivation. 

"  Bsfential  honor  miut  be  in  a  frtond, 

Not  sQch  as  every  breath  fans  to  and  fro, 
Bnt  bom  within,  its  own  jadge  and  end, 

And  dare  not  sin,  though  sure  that  none  would  know. 
When  Friendship  spoke.  Honesty 's  understood; 
For  none  can  be  a  Friend  that  is  not  good." 

Thus  we  are  taught  by  the  principles  of  our  Order,  and  by  the 
lives  of  the  most  worthy  Masons,  that  the  attainment  of  know- 
ledge and  happiness  is  dependent  upon  our  travelling  the  rough 
and  rugged  paths  of  \'irtue;  that  exaltation  to  power  is  reserved 
for  the  humble  spirit;  and  that  under  the  practice  of  his  profes- 
sion, every  Companion  will  stand  like  the  "arch,"  self-poised,  selt 
sustiuning,  independent,  becoming  only  the  more  firm  and  compact 
from  the  pressure  of  the  world  and  its  temptations;  or,  having 
fidled  to  profit  by  our  teachings,  his  weakness  will  be  exposed  when 
the  supports  are  knocked  out,  and  the  frame-work  upon  which  the 
arch  is  constructed  is  removed.  None  can  escape  the  ordeaL 
When  called  from  our  labors  on  earth  to  stand  before  the  judg- 
ment-seat of  the  Grand  High  Priest  of  Heaven  and  Earth,  will 
the  merits  of  our  moral  and  spiritual  building  be  known,  and  we 
be  judged  according  to  our  works.  "Then  let  us,  each  in  our 
respective  spheres,  so  improve  our  opportunities,  that  at  last  when 
the  *  sheeted  dead^  are  stirring,  when  the  *  great  white  throne'  is 
set,  and  the  volume  of  the  record  of  our  lives  is  opened,  we  may 
receive  from  the  omniscient,  eternal  Judge,  the  thrilling  invita- 
tion, 'Come,  ye  blessed  of  my  Father,  inherit  the  kingdom  pre- 
pared for  you  from  the  foundation  of  the  world.'  " 

•  •• 

The  Mason  who  neglects  to  attend  his  Lodge,  anlesa 
prevented  by  imperative  duties  or  sicknesa,  is  not  fiiithfrd  to  the 
trust  reposed  in  him.  He  should  share  the  responsibilities,  and 
participate  ■  the  labors  of  the  subordinate  Lodge  to  which  he 
bdonga,  ana  guard  with  scrutiny  the  outer  portals  as  well  as  the 
gates  of  the  inner  court. 





At  the  reoent  oommmiication  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Michigan, 
a  charter  was  granted  for  a  new  Lodge,  to  be  called  Ashlab 
Lodg:^  No.  91,  and  to  be  located  in  the  city  of  Detroit.  On  the 
2dd  of  last  month  the  new  body  was  constittited  and  consecrated 
in  due  and  andent  fonsL  It  was  opened  in  the  room  of  Union 
Lodge  of  Strict  Observance,  on  the  thu*d  degree,  by  its  W.  M.  Oeo. 
B,  Ensworth,  assisted  by  Bro.  Allyn  Weston,  S.  W.,  Bro.  W.  E. 
Oven,  J.  W.,  and  Bros.  L.  P.  Durkee,  Frank  Smith,  Thurston  and 
Ross.  Bro.  Horace  S.  Roberts,  delegated  by  the  M.  W.  Levi 
Cook,  Grand  Master,  then  made  an  examination  of  the  officersi 
after  which  he  retired  to  the  Grand  Lodge  which  was  in  session  in 
an  adjoining  room.  Bro.  Allyn  Weston,  S.  W.,  was  then  sent  out 
by  the  W.  M.  to  inform  the  Grand  Master  that  the  members  of 
AawT.kTt  LoDOE  werc  assembled  and  desirous  of  being  constituted 
and  consecrated  as  a  legal  Lodge,  and  having  their  officers  installed* 
A  few  minutes  after,  the  Grand  Lodge  entered  the  room,  consisting 
of  the  following  members:  M.  W.  Levi  Cook,  Grand  Masteri 
R.  W.  Horace  S.  Roberts,  as  Dep.  Grand  Master,  R.  W.  Nathaniel 
B.  Carpenter,  as  S.  G.  W,,  R.  W.  E'd.  Batwell  as  J.  G.  W.,  R.  W, 
and  Rev.  F.  A.  Blades,  as  G.  Chaplain,  R.  W.  Jas.  Fenton,  G. 
Sec,  R.  W.  Orlando  Bellows,  as  G.  T.,  and  Bro.  Joseph  Whiting, 
«s  Grand  Marshall.  The  ceremonies  of  constitution,  consecration 
and  installation  were  performed,  after  which  the  Grand  Lodge 
retired.  The  W.  M.  then  delivered  an  excellent  address,  a  portion 
of  which  we  shall  lay  before  our  readers  at  another  time. 

With  the  consent  of  the  Lodge,  Bro.  Horace  S.  Roberts  briefly 
addressed  them,  expressing  his  gratification  at  seeing  another  sub- 
ordinate body  starting  under  the  most  favorable  circumstances  for 
good,  and  wishing  it  Godspeed.  He  closed  his  eloquent  remarks 
by  presentiog  to  the  W.  M.  a  Past  Master's  jewel,  made  of  silver, 
and  inscribed  with  these  words: 

Bro  Geo.  B.  EnsworUi,  ft-om  H.  S.  Roberta,  Deputy  Grand  Master,  as  a  mark 
of  his  afifectioD  and  esteem,  and  more  particularly  as  a  token  of  his  recognition 
of  the  Masonic  ability  and  integrity  exhibited  by  tl)e  former  while  W.  M.  of 
Union  Lodge  of  Strict  Observance,  No.  8.    Detroit,  Dec  27,  A.  L.  5866. 

The  Lodge  closed  in  harmony.  It  will  meet  on  Tuesday  even- 
ings ID  the  room  of  Union  Lodge  of  Strict  Observance,  No.  3. 

27 — NO.  n.   VOL-  VT. 



Our  readers  are  probably  aware,  that  an  effort  has  recently 
been  made  to  bring  into  the  fold  of  the  true  Grand  Lodge,  those 
Masons  who  rebelled  against  its  authority  and  have  flinoe  been 
making  dandestme  Masons.  We  are  pleased  to  hear  that  there  is 
a  fiivorable  prospect  that  the  effort  will  be  saooessfiiL  Hie  **  Arti> 
des  of  Union''  are  agreed  upon,  and  await  the  liction  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  which  will  meet  in  Jmie. 

There  is  one  conmderation  involyed  in  the  matter,  which  dionid 
not  be  overlooked,  and  that  is  the  pn>cess  which  will  be  adopted 
to  heal  those  who  are  not  regular  Masons.  In  onr  own  opinion 
there  is  but  one  way  to  effect  a  core;  it  cannot  properly  be  done  by 
an  edict.  We  cannot  better  express  onr  views  than  by  quoting  the 
remarks  of  Bro.  Hyneman  of  the  Mirror  and  keystone  on  this  point. 
**  It  may  be  as  well  to  observe,''  says  he,  ^  that  a  former  precedent  of 
healing  in  New  Tork  was  not  conadered  as  legitimate  by  some 
of  the  best  Masonic  experience  in  the  country.  It  maybe  a  qnet- 
tion,  if  a  similar  act  will  not  be  demurred  at  It  must  be  remem- 
bered, that,  although  New  York,  as  well  as  every  other  State,  is 
an  independent  jurisdiction,  yet  in  the  making  of  Freemasons,  there 
are  certain  unalterable  landmarks  to  govern  Freemasons,  and,  in 
the  observance  of  these,  the  Craft  in  every  other  jurisdiction  have 
an  interest  and  a  voice. 

*'  We  refer  to  this  subject,  because  it  has  been  intimated  to  ns 
that,  on  a  recent  occasion,  a  very  large  membership  of  an  illegal 
body  was  admitted  into  the  Fraternity  in  a  manner  by  many  not 
considered  Masonic.  The  desire  for  a  union  may  indSuenoe  the 
respectable  committee  of  the  Grand  Lodge  to  waive  or  overtook 
the  most  important  points  m  the  healing  process ;  and  the  R.  W. 
D.  G.  M.  may  also  be  influenced  to  attain  the  desired  object  by 
the  sacrifice  of  Masonic  principles.  We  hope  that  this  may  not  be 
the  case.  We  are  for  union — ^union  based  upon  principle  and 
Masonic  usage — and  we  conrnder  that  nothing  is  gained  if  a  union 
is  formed  in  any  other  way.  Principles  should  never  be  sacrificed 
for  expediency.  Our  remarks  have  no  reference  to  the  Phillips 
body ;  yet,  even  in  relation  to  them,  the  andent  and  estabHshed 
customs  of  the  Order  must  be  strictly  adhered  to." 


DoBB  MAflOiVBT  Bhdeld  thb  GuimT  f  •— Mttiy  outnde  the  pale 
of  our  InstitatioDi,  think  that  it  seeks  to  shield  from  punishment 
those  members  ^o  are  ginHy  of  penal  offenoes.  The  following 
aocotmt  from  the  MoBonic  Jtefnew  is  but  a  parallel  to  instances 
which  have  come  under  our  own  obsenration: 

^*  We  have  a  portly  old  friend  who  resides  not  a  thousand  miles 
from  our  office,  who  is  as  true  a  man  and  citizen  as  he  is  a  Mason. 
A  strict  '* observer  of  the  moral  law"  himself  he  desires  that 
others  shall  be  the  same:  with  large  ideas  of  the  honorable  char- 
acter of  a  ffemnne  Freemason,  he  entertains  a  sovereign  contempt 
Ibr  one  who  would  use  it  to  pander  to  his  own  meanness,  cupidity, 
Of  immorality. 

*^  Wen,  this  good  old  portly  Brother  was,  a  few  years  since,  a 
Biagistrate,  and  occasionally  was  required  to  administer  justice  to 
petty  violators  of  the  law.  On  one  occasion  a  man  had  been 
brought  before  him  dbuurged  with  some  misdemeanor,  and  was 
proved  guilty.  The  penalty  was  a  fine  and  imprisonment,  allowing 
some  discretion  in  the  magistrate  as  to  the  amount.  In  this  case 
justice  was  tempered  with  mercy,  and  the  penalty  was  fixed  at  as 
low  a  mark  as  the  stem  requirements  of  the  law  would  permit. 
The  oonstalMe  had  ahready  received  the  mitljmus  to  conduct  the 
offender  to  jail  when  the  latter  begged  permission  to  speak  to  the 
magistrate  privately,  which  was  granted. 

^^Sqmre,'  said  the  offender,  ^you  won't  be  hard  with  me,  will 
you?  You  know  I  am  a  Mason,  and  I  hope  therefore  you  will  be 
as  easy  with  me  as  possible.'  This  remark  aroused  the  otJierwise 
good  natnred  magistrate,  and  he  ezdaimed — ^^  WhatI  do  you  say 
you  are  a  Freemasonf  ^lam,'  said  he,  cheered  by  the  eflEeot 
his  remark  had  produced.  *I  was  not  aware  of  that,'  said  his 
Honor,  ^and  it  alters  the  case  very  much.  Constable,  hand  me 
back  that  paper.'  He  at  once  proceeded  to  alter  his  decision  by 
douNinff  the  amount  of  the  jmey  and  also  the  period  qf  imprU" 
omnentt  The  poor  culprit  was  confounded,  and  at  once  expressed 
his  astonishment  to  the  now  indignant  magistrate.  ^9ai\ '  said  the 
officer,  sternly,  ^I  was  disposed  to  be  as  lenient  with  you  as  possi- 
Ue,  but  I  find  there  is  no  room  for  compassion.  You  say  you  are 
a  Mason,  and  if  you  are,  you  are  under  die  greater  obligations  to 
obey  the  law  and  conduct  yourself  as  a  good  dtisen.  You  have 
no  excuse,  for  you  have  been  taught  better.  You  have  violated 
your  duty  as  a  Mason  as  well  as  your  duty  as  a  dtisen,  and 


disgraoed  the  Order  as  well  as  yoorself  and  your  fiunily.  Yon 
richly  merit,  and  shall  receive,  a  double  punishment  to  what  I 
had  at  first  intended.    Constable,  take  him  to  jaill  "* 

•  •• 


On  the  14th  day  of  last  month  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Free  and 
Accepted  Masons  of  the  State  of  Michigan,  conmienced  their 
annual  commumcation  at  Masonic  Hall,  in  Detroit  A  large  num. 
ber  of  representatives  were  present,  and  nearly  every  Lodge  in 
the  jurisdiction  was  represented.  We  cannot  look  upon  such  a 
Bight  as  was  there  presented  without  the  liveliest  feelings  of  grati- 
tude, for  m  it  we  see  conclusive  evidence  of  the  benign  influence 
of  our  ancient  institution.  There  were  assembled  men  reflecting 
every  shade  of  opinion — ^the  representatives  of  the  various  religious 
sects — ^the  Episcopalian,  the  Baptist,  the  Methodist,  the  Unitarian^ 
the  Israelite,  the  TJniversalist,  and  many  others ;  there  were  the 
lawyer,  the  mechanic,  the  physician,  and  the  editor;  there  also 
were  the  moral  reformers,  the  champion  of  temperance,  the  advo- 
cateof  peace  societies,  the  strenuous  opponent  of  captal  punishmait 
who  found  in  that  subject  a  &vorite  theme.  These  men  differed 
as  much  in  their  worldly  positions  and  temporal  condition,  as  they 
did  in  their  temperaments  and  opinions.  They  were  gathered  from 
various  parts  of  the  world — ^from  England,  Irehmd,  Scotland,  Ger- 
many, France,  Russia,  and  almost  every  State  in  the  Union,  and 
among  them  was  the  ^^  red  man  "  of  the  American  forests.  Some 
were  &vored  by  fortune,  or  had  prospered  by  their  own  labor  and 
risen  to  high  and  honorable  positions  in  the  political  world,  or  in 
their  professional  spheres.  Judges  of  our  Supreme  Court, — ^gover- 
nors,— ^members  of  Congress, — ^those  distinguished  for  their  know- 
ledge of  the  law, — ^those  cunning  in  the  art  of  physic  gave  their  aid 
in  advancing  the  interest  of  the  Craft.  In  the  lap  of  some  there 
assembled  in  council,  the  horn  of  plenty  had  poured  its  choicest 
blessings — ample  pecuniary  fortunes  afibrded  them  the  gratifica- 
tion of  every  reasonable  desire — ^while  by  their  side  sat  men  poor 
in  the  goods  of  this  world,  and  perhaps  applicants  for  charity  which 
should  furnish  to  themsdves  and  fkmiUes  the  necessaries  of  life. 

tHE    ASHLAR.  Ut 

Fhyrical  diffsreaceB  were  apparent  and  sirikixig.  Hie  man  of 
athletic  frame  and  raddy  oonntenance  presented  a  striking  oon* 
trast  to  the  thin,  attenuated  formw  hich  gave  indubitable  evidence 
that  disease,  sure  and  unyielding,  was  doing  its  work  of  destruc- 
tion ;  men  whose  heads  had  whitened  beneath  **  three  score  yean 
and  ten"  were  side  by  side  with  those  filled  with  the  ardor  of 
ingenuous  youth,  who  had  just  attained  their  majority.  How  met 
those  men  thus  differing  in  everything  that  pertains  to  life  ?  One 
would  have  expected  to  see  their  various  idiosyncrasies,  and  peou* 
liar  opinions,  shadowed  forth  every  instant — ^to  have  beheld  a 
ciashing  of  the  various  elements  so  i^parently  diametrically  op- 
posed to  each  other.  In  any  other  institution,  such  a  scene  might 
have  been  presented;  but  in  that  assembly  of  Masons,  all  met  on 
a  level — all  met  as  warm-hearted  Brothers — each  grasped  the 
other's  hand,  and  distinctions  of  birth,  wealth,  country,  religion 
and  profession  were  forgotten  or  laid  adde.  The  various  elements, 
if  we  may  so  speak,  blended  in  one  harmonious  whole.  Is  not 
such  a  scene  beautifiil  in  this  life,  and  is  not  the  institution  which 
thus  brings  together — ^which  '*  unites — men  of  every  country,  sect 
and  opinion,  and  conciliates  true  friendship  among  those  who 
might  have  remained  at  a  perpetual  distance" — is  not  such  an 
institution,  which  has  been  performing  its  good  work  for  many 
centuries,  worthy  of  respect  and  esteem,  and  should  it  not  be 
classed  among  the  great  and  best  promoters  of  human  happiness  f 
Answer,  ye  who  seek  to  injure  our  society  1 

The  Grand  Lodge  was  opened  by  M.  W.  Geo.  C.  Munro,  Grand 
Master,  who  delivered  a  short  and  appropriate  address.  We  have 
room  for  only  the  following  extract : — 

The  Fraternal  relations  existiDg  among  the  Brethren  throughout  this  Couo- 
try,  form  an  element  of  strength,  a  bond  of  onion,  stronger  than  any  other; 
for  these  alone  hare  been  able  to  resist  the  efforts  of  bigotry,  the  force  of  super- 
stition, the  ra^e  of  party,  and  is  the  only  relation  in  which  men  who  differ  in  all 
else,  can  agree.  Here,  side  by  side,  mingling  In  the  highest  offices  of  hmnanity , 
actuated  by  one  common  spirit  of  brotherly  love,  we  find  minds  of  every  order 
of  talent,  of  every  variety  of  disposition,  of  every  shade  of  belief,  both  religiooa 
and  political,  and  the  only  feeling  which  is  manifested,  is  that  noble  spirit  of 
emulation,  as  to  who  best  can  work  and  best  agree.  How  sublime  the 
roectacle,  and  how  impressive  the  lesson !  Let  us,  my  Brethren,  neither  lose 
the  beauty  of  the  one,  nor  the  value  of  the  other.  When  from  such  results  we 
are  deeply  impressed  with  the  importance  of  the  principles  of  ^e  Fraternity, 
we  shall  most  resolutely  resolve  to  engraft  them  in  our  hearts,  and  show 
the  fruit  of  them  in  our  lives.  With  such  views  of  our  duties,  and  our  obli* 
gations,  let  us  approach  the  business  before  us,  and  in  all  our  Ititure  let  us  be 
actuated  by  the  pure,  the  high,  the  noble  motives  which  must  actuate  the  Mason 
whose  actions  correspond  with  the  principles  of  his  profession. 

fM  tbb:  ashlar. 

AMMKOMBttB  TO  m  ooiiii.fiwmw» 

Seotkm  18  of  Ait.  0  WBg  amended  so  as  to  require  all  amende 
flUiitB  to  the  Ck»fllltatioii  to  lie  eabmitAed  oM^ 
BitttiealioB  ptwiow  to  that  at  vMoh  they  are  adopted.  Seetioii7 
«f  Art;  ¥.  wa»  amended  00  aa  to  require  a  oondidate  to  ferfd^niat 
floMkawitlim  the  jariafiotioD  of  »Lo^^  before  beooming  eligible 
iMr  iiMatioii. 

Seolum  iMi  of  Art.  V.  iraa  amended!,  so  that  it  now  atanda  aa 
Ml0ira:  ^NoeaaeofanapeaaienorezpdBionihanbeniadepablfe 
hk$Bfw$Yy  eilhar  writteH|  printed  or  oraj, mJeaa  otherwise direoted 
bf' a  majority  of  two4hirda  of  tfao  membem  preaent  at  the  dme  of 
anoh  espidaUm;  and  npon  the  ooncnireaee  of  two4Urds  of  Ihi 
ttendMra  pwawnt  at  any  anefa  eiqndaioB,  it  ahall  be  proper  tor  any 
Lodgoto  pttbBah  liie  name  of  any  expelied  member,  wHh  tiie  oanae 
of  aneh  eipiiUon.'' 

Beetaon  7th  of  Art.  V.  waa  amended  ao  aa  to  reqaire  rejectioni 
of  oaadidatea  to  be  oommmiiented  to  oontignona  Lodgea  and  the 
GMnd  Lodge,  instead  of  eray  Lodge  in  the  jariadicti<HL 

Section  2d  of  Aii.  YL  waa  amended  ao  aa  to  eatablidi  the 
prioe  <rf  a  ohaitar  at  #90  instead  of  ISO,  and  a  dispensalaoB  at  %M 
ilMtead  of  IRLO. 

The  foQowing  offleera  were  dected  for  the  enaoing  year ;«» 
Levi  CJook, G.  M.;  T.  H.  Lyon,  D.6.  M. ;  J.  C.Wood,  S. Q.W.; 
J.  B.  Hamilton,  J.  6.  W. ;  Rev.  L.  H.  Carson,  6.  C. ;  J.  Faiton, 
O.  8.;  W.  H.  MoOmber,  3.  T.;  8.  Blanchard,  G.  Vis.  and  Lee ; 
R  W.  Landon,  8.  G.  D.;  B.  A.  Brown,  J.  G.  D.;  W.  R  Mills, G. 
M.;  J.  R.  Baker,  G.  S.  B.;  F. Danow,  G.  P.;  C.  Howard,  G.  Uler. 

BXJificnoir  OF  atpucjlivts. 

Committee  on  grievanoes  reported  the  following  resolations 
which  were  adopted : — 

Beiohed,  That  in  all  eaaei  where  the  By-Law«  of  a  Subordinate  Lodfle 

Syfide  for  baUoifaig  for  candidates,  a  single  member  can  only  object  to  the 
tiation  of  candidates  in  the  manner  prorided  for  in  those  By-La/ws.- 

Ee$6kfedj  That  at  any  time  before  the  initiation  of  a  candidate,  upon  the 
objection  of  any  member  of  the  Lodge,  npon  the  statement  of  his  reasons  for 
said  objection,  the  Lodge  may  determine  as  to  whether  he  shall  be  initbted 
or  not. 


We  are  pleased  to  anuomice  that  the  Grand  Lodge  parsned 
the  ootirse,  which  we  oonfidoitly  h<q>ed  they  wonld  take,  with 

THE   A8HLAB.  Mt 

Tppwltothenew"€tattdIiodgtf*ofQMaa^  InaoeotdlHBmwttli 
«  report  of  the  comniittee  on  grieraiioefl^  the  sobjeol  ww  refenred 
to  tfie  oommittee  on  finre^  oorfeqMmdencei  vkh  instniotioiis  to 
report  %t  the  next  regtdar  oommunioadon  of  the  Grand  Lodge, 


Charters  were  granted  to  the  following  named  Lodgee^— 'Antt 

Jblbor Lodge,  at  Ann  Arl>or,  No.  80;  Valley  CSty  Lodge,  ait  Grand 

Ba|)id<»  y  o.  86;  AnohorLody  of  8trietObaernaw^atffalaTnatt>e» 

Ko.  87 ;  Bntler  Lodge,  at  Birtier,  Ko.  88 ;  Mptle  Lodge,  ii 

Bellevine,  No.  89 ;  Lowell  Lodge,  at  Lowell,  No.  90 ;  AaUar 

Lodge,  at  Detroit,  No  91 ;  Prairie  Lodge,  at  Qaleabnrg,  No.  98 ; 

Star  Lod^  at  Jefferson,  No.  98;  Charity  Lodge,  at  Detroiti 

No.  94. 

pxsrij.  jumsDicnoK  or  lodgbi. 

Li  relation  to  a  case  whioh  was  referred  to  the  committee  on 
jpierances,  the  following  reeohition  was  reported  and  adopted  :—> 

Bsmihtd,  That  estih  Xiodfiehas  pensl  Jnrisdlctloii  orer  Che  oonduoi  of  aUtlis 

Brethren  residing  within  their  geogn^hlcal  Jnrisdictian  reepecthrely 

Kerertheleu,  it  ie  recominended  that,  u  a  matter  ot  courtesy,  all  rach  caaea  bd 
TClbrred  to  the  Lodge  of  which  the  oflboding  Brother  is  a  member,  idm  itia 
practicable  to  do  so. 


The  following  resolntions  were  adopted : — 

RmML,  That  all  Lodges  ehartered  at  this  oonmnmicatioa  be,  and  th^ 
are  hereby  permitted  to  hold  election  for  oiBoers  of  their  respectiTe  Lodges,  at 
their  second  commnnication  after  the  close  of  this  Grand  Lodge ;  and  tlutt  the 
•effloers  of  said  Lodges  be  installed,  and  the  Lodges  dedieated,  as  soon  theii^ 
after  as  cixiTeoienL 

Rmdud^  That  it  is  the  right  of  all  Lodges  worldng  under  the  Jarisdictloa 
-of  this  Grand  Lodge  to  admit  or  reject  risiting  Brethren,  as  they  in  their  discre* 
tioD  may  deem  best 

Be$6hed,  That  the  thanla  of  this  Grand  Lodge  be  respectftilly  tendered  te 
the  Most  Worshipfbl  Past  Grand  Master,  Geo.  G.  Monro,  and  Eight  WorshiplU 
Deputy  Grand  MiBuster,  Horace  S.  Roberts,  for  the  able  and  impartial  manner  in 
which  they  hare  discharged  their  duties,  and  that  this  Grand  Lodge  present 
Hiem  a  Past  Master  and  Deputy  Grand  Master's  Jewels  respectiyely 

BeHinfed,  That  the  Grand  Visitor  and  Leciurer  be  instructed  to  visit,  during 
the  coming  year,  each  Lodge  in  this  jurisdiction,  and  shall  perfect  in  the  wms. 
and  lectures  of  the  three  Degrees,  tiie  Worshipful  M.  8.  and  J.  Wardens,  and 
that  for  such  serrices  he  shall  recelTC  the  sum  of  twelve  hundred  doilara. 
which  sum  shall  be  paid  by  the  Grand  Treasurer  on  the  warrant  of  the  Grand 
Secretary,  who  Is  hereby  authorized  to  issue  such  warrant. 

The  following  amendment  to  the  Constitution  was  duly  approred, 
-and  ordered  to  lay  on  the  table  until  the  next  session  of  the  Grand 

tfO  THE    ASHLAR. 

Amend  Seodon  8  of  Article  HL,  by  striking  out  the  v/hole  i6<s 

tBon  and  inserting  the  following :— • 

ARTIGIjB  hi,  6bo.  8.  Any  Oraod  Officer  who,  during  the  term  for  which 
he  was  chosen,  withdraws  from  the  Lodee  of  which  he  was  a  memher  at  the 
time  he  was  elected  to  such  office,  shall  Uierehy  vacate  said  office,  and  his  seat 
as  a  member  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  unless  he  shall  in  the  meantime  have  peti- 
tioned for  a  new  Lodge,  or  applied  for  membership  to  anothw*  Lodge  within 
ttk  Jurisdiction.  ^ 

There  are  several  subjects  of  interest  in  the  proceedings  of  the 
Grand  Lodge,  which  we  have  not  space  to  conunoit  upon  now^ 
bat  which  we  shall  fkgein  refer  to  at  an  early  day. 

•  • » 

The  Gbavil — Oh,  the  gravel  the  grave!  It  buries  every 
error,  covers  every  defect,  extinguishes  every  resentment.  Prom 
its  peaceful  bosom  spring  none  but  fond  regrets  and  tender  recol- 
lections. Who  can  look  down  upon  the  grave  even  of  an  enemy, 
and  not  feel  a  conipunctuous  throb,  that  even  he  should  have 
warred  against  the  mere  handAil  of  earth  that  lies  mouldering 
before  him?  But  the  grave  of  those  he  loved,  what  a  place  for 
meditation  1  Then  it  is  that  we  call  up,  in  long  review,  the  whole 
history  of  virtue  and  gentleness,  and  the  thousand  endearments 
lavished  upon  us,  almost  unheeded,  in  the  daily  intercourse  of 
intimacy.        / 

•^7^9  ff>  ^  ^®  grave  of  buried  love  and  meditate!  There 
settle  the  account  with  thy  conscience,  for  every  past  endearment 
unregarded,  of  that  departed  being,  who  never,  never,  never  can- 
return,  to  be  soothed  by  contrition !  If  thou  art  a  child,  and  hast 
ever  added  a  sorrow  to  the  soul,  or  a  furrow  to  the  silvered  brow 
of  an  affectionate  parent;  if  thou  art  a  husband,  and  hast  caused 
the  fond  bosom  that  ventured  its  whole  lu^f^iness  in  thy  arms,  to 
doubt  one  moment  of  thy  kindness  or  thy  truth;  if  thou  art  a 
friend,  and  hast  ever  wronged  in  thought,  or  word,  or  deed,  the 
spirit  that  generously  confided  in  thee;  if  thou  art  a  lover,  and 
hast  ever  given  one  unmerited  pang  to  the  true  heart  that  now 
lies  cold  beneath  thy  feet:  then  be  sure  that  every  unkind  look, 
every  ungracious  word,  every  ungenerous  action,  will  come  throng- 
ing back  upon  the  memory  and  knocking  dolefully  at  thy  soul;, 
then  be  sure  thou  wilt  lie  down,  sorrowing  and  repentant  on 
the  grave,  and  utter  the  unheard  groan,  and  pour  the  unav^ling 
tear,  more  deep,  more  bitter,  because  unheard  and  unaviuling.-^ 
Washington  Irving. 

THE    ASHLAR.  sn 

A    MOBAL.* 

A  pious  and  jsealous  Hebrew  was  walking  through  the  streeU 
ei  Jerusalem,  and  his  heart  was  sad  on  seeing  the  cross,  the  symbdL 
of  Christianity,  on  a  building,  and  he  spake  to  himself**  This  is  » 
plaoe»  where  the  Christian  worships  and  offers  up  his  devotions  to 
the  Triune  God" ;  and  as  he  passed  the  site  of  the  Temple,  he 
beheld  the  Mosque  of  the  Turk  on  which  was  plaoed  the  Crescent^ 
tiie  symbol  of  the  Moslem,  and  he  wept  and  spake — ^^'This  sacred 
spot,  on  which  was  erected  the  house  of  God,  and  which  He  coot- 
secrated  with  the  presence  of  the  divine  Shekinah,  is  in  the  posses- 
sion of  the  pretended  believers  of  the  prophet,  and  they  have 
desecrated  the  holy  eround.'^  His  heart  was  oppressed  with  grie^ 
and  as  he  passed  on  ne  met  one  of  the  wise  men  of  Israel,  an  aged 
and  venerable  Rabbi,  coming  that  way.  He  stopped  him  and 
communicated  to  him  what  lie  had  seen  and  the  sad  thoughts 
which  had  passed  through  his  mind  and  the  oppressive  feelmss 
which  weighed  so  heavy  upon  his  heart,  and  enquired  of  the  Raboi 
if  God  has  indeed  chosen  Israel  for  his  people,  why  has  He  turned 
his  countenance  away  from  them  ?  W  hv  does  He  permit  those 
who  do  not  fi)llow  the  law  of  Moses,  who  oelieve  in  fiuse  prophets, 
to  worship  in  this  holy  city,  and  on  the  sacred  spot  wluch  He  had 
chosen  as  a  habitation  here  on  earth  ? 

The  Rabbi  looked  moum&ily  upon  him  and  replied — ^'  Thou 
dost  not  know  of  what  thou  speakest.  The  countenance  of  the  Lord 
has  been  turned  away  from  luael  because  of  their  hearts'  not  undoT'- 
standing  aright  His  holy  ways.  The  Lord  has  indeed  chosen  Israel, 
only  as  they  observe  and  do  his  eommandments,  and  thus  has  Hei 
chosen  all  mankind,  all  who  bear  the  impress  of  His  image.  To  infer 
that  those  who  do  not  believe  as  you  do,  who  do  not  obey  the  laws  of 
Mofle8,butbdiovem  aMewahandaProphet,  which  in  your  opinion 
are  impositions,  should  not  receive  the  &vors  of  an  all-merci^I  God, 
shows  a  defect  in  your  understanding,  a  weak  appreciation  of  the  infi- 
nite love  and  goodness  of  the  one  Great  Father.  Did  the  Almighty 
destroy  the  infidel  nations  of  the  earth,  when  He  dwelt  between 
the  Cherubim  in  that  House  which  Solomon  built,  and  which  was 
dedicated  to  His  holy  name  ?  or  did  He  destroy  Solomon  who  in 
his  old  age  forsook  the  worship  of  the  living  and  true  God  and 
bowed  his  knee  to  idols  ?  No.  The  reasons  are  two-fold.  In  the 
first  place,  man  \s  a  weak  creature,  endowed  with  a  spark  of  the 
divinity,  he  is  capable  of  approaching  almost  the  presence  of  Deity, 
and  yet  b^  admitting  one  single  improper  thought,  he  may  mil 
from  his  high  estate.  God  knows  man's  weakness  and  suffers  him 
to  combat  and  live.  If  he  is  victorious  he  enjoys  a  greater  degree  of 
bliss.  The  second  reason  is  so  obvious,  that  if  you  will  onljy^  reflect 
you  will  understand  why  He  who  created  all  numkind  permits  those 

*Froin  the  Mirror  and  Keystone. 


who  an  iiot  of  the  seed  of  Abmham  to  wonMp  in  the  I10I7  oi^ 
iras  the  poflMtaion  of  His  ohoMQ  people.  Israel  wm  chosen  to  per- 
petuate toe  knowledge  of  the  JMas  and  true  God.  Israel  did  not 
nippreoiate  the  great  trust  reposed  in  them  and  the  Lord  toned 
hw  oonntenaaoe  awaf  from  them  and  gare  their  inheritaaoe  to  th* 
atnawer.  Tet  the  Ijord  is  with  yon  and  with  me  and  with  all  who 
win  wey  Him.  Meditate  npon  the  diversity  of  faitelHgenoes  and 
take  a  practioal  view  of  liamanity.  Do  you  and  I  thiu  alike  ob 
all  sabjeotaf  Do  not  the  leaves  on  yonder  tree  aU  diiE^  in  shap^ 
andocMorf  The  mental  creations  of  man  differ  as  mneh  as  Nature. 
No  two  men  see  the  same  object  aSke  with  thefar  natural  viskQ, 
and  neither  are  their  mental  peremptions  the  same.  Hnchdqpenda 
npon  edacatioiii  Yon  may  attadi  mneh  impctftaneeto  the  mamifr 
and  fi>nn  of  woralnp,  bnt  Me  to  wliom  yon  offer  up  yo«pr  devotiona 
feoka  at  the  heart.  If  the  heart  is  sincere,  if  trodi  be  the  oMeot, 
if  llie  intentions  be  good  and  pore,  will  not  this  sofflce  with  nSm 
wlioseethnotaamanseeth,  although  the  cross  or  the  crescenti  and 
the  types  of  which  each  is  a  8ym£>l,  is  represented  in  the  act  of 
worsmp?  Retom  to  thy  honse  and  stndy  thysel£  Do  not  set  op 
thy  judgment  aa  that  which  shonld  govern  Him,  the  Infinite  and 
BtemaL  If  thon  art  content  with  thyself  be  satisied.  Do  not 
measore  others  according  to  thy  understanding.  If  otheiB  are 
lumpy  that  is  soAdent  mr  them.  Tou  are  not  accountable  far 
others,  and  nmther  are  they  accountable  for  you.  Be  sntiiiBed 
that  the  words  of  God  are  true,  and  that  the  time  wiQ  come  ithea 
all  men  wffl  admoiviedge  the  Creator  ot  the  UniverM,  before 
whom  all  hearts  must  bovr  in  reverenoe;  and  do  yon  live  so  that 
jfTOH  may  be  acceptable  to  ffim,  and  let  your  words  and  actiona  bis 
mstnnnental  in  hastening  that  important  and  hxppy  period,'' 


•  •• 

^The  wisest  of  Kings  was  not  ashamed  to  receive  his 
asnstance,  to  seek  for  knowledge  wherever  she  might  be  found, 
and  to  make  a  proper  use  and  improvement  of  it.  Here,  indeed, 
Solon,  Plato,  and  Pythagoras,  and  from  them  the  Oreoian  literati 
in  general,  in  a  great  measure,  were  obliged  for  their  learning  to 
Masomry  and  the  labors  of  some  of  our  andent  Brethren." 

•  •• 


At  Niles,  Jan.  11th,  1857,  Bro.  Milton  Cowley,  aged  30  years. 
At  Detroit,  Jan.  80th,  Bro.  Geo.  Fraxer;  aged  28  years. 


■  •■ 

Yra»f  Aao««  nm  Bamnsv^Lwrliig  Biii  fltginaw,  wiMra  o«r  aillob 
fill  oomtpondenee  wu  d«M,  we  proceeded  ria  Flint  to  DariBtmrgfa,  wheve 
we  were  hoeiiitftblj  eoterteined  bj  Bko.  ConwUei  Devii,  ux  old  lUiid-by  of 
the  InstltiitloD.  On  the  erening  of  our  airtrel,  we  rode  o?«r  to  Awtia  witti 
three  of  the  Brethren,  and  rtoited  Qnyretamd  Lodge,  which  we  firand  in  good 
•cnditki^notwithetendingitekieBdilbrteae-  Bro.Oogihe]lfliidBio.Wrighl» 
W.  M.,  gave  ni  a  hearty  weKeone.  We  raloned  to  Denrisborgh  and  ipeni  Oni 
nig^  The  next  morning  we  took  the  can  lot  PoaUee,  aad  theaee  hf  etoga 
wtet  to  New  Oaaandaigwu  Heveweiawbiiilbwof  theBrelhieD.  Bffo.Jeii» 
Beekar,  the  Ihithftd  old  eeotlnel,  waa  at  hk  peet,  hale  aad  heerty.  AtOxIMI 
we  were  not  verj  fortimato  in  finding  Biethxen.  Mine  hoet,  Bxo.  Hov^,  aa 
nfoal,  diq^layed  a  emiling  ooonteoaaee  that  gave  eridvioe  of  a  wann  heart. 
The  ride  ftom  Oxford  to  Lapeer  wae  aa  eoiclraoidinarj  one,  and  we  had  the 
atfatetima  to  fre«e  on  noee  aad  both  eaia  aoferelf .  After  a  day^  tany  te 
L^ear,  andflylngTialta  aniong  thaCraA,  wenade  the  rest  of  oar  tov  « loOowat 

AuBOMT^-Here,  we  ibvnd  Bn>.  Beaoh,  W.  M.,  actively  engaged  hi  proina* 
hig  the  interests  of  the  Frateniity;  ander  his  goldanoe  the  Lodge  is  doiBg 

BoMSO.-— H.  B.  Castle  extended  a  Masonic  hand,  and  laid  ns  under  obligsp 
Itons  by  liis  Mndness  The  Craft  is  flourishing  in  this  place,  and  the  Lodge  is 
doing  good  work. 

VnoA  Aim  RooxBSTn.— We  made  very  hasty  ylslts  at  theae  places,  but 
were  well  i^eased  with  what  we  saw,  and  shall  endeavor  to  meet  the  Brethren 
in  them  again  at  as  early  a  day  as  possible. 

Maboxio  Blavks. — ^We  are  now  prepared  to  ftimish  Masonic  Blanks  of  ail 
kinds  to  Lodges,  indnding  petitions  for  initiatioD,  for  the  2d  degree,  for  the 
8d,  and  for  membership,  reports  of  committeeB,  demits,  &c.,  Sec  Any  orders 
sent  as  by  mail  or  otherwise  will  be  panctnally  attended  to. 

or  We  think  the  side  degraes,  and  '*  Female  Masonry  "  (as  it  is  misnamed) 
are  ftst  losiDg  gronnd.    We  shall  say  a  word  about  them  at  at  an  early  day. 

17  James  Buchanan  and  J<An  G.  Breckenridge,  PraaidanI  aad  Vice  Pres- 
ident elect,  are  Masons.    Both  are  Past  Masters  of  Lodges. 

274  THE    ASHLAR. 

f^  Scarcely  a  jeer  panes  in  which  we  do  not  hear  of  tome  lodelj^  Sml^ 
tatiye  of  Freemaaoxiry,  ipringing  iq>,  blustering  about  for  a  while  in  i^woos 
and  colors,  patting  on  all  the  appeantnoe  of  Uie  real  simon-pnre,  and  then^ 
after  a  brief  life,  dying  off,  to  give  place  to  some  other  simulative  abmirdity. 
The  old  newspapers  and  magasines  are  ftill  of  aoooonts  of  these  '*  mock  tur- 
tle" societies,  which  people,  ootside  of  onr  Order,  are  Tery  often  apt  to  sup- 
pose form  a  part  of  Masonry,  which  Institution  they  howerer  resemble  only 
In  the  secresy  of  their  meetings.  Our  common-place  book  contains  an  abund- 
ant list  of  them,  from  which  we  may,  from  time  to  time,  give  an  extract  for 
the  amusement  of  our  readers.  For  tiie  present,  here  is  a  paragraph  from  the 
"Gentieman's  Magazine,"  for  January,  1782,  concerning  the  "Free  Sawyers**: 

"  An  account  was  given  in  the  pi^rs  of  a  society  who  called  themselvee 
Free  Sa/ieyere,  snd  dslm  priority  to  the  Freemasons,  Gormogons,  or  Ancient 
Hums,  ss  dating  their  standing  before  the  Tower  of  Babel,  s]Ueging  they  out 
the  stones  for  £ose  mad  builders,  tiie  Freemasons.  At  their  meetings  they 
have  a  sflver  saw  laid  on  their  table  with  this  motto:  'Lei  ii  Work.*"'^Ammi' 

"Is  there  to  be  found  a  gift  of  heawn  more  precious,  more  worthy  our 
most  ardent  gratitude,  than  that  of  posseesing  a  ibmily,  a  home,  where  virtues, 
kindness  and  ei\joymentB  are  every-day  guestB;  where  the  heart  *and  the  eye 
sun  themselves  in  a  world  of  love ;  where  thoughts  are  lovely  and  enlightened; 
where  friends,  not  only  by  words,  but  by  actloos,  say  to  each  other,  "  Thy  joy, 
thy  sorrow,  thy  h<^,  thy  prayer  is  mine  V  " 

We  would  call  attention  to  the  advertisement  of  Bro.  8.  B.  Elwood, 
long  and  Ihvorably  known  ss  one  of  the  booksellers  of  Detroit.  His  set  of 
Masonic  books,  fm*  the  use  of  Secretaries  and  Treasurers  of  Lodges,  is  the 
best  we  have  seen,  and  we  would  recommend  Lodges  in  want  of  new  booki,  to 
purchase  of  hioL 

A  weekly  contemporary,  reoentiy  announcing  Br.  Kane*s  departure  for 
Europe,  enthusiastically  anticipated  the  plessant  meeting  he  would  have  with 
Sir  Edward  Parry,  the  &ther  of  Arctic  enterprise  in  England.  Inasmuch  as 
Sir  Edward  has  beoi  dead  for  several  months,  we  hope  a  long  time  may  ekpee 
ere  he  has  **  the  pleasure"  of  such  a  meeting  as  this;— iSbiiM  JoumaL 

**  High  as  wo  at  present  may  stand,  firm  as  may  be  the  basis  on  which 
we  may  rest  tar  support,  to-morrow  we  may  bow  before  the  whirwind  of  mis- 
fortune. Virtue  can  claim  no  exemption  from  reproach,  greatness  no  indemnity 
•gainst  calamity;  as  we  treat  others  so  will  they  treat  us  in  turn.** 

The  Annual  Communication  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Pennsylvania  vras 
held  on  the  27th  of  December  last,  when  the  officers  were  installed.  Harmony 
prevailed,  evidence  of  prosperity  among  the  Craft  was  apparent. 

We  are  pleased  to  learn  that  Bro.  Kane,  the  intrepid  explorer  of  the 
Arctic  regicHis,  is  improving  in  heahh. 

THE    ASHLAR.  3f6 

Hbiohbob  Jaoxwoob,  bt  VAutt  Cbbttov,  AimroB  of  "Fatkbb  BbI9BT- 
aoPBs/'  "  Mabtih  Mbbbtyalb,"  &o.,  &«. — Thii  is  a  book  recently  pabliabed 
by  Phillips,  Sampson  &>  Co.,  of  Boston,  and  is  in  the  pecaliar  style  of  Its  antbor. 
It  seeks  to  give  a  tratbftil  pictnre  of  life  in  its  humble  spheres,  and  is  quite  a 
•sneoeesftd  effort.  The  story,  though  somewhat  long,  is  well  sustained,  end 
one  can  hardly  tire  of  the  various  characters,  which  are  drawn  with  spirit  aid 
A  due  regard  to  the  reality  of  every  day  life.  The  book  is  for  sale  at  John  A. 
Xerr  A>  Co.'s,  Jeflbrson  Avenue,  Detroit 

Bblioious  Tbitth,  illvstbatbd  fbox  Soibbcb,  IB  Addbbssbs  abd  Sbbxobs 
•OB  BPBCiAL  occAsiOBS,  BT  Edwabd  Hitchcocx  D.D.,  LXJO.,  A>c.— This  vol- 
mne  we  have  not  had  time  to  peruse  with  the  care  and  attenti<m  which  it  de- 
serves. The  well  known  and  extended  reputation  of  its  author  will  give  it  a 
liberal  sale.  The  subject  on  which  it  treats  is  one  of  more  than  ordhiary  in- 
terest, and  worthy  the  attention  of  every  one. 

The  volume  may  be  purchased  at  the  store  of  John  A.  Kerr  &  Co.,  Jeffiirson 
Avenue,  Detroit. 

Thb  Yoiob  of  Iowa. — ^Thls  is  the  title  of  a  neat  periodical  published  month- 
ly at  Cedar'  Bapids.  The  first  number,  which  has  Just  come  to  hand,  gives 
evidence  of  ability  and  tact  in  the  editorial  department,  and  is  a  good  sped- 
men  of  typography.    James  8.  Enos,  Editor.    Terms,  $2  per  year. 

Masobio,  JoiTBBAL.— We  have  not  received  a  copy  of  this  work  for  several 
months.    Bro.  Chase,  what  is  the  reason  1 

AsHLAB  LoDGB,  No.  91. — ^This  body  is  located  at  Detroit,  and  received  a 
charter  at  the  late  Communication  of  the  Grand  Lodge.  Officers — George  B. 
Ensworth,  W.  M.;  AUyn  Wevton,  8.  W.;  and  W.  £.  Oven,  J.  W.  It  holds  its 
communicationB  on  Tuesday  evenings,  at  the  room  of  Union  Lodge  of  Strict 

Crabitt  Lodob,  No.  94,  was  chartered  by  the  Grand  Lodge  at  its  recent 
communication.  The  new  body  will  hold  its  meetings  in  Masonic  Hall,  De- 
troit. Officers— J.  P.  Whiting,  W.  M.;  J.  J.  Bhodes,  S.  W.,  and  D.  B.  Nich- 
ols, J.  W. 

PbkiitsuiiAB  Chaftbb  op  B.  A.  Ms.,  No.  16. — This  body  was  chartered  at 
the  last  Convocation  of  the  Grand  Chapter  of  Michigan,  and  is  located  in  the 
city  of  Detroit.  Its  principal  officers  are:  Comp.  Horace  S.  Boberts,  High 
Priest;  Allyn  Weston,  King;  and  €k>rdon  Campbell,  Scribe. 

'An  editor  of  Iowa  has  been  fined  two  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  for 
hug^ng  a  girl  in  meeting.  ''Cheap  enough!"  says  another  of  the  fraternity. 
"We  once  hugged  a  girl  in  meeting,  and  it  has  cost  us  a  thousand  a  year  ever 

__    Life  is  a  Journey,  and  it's  our  owtl  fault  if  we  do  not  make  a  pleasure 
excursion  of  it. 

tn  THB    ASHLAR. 


tyiTonwhn  Idbor,  «Epof«ra  to  nvt  nd  ooM,  deprlritioD  of  sofllclBni 
^pMDtkies  of  neeatMrj  and  wholewme  fDod,  haUtail  bad  lodging,  sloth  and 
ntanpamiee,  an  all  deadly  enemlM  to  human  Ufb;  but  none  of  them  are  so 
bad  aa  Tioknt  and  imgoferned  paaaloiia.  Men  and  women  hare  aurriyed  all 
theee,  and  at  ktat  reached  an  extreme  old  age;  but  H  maj  be  safelj  doubted 
nHether  a  aincle  Instanoe  can  be  foond  of  a  man  of  riolent  tnd  favadble  tem- 
per, habilnally  idbject  to  atorma  of  migoTemable  passion,  who  has  arrlred  at 
a  very  adranced  period  ot  lUb.  It  Is,  therefore,  a  matter  of  the  hlgfaete  im- 
portance to  erery  one  desirous  to  preserve  'a  somMi  mind  in  a  sonnd  body,' 
so  that  the  britlie  Tessel  of  life  may  glide  down  the  stream  of  time  smoothly 
and  aecnrely,  instead  of  befaig  oontlnnally  tossed  aboat  amidst  rocks  and  shoala 
which  endanger  its  existence,  to  have  a  special  care,  amidst  all  the  ricissitndea 
and  trials  of  life,  to  maintain  a  qaki  possession  of  his  own  spirit*" 

tlT  "  Suppose,  sir,"  said  Boswell  to  Dr.  Johnson,  after  having  put  the  case 
of  one  who  was  accused  of  forging  a  wiD,  and  who  had  nook  himself  into  the 
Thames  before  the  trial  of  its  anthentldty  came  on,  "  that  a  man  is  absolntdy 
sure  that  if  he  lives  a  few  days  longer  he  wiD  be  detected  in  a  frand,  the  conse- 
qnenoe  of  which  will  be  ntter  disgrace  and  expulsion  from  society."  Johnson 
replied—*'  Then,  sir,  let  him  go  abroad  to  a  distant  country ;  let  him  go  to 
some  place  where  he  is  not  known ;  don't  let  him  go  to  the  devil,  where  he  is 

"  By  brotherty  love,  we  are  to  understand  that  generous  principle  of 
the  soul  which  respects  the  human  species  as  one  ftunlly,  created  by  an  all-wise 
Being,  and  placed  on  this  globe  for  the  mutual  assistance  of  each  other.  It  is 
this  attnetive  principle,  or  power,  that  draws  men  together  and  unites  them  in 
bodiBB  pdiCte,  femiUes,  sodetlea,  and  the  various  orders  and  denomlnatfooa 
among  men.  But  as  most  of  these  are  partial,  contacted,  or  confined  to  a 
partlciilar  country,  religion,  or  opfaiion;  our  order,  on  the  contrary.  Is  calcu- 
lated to  unite  mankind  as  one  femily :  high  and  low,  rich  and  poor,  one  with 
another;  to  adore  the  same  God,  and  observe  his  law.  All  worthy  members 
of  this  society  are  free  to  visit  every  lodge  In  the  world;  and  though  he  knows 
not  the  language  of  the  country,  yet  by  a  silent  universal  language  of  our 
own,  he  wHI  gafai  admittance,  and  find  that  true  fiiendship,  which  flows  ftom 
the  Iwotherly  love  I  am  now  describing. 

"  At  that  peaceable  and  harmonious  meeting  he  vriU  hear  no  diflpotes  con- 
cerning religion  or  politics;  no  swearing;  no  obscene,  immoral,  or  ludicrous 
discourse ;  no  other  contention  but  who  can  work  best,  who  can  agree  bast** 

or  lAmartine  says  of  the  oedan  of  Lebanon* 

"After having  spant  a  few  dftys  in  studying  these  baautiftil localities, as 
poetic  as  the  places  where  we  find  them,  the  Sheik  (chief  of  an  Arabian 
tribe),  gave  me  his  son  and  several  Arabians  to  lead  me  to  Bolomon'a  cadait, 
fSunous  trees,  which  consecrate  the  highest  summits  of  Lebanon,  and  which 
have  been  for  many  centuries  venerated  aa  the  last  witnesses  of  King  Solo- 
mon's glory." 

DETROIT,  MARCH,  1857. 


Evidence  of  the  benefits  of  Masonry,  adduced  from  numerous 
sources,  and  comprehending  a  variety  of  facts,  have  from  time  to 
time  been  laid  before  oar  readers.  These  have  been  given,  not 
only  to  instruct  the  iiiiiiiit.iii.tPfl  in  the  history  of  our  Order  and 
refute  the  arguments  and  scoffi  of  opponents,  but  to  enlighten 
Brethren  and  kindle  even  In  their  breasts  a  love  for  Freemasonry 
haUowed  by  time,  and  rendered  valuable  by  its  long  train  of  tra- 
ditional lore.  It  is  well  thus  to  dwell  upon  the  estimable  resolts  of 
the  Institution,  traced  on  the  pages  of  history,  into  distant  ages ; 
it  is  well  thus  to  recall  the  good  deeds  of  tbe  past,  and  ponder 
them ;  it  is  well  thus  to  drink  of  the  crysttJ  streama,  and  trace 
them  to  the  fomitain-head  of  a  society  which,  dating  its  ooin- 
roencement  with  the  earUe«t  historical  record,  has  withstood  the 
attackB  of  internal  as  well  as  external  foes,  and  to-day  proudly 
27— <voL.  n.  wo.  vn. 

278  THE    ASHLAR. 

rears  its  head  among  the  nations  of  the  earth,  having  its  strongest 
foothold  where  civilization  and  refinement  exert  the  most  potent 
sway.  The  reoollection  of  good  deeds,  of  heroic  acts,  of  noble 
and  beneficent  results,  tends  to  create  and  foster  in  the  soul,  high 
and  holy  aspirations  which  ennoble  and  purify  the  man  and 
strengthen  his  determination  to  press  on  in  the  path  of  rectitude. 

Proofs  of  the  immaeolateness  of  Masonry  and  its  inestimable 
value  may  be  found  far  and  near.  They  may  be  found  in  the 
dphers  and  hieroglyphics  of  ancient  monuments,  exhumed  from 
the  bowels  of  the  earth,  after  being  interred  for  many  ages,  and 
which  none  but  those  well  skilled  in  our  art  can  interpret;  they 
may  be  culled  from  dusty  tomes  neglected  on  the  shelves  of  public 
libraries,  which  none  but  the  learned  and  curious  antiquarian 
searches ;  they  may  be  discovered  in  the  many  deeds  which  the 
pen  of  the  Beuthful  chronicler  has  recorded,  or  in  the  virtuous  acts 
which  have  caused  the  names  of  many  men  to  live  as  examples  of 
goodness,  long  after  their  bodies  are  mouldering  in  the  grave. 
Every  age — every  country  is  pregnant  with  fiicts  which  illustrate 
the  value  of  the  teachings  of  our  Order. 

There  is  one  class  of  proofi  (to  which  we  shall  confine  our 
attention  in  this  article)  that  should  convince  even  the  most  scep- 
tical mind  of  the  beneficent  influence  of  Freemasonry.  Upon 
her  roll  are  emblaxoned  the  names  of  the  greatest  and  best  men 
whom  the  world  has  ever  known.  At  her  shrine  have  knelt,  in 
humble  reverence,  longs,  princes,  philosophers  and  stateanen, "  who 
have  not  deemed  it  derogatory  to  their  dignity  to  level  themselves 
with  the  Fraternity,  extend  their  privileges  and  patronize  their 
assemblies.'*  Locks,  Fbanklix,  WnTonser^  Lafatettb, — ^what 
a  galaxy  of  names!  Their  characters  and  reputations  live  as  mon- 
uments of  the  purity  and  useftdness  of  our  ancient  society.  Brass 
and  stone  moulder  and  decay,  and,  in  a  ibw  years,  like  the  hands 
which  reared  them,  mingle  with  the  dust;  but  the  fame  of  such 
men  defies  the  ravages  of  time,  and  growing  brighter  with  each 
succeeding  age,  will  endure  until  the  world  AvsM  be  no  more. 
The  lives  of  such  men  remind  us 

"We  can  make  our  \\yw  subUme, 

And,  departing,  leave  behind  ub 
Footprints  on  the  sands  of  tima ; 

Footprints  that  perhaps  anothefj 
flailing  o'er  fife's  solemn  main, 

A  Ibrlom  and  ship-wredDMl  brother, 
Seeing,  shall  take  heart  again." 

THE    ASHLAR.  270 

The  deyotion,  d]g[dla7ed  for  Masonry  by  such  men  as  we  have 
named,  should  be  sufficient  to  convince  the  uninitiated  of  its 
exalted  and  noble  oharacter,  its  moral  and  religious  usefiilness. 
Tou  are  proud  of  Franklin  as  a  philosopher  and  ^^pcOriotl  Why 
should  not  we  be  proud  of  him  as  a  Mason?  Tou  hold  Warren 
in  grateful  remembrance,  a^  a  lover  of  his  country  and  a  brave 
soldier/  Why  should  not  we  hold  him  in  grateful  remembrance 
as  a  Mason  f  If  these  men  claim  your  love  and  esteem  as  bene- 
fiustors  of  their  race — whom  no  allurements  of  pleasure — 
no  bribes  of  gain — ^no  unworthy  motive  could  swerve  from  the 
path  of  duty,  then  must  you  acknowledge  that  their  zealous 
attachment  to  Masonry  refutes  the  calumnies  heaped  upon  it  by 
malignant  and  misguided  enemies. 

We  live  in  a  land  of  liberty — a  land  whose  soil  has  been  conse- 
crated by  the  blood  of  heroes  and  martyrs — a  land  where 
religious  persecution  has  no  foot-hold,  and  the  laws  guarantee 
equal  rights  to  all — ^the  poor  and  the  humble  as  well  as  the  rich 
and  powerfiil.  Look  around  you  to-day.  Everywhere,  you 
behold  the  marks  of  intelligence  and  refinement,  the  works  of 
art,  and  the  productions  of  literature  and  science.  All  is  peace 
and  prosperity;  and  beneath  the  approving  smiles  of  an  all-wise 
Providence,  plenty  showers  upon  you  the  choicest  blessings  of 
Heaven.  Do  not  these  things  "  afford  serious  reflection  to  the 
thinking  mind?''  and  bear  they  no  impress  of  the  influence  of 

"On  the  1st  day  of  November,  in  the  year  1762,"  says  Strick- 
land,* "the  Predricksbxttg  Lodge,  in  Virginia,  was  convened. 
It  was  a  cahn  and  quiet  evening  of  Lidian  summer.  The  sun, 
that  great  light  to  rule  the  day,  had  gone  down,  shedding 
a  mellow  radiance  on  the  peaceM  village.  The  stars,  those  silent 
out-sentinels  of  heaven,  lighted  up  their  watch-fires  in  the  absence 
of  night^s  &ir  orb,  and  cast  their  radiance  along  the  autumn  sky. 
The  Lodge  was  opened  in  the  Entered  Apprentice's  degree,  in 
due  and  andent  form.  Every  ofiicer  was  in  his  place,  and  the 
attendant  Brethren  were  sitting  in  groups  around  the  room.  The 
Brethren  had  met  for  the  purpose  of  initiating  a  young  colonial 
officer  of  the  British  army.  It  was  a  body  of  emergency,  for  the 
youthftd  soldier  was  on  the  eve  of  undertaking  the  arduous  and 

dangerous  task  of  carrying  despatches  from  the  Governor  of  Yir- 
-        ^  -  -  — 

"^Cinciimatii  Beview. 

280  THE    ASHLAR. 

ginia  to  the  French  oommander  at  Fort  da  Qneflne,  on  the  Ohio 
river,  at  that  time,  one  of  the  links  in  that  extended  chain  of  forti 
which  was  intended  to  connect  the  St.  Lawrence  with  the  Mexican 
Golf.  It  was  a  hazardous  undertaking  for  one  who  had  not 
reached  his  majority.  To  accomplish  it,  the  Blue  Ridge  and  the 
Alleghany  mountains  must  be  passed — ^innumerable  swamps  and 
rivers  must  be  crossed — and  a  distance  of  three  hundred  miles 
unexplored  by  the  white  man,  and  inhabited  by  numerous  tribes 
of  savage  Indians,  who  roamed  at  will  in  the  mighty  forests,  must 
be  traversed.  Though  he  had  not  reached  the  ordinary  age 
allotted  to  the  period  that  marks  the  boundary  between  youth 
and  manhood,  yet  he  had,  in  accordance  with  Anderson's  old 
constitutions,  under  which  the  Lodge  was  then  working,  arrived 
at  a  nuxture  and  discreet  age ;  and  hence,  not  only  the  spirit  but 
the  letter  of  the  Masonic  law  and  usage  was  complied  with,  in  his 

^'The  fflgnal  was  at  length  given,  and  then  mi^t  be  seen 
entering  the  Lodge  room  a  tall,  graceful  youth,  with  manly  pro- 
portions, attended  by  a  conductor.  Every  eye  was  turned  upon 
him  as  he  moved  along  with  firm  and  dignified  bearing.  Eveiy 
heart  responded  in  unison  with  his,  as  he  passed  through  the 
solemn  and  impressive  ceremonies  of  that  hour,  and  when  he 
advanced  to  record  his  name  on  the  roll  of  Masonry,  his  pen 
traced  in  bold  and  legible  characters  the  name  of  GxonaE 
Washington.    There  that  name  stands  to  this  day.'' 

The  evidence  that  the  Father  of  his  Oountry  was  a  zealous 
member  of  the  Order,  that  he  cherished  a  high  regard  for  its  prin- 
ciples and  precepts,  and  sought  to  promote  its  inter^ts,  are  abun- 
dant and  conclusive.  When  success  crowned  his  efforts,  and  with 
his  valiant  army  he  conquered  a  place  in  which  there  was  a  Lodge 
composed  of  English  soldiers,  he  showed  his  regard  for  our  in* 
stitution,  by  sending  the  jewels  of  the  Lodge,  under  a  guard  of 
honor  and  a  flag  of  truce,  to  the  British  army.  In  the  year  1784, 
in  a  letter  addressed  to  Brook  Lodge,  in  Alexandria,  he  said : 
'^I  shall  always  feel  pleasure,  when  it  be  in  my  power,  to  render 
any  service  to  Lodge  No.  30,  and  in  every  act  of  brotherly  kind- 
ness to  the  members  of  it.  With  pleasure  I  received  the  invita- 
tion of  the  Master  and  members  of  the  Lodge  to  dine  with  them 
on  the  approaching  anniversary  of  St.  John ;  if  nothing,  unforeseen 
at  present,  interferes,  I  wiU  have  the  honor  qf  doing  ity    On 

THE    ASHLAR.  281 

aaoUier  oooaaion  while  seated  in  the  Preddential  chair,  he  wrote 
to  King  Damd^a  Lodge^  Newport,  aa  follows:  ^*I  receive  the 
welcome  you  gave  me  to  Rhode  Island,  and  with  pleasure ;  and 
I  acknowledge  mj  obligationB  for  the  flattering  expressions  of 
regard  contained  in  your  address,  with  grateful  smcerity.  Being 
persuaded  that  a  joint  application  of  the  principles  on  which  the 
Masonic  Fraternity  is  founded,  must  be  promotive  of  private 
virtue  and  public  prosperity,  I  shall  always  be  ready  to  advance 
the  interests  of  the  society,  and  to  be  considered  by  them  as  a 
deserving  Brother." 

In  1701,  the  Qrand  Lodge  of  Massachusetts  presented  to 
Washington  a  copy  of  their  constitution,  accompanied  by  an 
address,  in  which  they  said: 

*^Sir:  Whilst  the  historian  is  describing  the  career  of  your 
glory,  and  the  inhabitants  of  an  extensive  empire  are  made  happy 
in  your  unexampled  exertions — ^whilst  some  celebrate  the  Hero 
so  distinguished  in  liberating  United  America,  and  others  the 
Patriot  who  presides  over  her  councils — a  band  of  Brothers,  hav- 
ing always  joined  the  acclamations  of  their  countrymen,  now 
testily  their  respect  for  those  milder  virtues,  which  have  ever 
graced  the  Man«" 

In  his  written  answer  to  the  address,  Washington  said: 

^^  Flattering  as  it  may  be  to  the  human  mind,  and  truly  honor- 
able as  it  is  to  receive  from  our  fellow-dtizenB  testimonials  of 
approbation  for  exertions  to  promote  the  public  welfare,  it  is  not 
less  pleasing  to  know  that  the  milder  virtues  of  the  heart  are 
highly  respected  by  a  society  whose  i.ttocrati  pbikoiples  abs 


It  was  with  such  views  of  the  utiUty  and  purity  of  Masonry, 
that  the  Father  of  his  Country,  officiating  as  Grand  Master,  laid 
the  corner-stone  of  the  Capitol  in  1773,  and  presided  as  the  first 
Worshipful  Master  over  Alexandria  Washington  Lodge.  The 
apron  he  wore  at  that  period  was  made  by  Madame  Lafayette, 
and  presented  to  him  by  that  lady.  It  is  still  preserved  in  the 
archives  of  Alexandria  Lodge,  and  is  cherished  by  the  Craft  as 
a  precious  relic 

The  character  of  Washington — ^his  abiding  religious  &ith — his 
trust  in  God — ^his  holy  patriotism — ^his  unsullied  honor — ^his  broad 
philanthropy--4hese  are  all  known  and  universally  admitted.  No 
languagei  were  it  ever  so  flgorative  and  eloquent,  could  heighten 

282  THE    ASHLAR, 

or  embellishh  ig  fiune— oonld  add  one  ray  to  his  glory.  His  great- 
est eulogy  that  words  can  express  has  been  spoken— ^' First  in 
war,  first  in  peace,  and  first  in  the  hearts  of  his  countrymen."  To 
Washington,  more  than  to  any  other  man,  are  the  people  of  the 
United  States  indebted  for  the  blessings  of  liberty  which  they  this 
day  enjoy.  In  the  solemn  boors  of  our  Reyoluti<Hi,  when  the 
fonds  of  the  Colonial  treasury  were  exhausted — ^when  the  horrors 
and  deprivations  ot  war  pressed  upon  our  gallant  soldiers— when 
the  clouds  which  over-hung  the  mom  of  the  Republic  grew  dark 
and  threatening — when  the  vigor  of  strong  men  was  impaired  and 
their  hearts  grew  &int — when  despair  began  to  take  possession  of 
their  souls,  who  wcLS  it^  that  by  his  brave  spirit — ^his  trust  in  God 
— \\m  counsel  and  example — cheered  the  weary  and  disconsolate, 
gave  strength  to  the  weak — courage  to  the  timid — ^and,  standing 
at  the  helm,  with  proud  and  undaunted  soul,  calmly  and  coolly 
guided  the  Ship  of  State  through  the  troubled  waters,  amid  the 
rocks  and  quicksands  that  threatened  to  destroy  her,  to  the  bosom 
of  the  quiet  and  tranquil  ocean,  where  she  is  now  pursuing  her 
onward  course,  freighted  with  the  lives,  the  hopes  and  the  happi- 
ness of  more  than  twenty t millions  of  human  beings?  Who  was 
it  that  won  the  imperishable  fame  of  such  glorious  deeds?  ^  Gr^orge 
Washington^  the  Mason. 

Respected  and  beloved  while  living,  the  Father  of  his  Country 
is  revered  while  dead.  Emperors,  kings,  statesmen,  orators,  poets 
and  divines,  have  vied  with  each  other  in  doing  homage  to  his 
character.  Even  Napoleon  set  apart  a  day  for  France  to  com- 
memorate his  virtues.  ^'Our  Washington,"  said  Chief  Justice 
Marshal],  ^^  is  no  more.  The  hero,  the  patriot  and  the  sage  ot 
America,  the  man  on  whom  in  times  of  danger  every  eye  was 
turned  and  all  hopes  were  placed,  lives  now  only  in  his  own  great 

actions  and  in  the  hearts  of  an  affectionate  and  afficted  people.^ 
^'  His  example,"  said  Adams,  *^  is  now  complete,  and  it  wiU  teach 
wisdom  and  virtue  to  magistrates,  citizens  and  men,  not  only  in 
the  present  age,  but  in  future  generations,  as  long  as  history  shall 
be  read." 

Washington  left  upon  the  government  and  the  country  the 
lasting  impress  of  his  character — ^that  character  was  eminently 
Masonic  All  the  virtues  which  he  displayed  are  inooleated  by 
our  institution ;  all  the  noble  and  heroic  deeds  which  he  peifonned, 
all  the  good  qualities  which  he  manifested,  all  the  greatness  whidi 

THB    ASHLAR.  i6Z 

he  achieved,  and  all  the  &me  which  he  won,  were  but  the  result 
of  a  carefid  obeenraiice  of  the  principleB  and  precepts  of  our  an- 
cient society.  Can  you  doubt  that  Masonry — whose  liberal  prin- 
ciples he  declared  to  be  /otmded  in  the  immutable  laws  of  Thffh 
and  c/u^ioe-*-^a¥e  him  strength  and  courage  to  pass  through  the 
trials  of  the  Bevolntion,  and  exercised  a  powerful  influence  en  his 
character  ?  **  Frequently,'*  says  the  P.  G.  M.  of  Virginia,  "  when 
surrounded  by  his  brilliant  stafl^  he  would  part  from  the  gay  assem- 
blage and  seek  the  instruction  of  the  Lodge."  These  words  may 
make  a  faint  impression  on  the  minds  of  the  uninitiated ;  but  in 
the  minds  of  Breliiren,  they  should  establish  the  conviction,  that 
Washingt<Hi,  when  his  mind  and  soul  were  laden  with  the  care  of 
a  nation's  destiny,  sought  comfort  and  encouragement  at  the  shrine 
of  Masonry,  as  the  weary  and  way-worn  traveller  on  the  burning 
sands  of  the  desert,  seeks  refreshment  at  the  cool  and  shaded 

As  the  Father  of  his  Country  was  a  good  man,  so  was  he  a 
good  Mason ;  approaching,  as  a  man,  nearer  to  perfection  than  his 
fellows,  so  his  character  assimilates  more  closely  than  that  of  almost 
any  other  member  of  our  Order,  to  the  Masonic  standard  of  virtue 
and  greatness.  Hdding  him  in  grateful  remembrance  as  a  patriot 
and  a  philanthropist  who  has  conferred  untold  blessings  upon  un- 
told millions  of  his  fellow-bemgs  you  render  a  tribute  to  Masonry 
more  valuable  than  the  loftiest  panegyric  ever  pronounced  on  her 

Contemplating  the  goodness  of  Washington,  we  are  irresistibly 
led  to  condder  and  aiialyEe  the  principles  and  tenets  of  our  Order. 
His  example  is  noble  and  illustrious — ^let  us  strive  to  imitate  it  in 
all  our  actions;  his  reputation  is  a  monument  of  the  purity  and 
usefulness  of  our  Society — ^let  it  be  to  us  an  incentive  to  the  per- 
formance of  virtuous  and  heroic  deeds;  his  fiune  is  an  invaluable 
legacy — let  us  cherish  and  protect  it  with  pure  hearts  and  unsul- 
lied hands!  Then,  like  him,  ^' shall  we  be  fitly  prepared  for  that 
Celestial  Lodge  above  where  the  Supreme  Architect  of  the  Uni- 
verse presides" — then  will  our  example,  like  his,  cast  no  shadow 
upon  die  fair  &me  of  Freemasonry,  but  will  shine  like  a  bright  and 
effulgent  light  to  lead  the  wayward  and  weary  into  paths  of  virtue 
and  pleasantness. 

284  THE    ASHLAR. 


It  is  oi  the  ntmost  importance  for  the  interests  of  Masomy 
that  those  who  preside  in  Lodges,  and  all  who  impart  a  knowledge 
of  the  forms  and  ceremonies,  should  be  critically  conversant  with 
the  ritual  of  the  lectures  in  the  several  degrees;  otherwise,  they 
sow  tares  among  the  wheat,  which  spring  up  and  bear  a  thousand 
fold.  A.,  for  instance,  gets  a  general  knowledge  of  the  lectures 
and  can  repeat  them  with  many  verbal  inaccurades;  he  instructs 
B.,  who  also  commits  them  to  memory  with  many  words  changed 
or  omitted  or  added ;  B.  imparts  them  to  C.  with  other  changes, 
C.  to  D.,  and  so  on,  till  Masons  living  in  the  same  jurisdiction,  and 
indeed  sometimes  in  the  same  city,  differ  as  widely  in  their  recital 
of  the  ritual  as  though  they  were  separated  by  States  and  Terri- 
tories. This  indicates  a  radical  defect.  Uniformity  should  be 
preserved  by  each  Grand  Lodge  in  its  own  jurisdiction,  by  the 
adoption  of  some  specified  ritual,  and  its  dissemination  by  those 
who  know  it  and  are  competent  to  teach  it. 

What  is  the  best  means  to  prevent  any  change  in  the  words  of 
the  work  and  lectures  and  transmit  them  to  those  who  shall  follow 
us?  In  Massachusetts,  a  plan  has  been  adopted  which,  in  that 
jurisdiction,  is  regarded  with  much  &vor.  The  27th  of  Decemb^ 
in  each  year  i^  set  apart  for  the  exemplification  of  the  work  and 
lectures,  under  the  Grand  Lecturers,  and  in  the  immediate  pres- 
ence of  the  Grand  Lodge.  Conunenting  on  this  course,  the  H'ee- 
mason'^s  JUhgtmne  utters  the  following  language: 

In  this  way  the  lectures  are  preserved  and  transmitted  from 
year  to  year  with  nearly  verbal  exactness.  We  have  been  more 
or  less  &miUar  with  them  for  more  than  a  third  of  a  century,  and 
feel  a  personal  pride  in  saying  that,  with  perhaps  a  few  verbal  and 
unimportant  differences,  they  are  given  b^  the  present  Grand 
Lecturers  of  this  State,  as  thejr  were  onginally  practised  by 
authority  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  m  the  early  part  of  the  present 
century, — ^when  they  were  first  introduced  into  this  country  by 
the  late  Thos.  Smith  Webb,  who  received  them  from  Englana 
soon  after  they  were  arranged  and  promulgated  by  Preston,  at 
London.  It  was  never  our  fortune  to  have  received  immediate 
instruction  from  Bro.  Webb,  but  his  most  exact  and  accomplished 
pupil  was  one  of  our  earliest  teachers,  as  we  think  he  also  was  of 
the  present  Senior  Grand  Lecturer  of  this  State.  But  however 
this  mav  be,  we  are  quite  certain  that  if  the  former  were  alive,  he 
wonld  be  proud  to  acknowledge  the  latter  as  a  sdiolar,  whose 

THE    ASHLAR.  2B5 

attainments  and  fiiithftilness  honor  liis  instrnctor.  In  no  part  of 
this  oonntry  have  these  lectures  been  so  carefblly  preserved  and 
transmitted,  as  by  oar  own  Grand  Lodge,  and  nowhere  else  do 
they  exist  in  greater  pnrity  than  in  the  Lodges  in  this  city.  That 
this  is  so,  we  attribute  mainly  to  the  fact,  that  itineratU  lecturers — 
the  bane  of  pnre  Masonry — ^have  never  found  any  encouragement 
within  the  borders  of  our  State.  This  has  always  been, — ^as  we 
ardently  hope  it  may  alwajB  continue  to  be, — a  sterile  and  forbid- 
ding field  to  them.  That  a  few  verbal  changes  may  have  taken 
place  in  the  lectures  within  the  half  century  since  their  adoption, 
IS  doubtless  true,  but  not  surprising.  No  man's  memory  is  mfidli- 
able.  But  they  have  been  preserved  with  wonderful  accuracy 
and  exactness. 

The  ritual  adopted  in  this  jurisdiction  is  that  of  the  Baltimore 
Convention,  and  is  the  same  which  we  have  generally  met  with  in 
Lidiana,  Illinois  and  Wisconsin.  Michigan,  we  believe,  may  safely 
challenge  comparison  for  uniformity  of  work.  Travel  the  length 
and  breadth  of  the  jurisdiction,  and  wherever  you  find  a  Brother 
who  is  instructed  and  bright,  you  meet  with  the  same  words. 
This  result  is  not  a  matter  of  wonder  to  us.  There  is  a  means  of 
preserving  and  transmitting  lectures  with  verbal  accuracy,  but  it 
is  always  liable  to  be  abused,  and  should  always  be  regulated  by 
the  Orand  Lodge  or  the  Grand  Master.  Wherever  Brethren  see 
any  evil  springing  up  in  this  respect,  or  growing,  we  trust  they 
will  always  be  willing  to  exert  an  influence  to  check  it.  Upon 
their  individual  exertion  much  must  depend  at  all  times  and  in  all 
respects,  to  preserve  our  institution  firom  the  action  of  the  indis- 
creet and  those  evilly  disposed. 


PENINSULAR    CHAPTER   No.    16   OF    R.   A.   MASONS. 

At  the  last  convocation  of  the  Grand  Chapter  of  R.  A.  M.  oi 
Michigan,  a  charter  for  a  new  Chapter  to  be  located  in  Detroit, 
was  granted  to  a  constitutional  number  of  Companions,  designa- 
ting as  the  principal  officers  H.  S.  Roberts,  Allyn  Weston,  and 
Gordon  Campbell.  On  Wednesday,  the  eleventh  day  of  February, 
the  new  body  was  constituted  by  M.  E.  Comp.  S.  C.  Coffinbury,  G. 
H.  P.  and  its  officers  duly  installed.  The  Companions  named  in 
the  charter  met  in  the  room  of  Union  Lodge  of  Strict  Observance, 
Ko.  8,  and  opened  the  Chapter  in  due  foxin«    The  Grand  Chapter 

388  THE    ASHLAR. 

entered  the  room  ccHisiflting  of  M,  E.  S.  C.  Coffinbury,  6.  H.  P., 
Ex.  H.  B.  Towslee  as  D.  Q.  H.  P.,  Ex.  Levi  Cook  (Ghraad  Master), 
as  G.  K.,  Ex.  Wm.  8.  Wood  as  G.  S.,  R.  S.  Cheney,  G.  Sec.,  and 
J.  S.  Wolverton  as  G.  C.  H.  The  Chapter  being  constituted  and  its 
officers  installed,  a  dispensation  was  granted  by  the  M.  E.  High 
Priest  to  ballot  for  candidates,  and  ten  were  elected  to  take  the 
several  degrees  of  Mark  Master,  Past  Master,  M.  E.  Master,  and 
Royal  Arch.  During  the  day  and  evening,  the  Mark  Master,  and 
Past  Master's  degrees  were  conferred  on  Bros.  Ed.  Batwell,  J.  B. 
Newton  and  J.  P.  Fiske,  The  next  day,  they  received  the  M.  E. 
Master's  degree,  and  in  the  evening  were  exalted  to  the  sublime 
degree  of  Royal  Arch  Mason. 

The  new  Chapter  starts  under  the  most  &vorable  auspices,  and 
we  doubt  not  that  at  the  end  of  six  months  it  will  be  in  as  flourish- 
ing condition  as  any  Chapter  in  the  State. 

•  •• 

Teub  to  its  Allbqiai^ce. — ^Where  a  spirit  of  rebellion  is  rife 
among  some  of  the  Lodges  in  Canada^  it  is  pleasant  to  learn  that 
the  oldest  Lodge  on  the  Continent  remains  true  in  its  attachment 
to  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England.  Albion  Lodge,  No.  11  Beg. 
Eng.  No.  1  Prov.  Quebec,  was  instituted  in  1721.  In  a  circular 
which  it  has  issued,  it  says  it  ^' deems  it  a  duty  to  declare  its 
continued  and  steadfast  allegiance  to  the  United  Grand  Lodge 
of  England,  tmder  whose  parental  guidance  the  prosperity  of  the 
Lodge  haa  been  fully  proven.'' 

The  officers  for  the  present  year  are 

W.  Bro.*  Jas.  Bargers,  M. 

W.  Eadon,  J.  T.  M. 

John  Alexander,  S.  W. 

Thos.  Le  Blanc,  J.  W. 

Jaques  Fuchs,  T. 

Alex  Finch,  Sec. 

Robert  Fullerton,  S.  D. 

Jas.  A.  Staton,  J.  D. 

Frans  X.  Aellereve,  J.  G. 

Chailfis  Enowles,  Tiler. 




A  special  communication  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  was 
held  on  the  19th  of  November  last,  at  which  a  scene  transpired 
such  as  we  never  witnessed,  and  hope  never  to  witness,  in  any 
Grand  Masonic  body.  Members  sought  to  brow-beat  the  Grand 
Master,  and  over-rule  his  decision,  in  a  manner  which  should 
be  discountenanced  by  all  good  Masons.  The  Grand  Master,  we 
think,  was  in  the  right ;  he  possessed  a  proper  appreciation  of  his 
official  power  and  duty,  and  we  r^oice  tfiat  he  aufltamed  the  one 
with  decision  and  fiimness,  and  performed  the  other  with  a  moral 
courage  worthy  of  imitation.  As  the  proceedings  will  interest 
our  readers,  we  give  a  portion  of  them  below.  At  a  Quarterly 
Communication  held  in  September,  the  Grand  Lodge  (the  Grand 
Master  being  absent)  adjourned  to  meet  on  the  first  of  October. 
The  Grand  Master  decided,  at  the  last  communication,  that  the 
adjourned  meeting  was  illegal  and  its  proceedings  null  and'void. 
He  quoted  from  the  constitutions  to  show  that  the  Grand  Lodge 
could  not  adjourn,  that  the  time  of  its  communications  were 
specified,  and  that  it  could  meet  at  any  other  time  only  by 
a  special  call  of  the  Grand  Master,  or  some  one  authorused  to 
act  in  his  place.    He  summed  up  his  remarks  as' follows: 

'^  I  have  taken  some  pains  to  ascertain  the  law  of  the  case,  and 
I  find  that  in  my  view  of  the  law  of  the  case,  I  am  supported  by 
the  opinions  of  the  present  Grand  Registrar,  the  I^ast  Grand 
Re^strar,  and  the  Grand  Registrar  before  him  (hear,  hear) ;  in 
fact,  I  have  all  the  authorities  with  me.  I  think,  therefore,  iu 
accordance  with  the  obligations  I  have  taken  to  perform,  viz.,  to 
adhere  to  the  ancient  usages  of  the  Craft,  and  maintain  the  law 
afi,  in  my  opinion,  it  stands,  I  can  only  come  to  the  painful  resolu- 
tion to  determine  that  the  meeting  of  certain  members  of  Grand 
Lodge,  held  on  the  1st  October,  was  an  illegal  meeting,  and  that 
all  the  proceedings  there  were  null  and  void;  and  I  now  call  upon 
the  Grand  Secretary  to  take  upthe  business  of  this  evening  at 
the  point  at  which  it  had  arriveiP  when  the  Grand  Lodge  closed 
at  its  Quarterly  Commxinication  in  September."     (Applause.) 

Br.  Heam:  "Most  Worshipftd  Grand  Master,  with  every 
deference  "... 

The  Grand  Master:  "I  shall  not  aUow  the  point  to  be  ar- 

The  Grand  Secretary  then  read  the  minutes  of  proceedings 
and  tiie  Beport  of  the  Colonial  Committea 

288  THE    ASHLAR. 

Bro.  Colonel  Borlton  moved  that  this  report  be  adopted.  ^  In 
rising  to  propose  the  adoption  of  this  report,  I  am  bomid  to  so 
because  your  lordship  has  sunmioned  us  here  to  do  it,  and  it 
seems  to  me  a  question  which  has  already  been  decided  m  a  regu- 
lar Grand  Lodge  (applause),  and  I  hope  your  lordship  will  allow 
me  temperately  to  argue  tms  point."     (Hear,  hear.) 

The  Grand  Master :  ^^I  cannot  allow  you  to  do  so,  and  I  hope 
that  the  Grand  Lodge  will  support  me  in  endeavoring  to  do  my 
duty  in  expounding  the  law  to  the  best  of  my  ability,  and  I  shall 
not  submit,  after  so  expounding  the  law,  to  have  my  decision  con- 
troverted on  the  present  occasion."     (Applausa) 

Bro.  Burlton:  "The  question  is,  who  has  the  power  to  make 
the  laws  of  Freemasonry  ?  (Hear,  hear,  and  loud  applause.)  It 
is  distinctly  stated  that  Grand  Lodge  alone  has  the  inherent 
power  of  enacting  laws.    You  will  aUow  me  to  read  a  clause." 

Bro.  Dobie :  "  Most  Worshipful  Sir,  I  rise  to  order." 

Bro.  Burlton  having  read  from  the  Book  of  Constitutions,  said : 
"  I  respectfully  submit  that  the  Grand  Lodge  alone  has  the  power 
to  do  all  this,  and  enact  these  laws  and  regulations  for  the  govern- 
ment of  the  whole  Craft.  It  is  not,  therefore,  unreasons^le  for 
us  to  presume  that  we  have  the  power  of  adjourning  from  one 
day  to  the  other.  There  is  no  smgle  by-law  which  says  that 
Grand  Lodge  has  not  such  power,  and  under  these  circumstances, 
I  contend  that  it  has  the  power — (applause) — and  I  think,  Most 
Worshipful  Sir"  . . . 

Bro.  Havers :  "  I  rise  to  order."     (Hisses.) 

The  Grand  Master  gave  the  Brother  permission  to  speak,  and 
Bro.  Havers  proceeded :  "  Brethren,  I  could  hardly  imagine  that 
you  could  have  stopped  me  in  this  way.  (Laughter.)  I  have  but 
one  object  in  view,  and  so  long  as  the  Grand  Master  rules  that 
I  am  in  order,  I  shall  go  on — -(oh,  and  hear,  hear) — ^and  I  have 
now  to  submit  to  your  lordship,  that  the  Brother  who  has  just 
spoken  was  out  of  order,  because  you  have  justly  ruled  that  you 
have  power  to  state  what  is  the  law,  and  that  you  will  not  allow 
your  decision  to  be  discussed."    (Question.) 

The  Grand  Master :  *'  The  Brother  was  speaking  in  order  with 
my  permission,  and  I  hope  the  Brethren  will  know  themselves 
better  than  to  interrupt  with  cries  of  *  Question,  question,'  under 
such  circumstances."    (Applause  and  laughter.) 

Bro.  Havers  then  continued :  "  No  one,"  he  said,  "  can  doubt 
that  Grand  Lodge  has  the  power  inherent  to  alter  its  laws,  but 
you  must  make  this  new  law  first,  and  till  it  is  made,  you  must 
abide  by  the  laws  which  are  made." 

Bro.  iBurlton  again  attempted  to  address  the  Brethren,  but  was 
stopped  by 

The  Grand  Master,  who  said :  "  I  am  bound  by  my  solemn 
obligation  to  maintain  the  laws  and  usages  of  the  Craft.  There 
18  only  one  interpretation  of  that  oath, — ^I  must  majntain  tJiose 
lawB  and  usages  to  the  best  of  my  knowledge  and  ability,  and 

THB    ASHLAR.  289 

enforce  them  aooording  to  my  own  interpretation  of  them.  (Oh, 
oh  n  Brethren  may  say  '  Oh,  oh ! '  bat  so  long  as  I  occupy  this 
chair,  I  shall  maintain  order  in  Grand  Lodge.  (Applause.) 
I  shall  interpret  the  laws  to  the  best  of  my  ability.  I  assert,  then, 
on  my  own  responsibility,  that  the  Wordiip^  Bro.  Burlton  was 
following  out  a  line  of  argument  which  is  disorderly,  and  which 
he  is  not  competent  to  pursue.  I  therefore  call  upon  him  to 
refrain.'*     (Applause.) 

Bro.  Burlton,  "It  is  all  very  well  for  your  lordship  to  act 
according  to  your  own  understanding,  but  there  are  other  persons 
here  who  must  be  allowed  to  interpret  them  according  to  tne  best 
of  ^Aeir  judgment  (cheers),  and"  .  .  . 

The  Grand  Master:  "If  the  Worshipfiil  Brother  proceeds  in 
this  strain,  I  shall  have  to  request  him  to  leave  Grand  Lodge." 

Bro.  Burlton:  "Th^i  I  will  only  make  one  more  remark,  and 
that  is,  we  find,  in  page  31,  Article  20 :  ^  If  the  Grand  Master 
shaU  almse  his  potoer^ "... 

The  boisterous  applause  which  interrupted  this  passage  was 
such  that  it  prevented  Bro.  Burlton  from  continuing.  There  were, 
however,  loud,  and  continued  cries  of  "Read!  read!"  and  the 
result  was,  that  the  Grand  Master  himself  read  the  clause,  which 
was  as  follows : 

"  ^If  the  Grand  Master  shall  abuse  his  power,  and  render  him- 
self unworthy  of  the  obedience  of  the  Lodges,  he  shall  be  sub- 
jected to  some  new  regulation,  to  be  dictated  by  the  occasion ; 
because,  hitherto,  the  ancient  Fraternity  have  had  no  reason  to 
provide  for  an  event  which  they  have  presumed  would  never 
happen.'  By  that  law,"  condudea  the  Grand  Master,  "  I  am  per- 
fectly willing  to  abide."     (Loud  applause.) 

Bro.  Burlton  then  brought  forward  his  motion  for  the  adoption 
of  the  report,  but  said  that  he  did  so  under  protest,  and  only  to 
prevent  any  further  delay  in  so  important  a  matter.    (Cheers). 

Bro.  Dobie  suggested  that  the  clauses  be  put  sericUimy  which 
was  agreed  to. 

Bro.  Binches  sought  to  move  some  amendment  and  to  read 
from  the  Book  of  Constitutions,  for  the  purpose  of  showing  that 
the  Grand  Master  was  wrong,  but  that  officer  checked  him  and 
refused  to  put  his  amendments,  as  they  interfered  with  his  deci- 
sion previously  made.  The  Rev.  Bro.  Portal  made  some  remarks 
and  concluded  thus : 

"  Therefore,  while  I  submit  to  the  Grand  Master  in  the  chair, 
as  a  member  of  Grand  Lodge,  I  feel  bound  to  maintain  its  dignity; 
and  I  therefore  do  move  ^That  this  Grand  Lodge  declines  to  pro- 
ceed to  any  other  business  till  it  has  been  allowed  to  decide  on 
its  inherent  authority  and  prerogative.'"    (Loud  applause.) 

Bro*  Heam  seconded  the  amendment 

800  THE    ASHLAR. 

Bro.  Rozburgti  rose  to  move  another  amendment. 

Bro.  Warren  said  an  amendment  conld  not  be  pat  npon  an  . 
amendment,  till  the  first  amendment  was  disposed  of. 

Bro.  Roxburgh:  "It  has  been  stated  by  the  Rer.  Bro.  Portal, 
that  the  Grand  Master  has  refused  to  permit  Grand  Lodge  to 
consider  its  own  constitutionB.  (Hear,  hear.)  That  I  deny. 
(Applause.)  Masonry  is  bound  by  its  laws,  and  there  is  but  one 
constitutional  method  of  amending  those  laws;  and  if  the  Brother 
is  desirous  of  amending  them,  he  can  do  so  in  the  proper  way, 
viz.,  by  giving  a  substantive  notice  of  motion,  which  would  then 
be  conffldered  by  the  Grand  Lodge.  So  long  as  the  Worshipful 
Master  occupies  that  chair,  he  is  bound  to  maintain  those  lawa, 
and  in  the  exposition  of  them  he  has  given  his  own  notions  in 
accordance  with  his  views  of  his  obligation,  in  which  I  concur. 
He  is  bound  to  put  his  own  construction  upon  them,  and  to 
administer  them  to  the  best  of  his  belief  That  there  are 
Brethren  who  may  wish  to  make  alterations  in  those  laws,  I  can 
readily  conceive,  but  I  do  ask  the  Grand  Lodge  to  support  its 
own  dignity,  and  not  to  stultify  itself  by  adnutdng,  by  a  dde 
wind,  alterations  to  its  constitutions,  if  alterations  are  to  be 
made,  let  them  be  made  legally  and  manfully.  (Cheers.)  The 
Rev.  Brother  said  the  Grand  Master  refused  to  let  us  discuss  our  own 
jurisdiction.  I  am  surprised  at  such  an  observation  coming  from 
such  a  quarter.  The  Grrand  Master  has  laid  down  what  ne  con- 
siders the  existing  state  of  the  law,  and  the  Grand  Lodge  has  the 
power  to  alter  that  law,  but  such  alteration  must  be  made  in 
a  regularly  appcnnted  manner. .  You  cannot  do  it  by  a  side  wind. 
(Hear.)  I  hope,  for  the  honor  of  the  chair  and  the  credit  of 
Masonry,  that  the  Brethren  will  support  the  chair.  The  law  laid 
down  by  the  chair  must  be  respected,  however  erroneous  it  may 
be.  To  our  Grand  Master  we  nave  confided  our  sovereigpty;  he 
is  the  King  of  the  Craft,  and  he  cannot  put  such  an  amendment 
as  Bro.  Portal's,'' 

Bro.  the  Earl  of  Carnarvon :  ^'  Li  accordance  with  the  per- 
mission of  the  Most  Worshipful  the  Grand  Master,  I  shall  make 
one  or  two  observations.  You,  Sir,  this  evening,  have  said  some- 
thing of  the  House  of  Commons,  and  you  have  referred  to  some 
of  our  customs  as  corresponding  with  theirs ;  but  whenever  the 
government  or  any  private  individual  is  called  in  question  for  any 
act  of  policy,  so  far  from  stopping  discussion,  the  government  or 
any  private  individual  is  the  &*8t  to  invite  it.  (Ix>ud  applause.) 
Allow  me  to  say  that  it  does  come  with  an  ill  grace — ^I  speak  with 
the  deepest  respect,  my  lord,  of  you  personally,  and  of  your 
office ;  but  I  must  speak  with  that  freedom  which  characterizes 
gentlemen  and  Freemasons ;  and  I  now  must  say,  that  it  does 
come  with  an  ill  grace  from  the  dais,  when  we  ccmsider  the  ca- 
cumstances  of  the  case.  Grand  Lodge  was  adjourned  in  Septem- 
ber without  a  word  of  opj^sition  fit)m  those  who  were  in  authority 
upon  that  occasion ;  and  it  was  opened  upon  that  adjomfnment  on 

THB    A8&LAR.  S^l 

the  firdt  of  October  witli  the  sanctioii  of  those  who  were  then  in 
authority,  having  been  sommoned  to^ither  by  official  ciroolare 
from  the  Grand  Secretary's  office."    (Loud  applause.) 

The  Grand  Master:  "I  must  call  my  noble  friend  and  Brother 
to  order,  because  he  is  now  entering  upon  a  course  of  argument 
which  I  have  decided  to  be  disorderly." 

The  Earl  of  Carnarvon :  "  I  see  how  difficult  a  course  they 
have  to  pursue  who  do  not  bask  in  the  smiles  of  your  favor  and 
approval  (loud  cheers) ;  but,  Sir,  whether  that  right  do  exist,  or 
whether  it  do  not  exist,  to  which  I  lay  claim — I  will  not  say  it 
does  exist  under  the  circumstances  of  the  case — ^but  whether  it 
does  or  does  not  exist,  we  claim  it  as  an  inherent  right.  (Loud 
cries  of  '  Question,  question ! ')  Whether  right  or  wrong,  I  say 
that  there  is  an  inherent  right  in  every  representative  assemblv, 
and  we  claim  it  because  Grand  Lodge  should  be  inherently 
supreme;  and  we  demand  the  acknowleogment  of  that  supremacy 
as  our  safeguard  against  intrigue,  and  our  guaranty  for  the  preser- 
vation of  our  liberties  and  our"  . . .  (the  remainder  of  the  sen- 
tence was  drowned  in  applause  and  cries  of  ^^  Order,  order.'') 

After  some  remarks  by  Bro.  Warren,  he  moved  that  the  Grand 
Lodge  be  closed. 

The  Grand  Master  said:  **I  must  appeal  to  the  Grand  Lodge 
to  support  me.  (Applause.)  I  do  trust  the  Grand  Lod^e  is  not 
becoming  a  mere  debating  club.  I  do  hope  that  resolutions  will 
not  be  brought  forward  which  have  neither  sense  or  meaning; 
such  as  the  proposition  that  the  Grand  Lodge  be  now  closed. 
(Hear,  hear.)  Why,  the  fact  is,  the  Grand  Lodge  can  not  be 
closed  except  by  the  Grand  Master.  I  am  sorry  to  hear  the 
observations  which  have  fallen  from  my  noble  friend  and  Brother 
who  has  just  addressed  Grand  Lodge  respectmg  his  not  finding 
£eivor  witn  the  Grand  Master.  I  can  assure  mv  noble  friend  and 
Brother,  that  there  is  no  member  of  the  Grand  Lodge  for  whom 
I  entertain  a  higher  respect.  (Cheers.)  I  have  known  him  from 
his  infancy,  and  I  have  been  intimate  with  his  &mily  all  my  life, 
and  not  one  word  would  I  say  to  him  which  would  give  him 
offence.  But  I  must  administer  the  law  according  to  the  oath 
I  have  taken,  to  the  best  of  my  judgment  and  ability,  and  I  regret 
that  such  remarks  should  have  &l]en  from  my  noble  lord.  I  was 
tor  twenty-five  years  a  member  of  the  House  of  Gonnnons,  and 
therefore  I  can  neither  bow  to  the  opinion  of  the  noble  lord,  nor 
to  that  of  the  worthy  gentleman  who  says  he  has  occupied  a  place 
in  the  gallery."     (Laughter.) 

Bro.  the  Karl  of  Carnarvon :  "  Most  Worshipful  Sir,  I  beg  to 
disclaim  on  my  part  all  intentional  discourtesy.  You  l^ve  said 
that  you  have  a  duty  to  perform  to  the  best  of  your  ability ;  and 
believe  me  that  I  should  not  have  expressed  the  views  to  which 
I  have  giv^i  utterance  upon  the  present  occasion,  had  I  not  felt 
that  if  I  did  not  express  my  opimon,  I  should  be  a  traitor  to  the 
cause  I  have  at  heart." 

292  THE    ASHLAR. 

We  have  given  Boffioieiit  of  the  discufldon  for  our  readers  to 
jadge  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Grand  Lodge.  The  Grand 
Master  was  finally  triumphant,  and  maintained  the  dignity  and 
authority  of  his  position. 

•  •• 

Jas.  D.  Caldwkll. — This  Bro.,  now  deoeased,  was  fonneriy 
Secretary  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Ohio.     In  an  obituary  notice 
of  him,  Bro.  John  D.  Caldwell  thus  gives  a  succinct  history  of 
his  career: 

James  D.  Caldwell  was  bom  in  Northumberland  County, 
Pennsylvania,  on  the  17th  day  of  September,  A.  D.  1794,  and 
died  of  paralysis  in  his  chair,  at  Granville,  Ohio,  while  taking  his 
breakfast,  on  the  17th  of  December,  A.  D.  1854,  in  the  sixtieth 
year  of  his  age.  The  writer  of  this  sketch  first  formed  his 
acquaintance  at  Lancaster,  in  the  &11  of  1827.  Bro.  Caldwell  was 
then  a  student  of  law  in  the  office  of  the  Hon.  Wm.  W.  Lrvin,  a 
distinguished  Mason,  and  P.  G.  Master  of  the  State.  Congenial 
pursuits  induced  frequent  companionship,  which  grew  into  a  warm 
and  intimate  friendship  between  us.  Some  misadventures  in  the 
business  of  early  life,  determined  him  in  the  choice  of  the  law  as 
a  profession :  this  he  acquired  under  some  educational  disadvan- 
tages, but  compensated  the  deficiencies  by  a  system  of  laborious 
application.  Upon  being  called  to  the  bar,  he  established  his  resi- 
dence at  Circleville,  where  he  op^ied  an  office,  and  commenced 
the  practice  of  his  profession.  He  remained  in  this  town  several 
years,  when  he  removed  to  Chillicothe,  seeking  a  wider  theatre 
for  its  exerdse:  and  here,  among  the  choice  and  refined  society  of 
this  fine  old  city,  he  found  a  congenial  home,  highly  appreciated  as 
a  professional  and  social  member  of  its  community.  Li  this  place 
he  continued  to  live,  trusted  and  esteemed,  until  he  was  struck 
down  with  that  lingering,  wasting   disease  which  terminated 

his  life. 


"A  Candidate  is  said  to  be  exalted  when  he  receives  the 
degree  of  Holy  Royal  Arch,  the  seventh  in  York  Masonry.  Ex- 
alted means  elevated  or  lifted  up^  and  is  applicable  both  to  a  pecu- 
liar ceremony  of  the  degree,  and  to  the  fact  that  this  degree,  in 
the  rite  in  which  it  is  practiced,  constitutes  tiie  summit  of  ancient 

THE    ASHLAR.  20« 


9a  Sro.  £.  €,  CoffdAttig. 

'Twas  a  clear  May  morning;  each  flower  was  gay. 
And  scattered  bright  dew  drops  around  on  its  bed ; 
My  father  and  mother  were  going  away. 
To  attend  on  the  fun'ral  of  Old  Mister  Qrey, 

For  Old  Mister  Grey  was  dead; 
And  they  said  it  would  please  them  to  take  me  along, 
To  witness  the  singular  ftmeral  throng, 
And  to  spend,  in  the  village,  that  merry  May-day, 
And  to  see  the  Freemasons  bury  Old  Mister  Grey. 

I  ask'd, "  Have  you,  Pa,  been  a  Freemason  bred  V 
As  the  carriage  went  rattling  away ; 
**  No!  nol  my  dear  child,"  he  solemnly  said, 
"  The  curse  of  that  folly  Tests  not  on  my  head, 

As  it  does  on  Old  Mister  Grey; 
'T  is  a  thing  that  is  cnrs'd  by  our  Father  above, 
Who  guideth  His  flock  by  the  light  of  His  love, 
And  why  He  permits  the  dark  sin,  at  this  day, 
I  know  not,  unless  to  give  Satan  more  sway/' 

But  now  at  the  graveyard  we  Ve  halted,  and  wait 
For  the  fun'ral  that  slowly  is  winding  its  way; 
*Tis  coming  in,  now,  at  the  old  broken  gate; 
With  banners,  and  rods,  and  insignia  of  state — 
They  are  coming  with  Old  Mister  Grey. 
The  Masons  wear  gloves  and  aprons  of  white. 
And  some  wear  Jewels  of  silver  bright. 
And  a  snow-white  apron  doth  softly  lay 
On  the  plain  coffin-lid  of  Old  Mister  Grey. 


And  there  stands  the  Master,  a  grave,  stalwart  man. 
With  a  solemn  and  earnest  look  in  his  way , 
(I  regarded  him,  then,  as  the  chief  of  a  clan, 
That  came  under  my  faUier's  terrible  ban) 

At  the  grave  of  old  Mister  Grey; 
His  brow  is  bared  and  his  cheek  deadly  pale, 
Though  a  middle-aged  man,  both  brawny  and  hale ; 
He  pronounces  a  beautiful  ritual  now, 
While  the  rest  of  the  Masons  all  answer  and  bow. 


He  casts  his  clear  eye  abroad  on  the  throng. 
That  has  gathered  from  many  a  place,  far  away. 
And  raising  his  voice  in  a  Amend  song. 
The  Brethren  responding,  each  cadence  prolong, 

Round  the  grave  of  Old  Mister  Grey. 
A  lamb  skin  he  takes,  and  casts  into  the  tomb. 
Reminding  the  Masons  of  their  final  doom; 
Their  evergreens,  now,  the  Brethren  all  wave 
As  they  pass,  and  drop  into  the  head  of  the  grave. 

28 — ^VOL.  n.  NO.  vn. 

294  THE    ASHLAR. 


Not  a  tear  has  been  shed  oyer  Old  Mister  Grey, 
For  DO  kindred  bad  he  in  the  country  around; 
He  was  yery  poor,  too,  so  the  neif^hbors  all  say, 
And  the  Lod^^e  have  the  cost  of  his  sickness  to  pay, 

And  of  laying  him  under  the  ground. 
So  the  people  all  think  no  tears  will  he  shed. 
And  si^>p6fle  that  the  Masons  are  glad  that  he's  dead; 
But  now  all  the  Brethren  make  signs  o'er  the  grave, 
Each  one  clasps  his  hands,  and  makes  his  arms  wmTe. 


But  see  how  the  Master  is  struggling  now 

With  some  bitter  thought — ^will  his  firmness  giro  way  t^ 

Behold  the  great  drops  of  sweat  on  his  brow. 

And  see !  'tis  with  grief  that  his  head  he  doth  bow 

O'er  the  grave  of  Old  Mister  Grey. 
His  chin  quivers  strangely, — ^his  lips  are  compressed. 
And  heavily  swells  his  great  iron  chest; — 
Then,  at  last  the  big  tears  down  his  bronzed  cheeks  roll, 
As  if  they  wdl'd  up  fh>m  the  depths  of  his  soul. 

They  steal  gently  down  his  full  manly  cheek, 
And  hide  In  his  whiskers  of  dark  iron  gray : 
He  struggles  with  something  he  has  yet  too  speak, 
For  which  his  strong  nature  has  proven  to  weak, 

OV  the  grave  of  Old  Mister  Grey. 
But  hear  him — ^his  manhood  has  conquered  the  spell — 
"  Friend  and  Brother,  a  last,  and  a  long  ikrewell!" 
I,  too,  had  to  weep,  had  to  sob  and  to  sigh, 
And  I  saw  a  tear  start  f^om  my  dear  father's  eye. 


Not  only  tram  his ;  every  eye,  St  appears, 
That  gazed  upon  what  was  passing  ttiat  day. 
As  the  Master  wept,  was  melted  to  tears, 
(T  will  not  be  forgotten,  for  years  and  for  years) 

O'er  the  grave  of  Old  Mister  Grey. 
Twas  the  neighborhood  wonder,  for  many  a  day, 
How  a  with'r^  old  man,  like  Old  Mister  Grey, 
Without  friends,  or  kindred,  or  earthly  ties, 
I>rew  tears,  at  his  ftm'ral,  firom  strangers'  eyes, 


As  we  hurried  home,  on  that  solemn  May  eve. 
That  followed  the  bright  merry  mom  of  that  day, 
My  child-heart  was  mournful,  very  moumftil,  believe, 
And  I  had  to  weep  and  to  sigh  and  to  grieve. 

When  I  thought  of  Old  Mister  Grey. 
My  kind  father  took  my  dear  mother's  hand, 
And  said  he  would  join  the  mystical  band ; 
And  when  came  around  another  Biay-day, 
He  flU'd  the  place,  in  the  Lodg9,  of  Old  Mister  Grey 
ConTAVTira,  JaDoaiy  Mh,  1857. 

THE    ASHLAR.  295 

Writtsi  por  Thb  Abhlai. 



Vb  ff^nn  ISsfon. 

Chaptee  VI. 

It  was  a  cold,  damp  night  in  November,  1306.  The  frozen 
rain  fell  in  torrents,  drenching  the  dark  streets  of  Paris.  There 
were  no  sounds  of  life  abroad,  save  some  workmen  who  were 
erecting  a  scaffold  in  the  Place  la  Grfeve.  On  the  morrow  there 
was  to  be  an  execution  of  criminals  condemniBd  for  civil  offences. 
The  workmen  toiled  on,  the  sounds  of  their  heavy  hammers 
reaching  the  ears  of  the  convicts,  in  the  opposite  prison,  where 
the  wretched  victims  were  cowering  and  shivering  in  the  dark 
«nd  cold. 

In  a  ceD,  directly  in  range  with  the  scaffold,  were  two  men,  who 
on  the  morrow  were  to  expiate  long  lives  of  crime.  They  stood 
together,  their  haggard  faces  pressed  against  the  iron  grates, 
watching  the  workmen  through  the  gloom.  Each  was  busy  with 
his  own  thoughts,  and  not  a  word  was  uttered.  The  taller  of  the 
two  turned  away  from  the  window.  His  movements  were 
attended  with  the  rattling  of  chains,  as  he  groped  his  way  to  a 
rude  bench  and  sat  down.  A  low  sob,  like  the  wail  of  a  broken 
heart,  penetrated  the  darkness. 

"  Ah  1  comrade,  why  dost  thou  weep  ?  Come,  cheer  thee ;  we 
will  want  onr  best  looks  for  the  morrow,"  said  the  one  from  the 

^'  It  is  not  that  I  must  die,  '  but  after  death  comes  judgment.' 
I  weep  to  think  how  much  guilt  there  is  on  my  soul — ^that  there 
•are  none  to  shrive  me — ^none  to  administer  the  consolations  of  our 
blessed  religion — ^none  to  inter  my  poor  body  in  consecrated 
ground,"  replied  the  other  in  a  repentant  tone. 

"  By  our  Lady !  is  that  all  that  vexes  thee  ?  I  am  a  Church- 
man ;  I  will  confess  thee — ^not  a  bad  suggestion  either,  brother; 
it  will  amuse  us,  and  help  to  pass  the  night."  And  moving  away 
from  the  window,  he  added,  imitating  the  manner  of  a  confessor ; 
"The  Alpha  and  Omega  of  our  Holy  Church  is,  that  confession  h 
^ood  for  the  souL    Now,  my  son,  examine  thy  conscience  closely. 

296  THE    ASHLAR. 

60  as  to  yield  up  to  our  holy  keeping  every  act  of  thy  life,  every 
secret  of  thy  heart." 

Again  the  dull,  clanking,  chilling  sound  of  chains  smote  the  ear 
as  the  penitent  knelt ;  then  the  air  was  agitated  for  a  few  momenta 
by  the  murmuring  sound  of  prayer,  and  the  poor  man,  in  all  sin- 
cerity, began  his  confession. 

''  My  name  is  Walter  di  Noffodei.  I  have  been  excommuni- 
cated from  the  Church,  and  expelled  from  the  Order  of  the  Temple 
for''  ... 

'  "  Expelled  from  the  Temple  ?  Answer  me,  upon  thy  hopes  of 
forgiveness.  Expelled  from  the  Order  of  the  Temple  I"  reiterated 
the  other,  in  breathless  eagerness,  and  apparent  anxiety. 

"  Yes  I  holy  Father,  by  my  hopes  of  Heaven !  Expelled  from 
the  Temple  for"  .  .  . 

"  I  care  not  what  for ;  because  I  know  that  if  that  one  thing  ia 
managed  rightly,  it  will  save  thee — shall  save  both  of  us" I  inter- 
rupted the  other,  springing  up  and  dancing  around  the  narrow 
cell  in  an  exstacy  of  joy,  while  his  chains  kept  time  to  his  move- 

^'I  see  no  cause  for  rejoicing,"  said  the  miserable  accused^ 
wringing  his  hands  and  swaying  to  and  fro  with  an  air  of  de- 
spondency that  was  pitiful. 

"  Jtfa  foi!  thou  dost  not  know  surely.  Listen,  and  'tis  I  who 
will  confess;  and  may  evil  beshrew  me  if  the  Ex-Prior  of  Mont- 
faucon  has  not  wit  sufficient  to  turn  what  he  knows  to  a  good 
account,"  replied  the  other  as  he  assisted  the  expelled  Templar 
to  rise. 

When  they  were  both  seated,  he  went  on. 

"  Three  years  ago,  I  was  the  Superior  of  the  Priory  of  Mont- 
£iucon.  I  had  a  friend,  Albretto  Sevira  by  name,  who  was  in  the 
King's  confidence  and  a  great  favorite.  Whenever  he  was  in  our 
neighborhood,  he  always  stopped  at  the  Priory.  Once  while  there^ 
he  attempted  to  assassinate  the  Count  de  Foix,  but  was  prevented 
by  the  sagacious  watchfulness  of  that  Nobleman's  wolMog,  and 
nearly  killed  by  the  brave  animal.  I  nursed  him  through  a  long 
seige  of  fever  and  delirium.  Some  of  the  King's  state  secrets 
came  out  in  his  ravings.  I  have  never  yet  dared  to  breathe  the 
disclosures,  but  now  they  wiU  serve  me ;  so  I  shall  not  hesitate  to 
to  commimicate  some  of  them  at  least  to  thee.  Philip  desired  to 
appropriate  the  wealth  of  the  Templars  to  himself    He  wants  a 

THE    ASHLAR.  291 

pretext  for  suspicion  that  he  may  arrest  theixL  Thou  art  an 
expelled  member.  We  will  concoct  a  story,  charging  them  with 
idolatry  and  apostacy;  also,  treasonable  designs  against  the 
government,  both  civil  and  religious.  When  the  jailor  comes  in 
the  morning  to  lead  us  to  execution,  we  will  demand  to  see  the 
King,  as  we  have  secrets  of  the  most  fearful  nature  to  disclose, 
ooncerning  the  Templars.  When  once  before  His  Majesty  we  will 
•drive  our  own  bargain.  We  will  not  open  our  mouths  till  tie 
writes  our  pardon.    Wilt  thou  do  it,  Di  Noffodei  ?  " 

'^  Yes !  a  thousand  times,  yes  I "  hissed  the  apostate,  through 
Ins  set  teeth,  as  he  struck  with  his  clenched  hand  the  spot  where 
was  still  burning  the  accursed  word  '^  TVaitorJ*^ 

Thus  sat  those  two  depraved  wretches,  up  to  the  very  hour 
appointed  for  their  execution,  arranging,  coloring,  re-arranging 
■and  coloring  again,  their  tale  of  hate  and  hell-dyed  scandal  that 
was  to  be  used  to  crush  in  an  ignominious  death  the  glorious 
Order  of  the  Temple.  Alas,  for  human  consistency,  when  the  tes- 
timony of  two  condemned  criminals  can  consign  an  Order  of  men, 
that  has  grown  grey  in  good  works,  to  death  for  idolatry  and 

The  next  day  there  was  a  grand  banquet  given  to  the  English 
Ambassadors,  who  had  come  to  espouse  the  Prince  of  Wales  to 
Isabelle  of  France.  At  the  King's  right  hand  sat  the  first  Maid 
of  Honor,  Oabrielle  d'Anvers.  Philip  was  in  the  best  of  humor 
and  paid  very  marked  attention  to  his  companion — ^perhaps  to 
pique  the  Queen,  but  rumor  said  he  loved  the  lady.  Joan,  with 
a  jealousy  supremely  Spanish,  had  ever  warred  agsdnst  Court  &vo- 
rites.  Beauty  was  no  passport  to  her  household.  Of  rare  virtue 
herself  she  took  great  care  to  place  no  temptation  in  the  way  of 
her  inconstant  husband.  Upon  her  advent  as  Queen  of  France, 
she  came  supplied  with  attendants;  but  their  Spanish  love  of 
intrigue  disgusted  the  &stidiou8  Queen,  and  they  were  dismissed. 
There  had  been  a  fourth  levy  on  the  virtuous  ladies  of  France,  for 
the  royal  household,  Gabrielle  d'Anvers  at  their  head.  This  lady 
was  the  niece  of  the  Duchess  of  Burgundy.  It  was  not  her  ianuly, 
however,  that  raised  her  as  the  highest  lady  at  Court,  it  was  her 
.personal  appearance,  or  rather  the  want  of  it,  which  procured  the 
Novation.  She  was  ibrty-eight  years  of  age,  of  large  and  oom- 
tnanding  figure,  and  seemed  almost  an  Amazon,  in  proportions ; 
her  complexion  was  florid;  her  eyes  large,  black  and  lustrous 

298  THE    ASHLAR. 

(her  only  charm) ;  her  nose  flat,  and  almost  hidden  between  her- 
great  cheeks ;  her  hair  of  a  reddish  yellow,  was  worn  in  trizaded 
carls,  that  gave  to  her  face*  so  striking  a  resemblance  to  the  ^'  king^ 
of  beasts''  that  she  received  the  sobriquet  of  the  ^  Burgandiaa 
Lioness."  Tet,  it  was  said,  that  Philip  the  Fair,  the  handsomest 
gentleman  of  the  day,  loved  Gabrielle  d'Anvers. 

A  pompous  state  dinner  is  tiresome  in  its  details.  There  were 
many  choice  dainties  eaten,  and  rare  wines  drank,  and  witty  things- 
said,  through  the  three  hours  that  etiquette  required  they  should 
nt  at  table. 

After  their  return  to  the  reception  rooms,  some  sat  down  to 
cards,  some  wandered  in  the  garden,  some  promenaded  in  the 
hails,  and  others  went  to  the  picture  gallery;  but  Gabrielle 
d'Anvers  sauntered  alone  into  a  vacant  room,  approached  the  win- 
dow, drew  aside  the  silken  curtains,  and  looked  out  on  the  doll 
November  sky.  The  voices  of  the  revellers  fell  heedless  upon  her- 
ear — she  was  alone  with  her  thoughts,  and  such  a  respite  was  rare, 
in  the  incessant  sound  of  pleasure  that  whirled  the  Court  to  St. 
Germsdne,  to  Yincennes,  and  Fontainbleu,  and  Rouen,  then  back 
to  the  capital  again.  The  heaitlessness  of  the  throng  disgusted 
her,  the  persecutions  of  Philip  were  revolting  to  her ;  and  bitterly 
did  she  repine  at  the  fatality  that  brought  her  to  Paris.  The 
present  was  nothing  to  her;  her  thoughts  were  of  the  past.  Left 
an  orphan  at  an  early  age,  she  had  been  brought  up  in  the  family 
of  her  aunt,  the  Duchess  of  Burgundy.  The  poor  girl  was  toler- 
ated because  she  was  her  Grace's  niece.  She  had  rich  clothes  and 
dainty  fare, — ^but  alas!  there  was  a  famine  within  that  naught  but 
affection  could  satisfy.  They  might  feed  and  clothe  the  body,  but 
who  can  administer  to  the  wants  of  a  soul?  Who  can  satisfy  the 
cravings  after  heart-felt  tenderness,  and  holy,  loving  sympathy,  in 
a  bereaved  young  heart?  Who  can  give  the  life,  the  love,  the 
joy  that  beams  in  a  mother's  glance?  Who  can  watch  as  the  cold, 
dead  mother  would  have  done,  over  her  loveless  one's  erring  foot^ 
step?  There  were  no  kind  words — ^no  soft  tones  of  endearment 
—no  tender  glances  of  love-lit  eyes — ^to  brighten  the  dark  sky 
of  her  lonely  childhood.  The  over-grown  size  and  lack  of  all 
personal  attractions,  coupled  with  an  extremely  sensitive  nature^ 
made  her  conscious  of  neglect,  and  the  young  heart  hungered  and 
thirsted  for  love,  until  it  burned  to  ashes  by  the  bitter  jest,  the 
cold  rebufl^  and  the  freezing  neglect  that  ever  awaited  her.    The- 

THE    ASHLAR.  299 

horses,  the  hotmds,  the  hawks,  they  were  all  petted — ^they  were 
caressed — ^they  were  loved; — oh  I  how  she  pined  and  envied  even 
their  attention. 

One  day,  the  Chevalier  de  Molay  came  to  the  Castle  of  Mont 
Anbon  with  his  little  son,  who  was  to  be  brought  up  in  the  house- 
hold of  the  Duke  of  Burgundy,  as  a  candidate  for  the  honors  of 
Knighthood.  James  de  Molay  was  scarce  fourteen.  His  cheek 
was  as  soft  as  a  maiden's,  his  clear,  blue  eye,  expressive  of  every 
chivalric  virtue.  The  graceful  boy  became  a  universal  &vorit6 
with  the  ladies  of  the  Duke's  provincial  court.  In  the  bower,  he 
sang  of  love,  or  trummed  the  guitar  in  serenades;  in  the  hall,  he 
tripped  the  stately  minuet  with  the  ladies;  in  the  tilt  or  tourney, 
with  lance  in  rest,  he  bore  away  embroidered  glove  or  scarf  from 
stalwart  Knights;  in  the  chase,  he  could  fly  the  hawk,  or  wing 
the  arrow,  like  a  true  forester;  in  the  fray,  he  could  back  the  war- 
horse  that  champed  the  bit,  with  as  brave  an  air  as  the  old  Duke 
himself.  That  noble  boy  and  timid  girl  grew  up  together.  Prom 
the  first  hour  that  James  crossed  the  threshhold  of  Mont  Aubon. 
Gabrielle  had  a  champion.  They  wandered  together  in  the  dim 
old  wood  in  the  soft,  warm  days  of  summer — or  when  the  rain  kept 
them  withiD,  they  read  and  talked  in  the  silent  turrets,  or  sat  by 
moonlight  on  the  battlements,  while  he  told  her  tales  of  the  tur- 
baned  Paynim.  He  sang  to  her  the  songs  of  the  Troubadours — 
unsealed  the  wealth  of  affection  in  her  great  heart,  and  taught 
her  love.  Years  rolled  on — ^the  dreams  of  childhood  quickened 
into  passionate  fondness ;  they  were  conscious  that  they  were  all 
in  all  to  each  other;  their  eyes  had  confessed  it — their  hearts  had 
been  burthened  with  it, — ^yet  their  lips  had  never  breathed  it, 
James  was  on  the  verge  of  manhood.  He  awoke  to  reflection. 
He,  the  portionless  yoimger  son,  with  nothing  but  his  good  name 
and  broadsword  to  help  him  on  in  the  world — ^he  in  love  with  the 
splendidly-dowered  niece  of  the  Duke  of  Burgundy.  He  forgot 
her  want  of  beauty — ^the  contumely  that  had  been  heaped  upon 
her  by  her  femily — ^the  tale  of  sorrow,  of  neglect,  and  agony  that 
she  had  poured  into  his  pitying  ear.  His  pride  told  him  there 
was  an  impassible  barrier  between  them — rank  and  riches  aiTayed 
against  pride  and  poverty.  He  deteiinined  to  enter  the  Order  of 
the  Temple,  and  dedicate  his  sword  and  life  to  the  service  of  God. 
Gkibrielle,  with  her  lips,  encouraged  him  in  so  laudible  a  resolu- 
tion, while  her  heart  was  signing  the  death-warrant  to  her  dearest 

800  THE    ASH£AR. 

hopes.  She  worshipped  him  with  an  idolatry,  a  self-abnegatioii^  an 
intenaitj,  that  none  but  the  desolate  and  orphaned  can  offer  to 
their  heart's  idol.  She  know  that  his  vows  mnst  eternally  sepa- 
rate thenif  and  her  only  hope  was  that  the  grave  might  close  over 
her  broken  heart.  But,  alas!  Death  does  not  always  come  to 
those  who  wait  and  watch  and  pray  for  the  pulseless  sleep  he 

Gabrielle  started  from  her  deep  reverie  in  the  deep  recess  of 
the  window  at  the  Louvre.  There  are  strange  voices  in  the  room 
— a  name  is  pronounced  that  s^ds  the  life-current  crowding  to  her 
heart  I  There  is  no  escape  fbr  her ;  and  she  smks  cowering  behind 
the  voluminous  folds  of  the  silk^  cuitains. 

Chaptek    VII. 

The  Isle  of  Cyprus  lies  like  an  emerald  set  in  opal  clouds  on  a 
field  of  asure,  teeming  with  every  variety  of  landscape, — ^vineyards 
and  olive-plantations  blush  into  ripeness  on  the  mountain's  side- 
woodland,  glade  and  meadow  lie  in  soft  shadows  in  the  valley — 
citron  and  orange  trees,  fragrant  with  blossoms,  gleam  like  white- 
robed  brides  in  the  warm  light  of  a  tropical  moon. 

That  eminence  whidi  overlooks  the  quaint  old  city  of  Limisso 
is  crowned  by  the  grey  towers  of  the  Temple  House,  whose  base 
is 'washed  by  the  ever-heaving  waters  of  the  turbulent  Mediterra- 
nean. The  night  air,  burthened  with  the  fragrance  of  blossoming 
flowers,  steals  through  the  cool  apartments  of  the  Temple  House. 
In  a  room,  whose  shape  is  a  vast  parallelogram,  the  Knights 
Templars  had  met  in  solemn  Encampment. 

The  doors  of  the  inner  entrance  were  rolled  back,  and  the 
Pursuivant  announced: 

^'The  Grand  Master  of  the  Most  Valiant  and  Magnanimous 
Order  of  the  Temple." 

The  Knights  all  rose,  and  stood  with  uncovered  heads,  as  Sir 
James  de  Molay  entered  the  Encampment.  The  Grand  Master 
was  taller  than  the  race  of  men  in  general,  and  this,  added  to  a 
lofty  carriage  and  impressive  manner,  seemed  to  lift  him  oom- 
mandingly  above  his  companions.  His  features  were  noble,  and 
of  the  Roman  cast.  His  face  was  a  perfect  oval,  and  though  that 
of  a  man  who  had  borne  three  score  winters,  it  still  wore  the 

THE    ASHLAR.  801 

proofi  of  a  beauty  once  pre-enunent,  and  still  retained  a  freshness 
that  spoke  of  a  conscience  free  from  remorse.  His  eyes  were  of  a 
mild,  holy  blue,  declarative  of  more  than  human  goodness.  His 
forehead  was  large  and  lofty,  of  great  breadth  and  compass.  His 
hair,  thick  still,  descended  from  behind  his  head  in  waving  rolls: 
while  his  beard  of  silvery  whiteness  was  spread  out  massively  on 
his  broad  chest,  and  swept  to  his  waist.  He  was  dressed  in  the 
costume  of  the  Temple.  The  princely  bearing  of  the  Grand  Mas- 
ter, coupled  with  the  immaculate  beauty  of  his  dress,  seemed  to 
awe  the  Knights  into  the  consciousness,  that  there  was  a  man 
whose  life  was  worthy  to  be  emulated  by  them  alL 

Sir  James  de  Molay  advanced  to  the  throne,  waved  the  Knights 
to  their  seats,  and  bowing  to  the  assemblage,  took  a  letter  from 
the  Grand  Commander,  and  read: 

"Beloved  Son,  peace,  health,  and  apostolic  benediction. 

"To  the  Most  Potent  Grand  Master  of  the  Temple:  To 
all  the  Preceptors,  and  others,  who  by  the  favor  of  God  hold  au< 
thority  over  that  right  arm  of  our  Holy  Church;  Clement  V,, 
called  to  be  the  Vicar  of  Christ,  and  in  virtue  of  his  office  heir  to 
the  Apostolic  See,  sendeth  greeting : 

"My  brethren,  it  has  been  shown  to  us  that  Jerusalem,  the  dty 
of  our  Saviour's  life  and  passion,  again  lieth  in  the  power  of  the 
Moslem;  that  the  Infidel  mock  at  the  rites  of  our  holy  religion, 
even  in  the  land  where  the  sacred  mysteries  were  first  instituted ; 
and  that  the  Christians  of  Syria  cry  unto  their  brethren  for  aid. 

"Wherefore,  as  the  Knights  of  the  Temple  have  never  spared 
their  blood  in  defence  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre,  and  have  ever  been 
the  shield  and  buckler  of  the  Church,  again  we  look  to  them  for 
that  assistance  which  has  never  faUed  us.  Therefore  we  command 
thee,  by  the  plenitude  of  our  apostolic  power,  to  meet  us  in  coun- 
cil, at  our  palace,  with  as  much  despatch  and  secrecy  as  possible, 
that  we  may  concert  together  for  the  deliverance  of  Palestine,  to 
spread  once  more  the  crimson  banner  of  the  cross,  and  to  march 
against  the  persecutors  of  the  Faith. 

"Therefore,  by  the  authority  of  St.  Peter,  from  whom  we  hold 
the  ^Keys  of  Heaven,'  whereby  we  open,  and  no  man  can  shut; 
we  shut,  and  no  man  can  open ;  we  ordain  that  all  those  who,  in 
heart  and  truth,  obey  this,  our  holy  mandate,  shall  have  claim  to 
those  indulgences  needfrd  for  the  flesh  in  the  toilsome  warfare,  also 
absolution  for  those  sins  which  they  have  heretofore  committed, 

802  THE    ASHLAR. 

and  set  before  them  an  abundance  of  the  honors  of  this  life,  and 
in  the  world  to  come  life  everlasting. 

^' Given  at  Avignon,  under  our  h&nd  and  seal,  this,  the  second 
day  after  the  Blessed  Feast  of  Ascension,  in  the  Year  of  Grace 

The  contents  of  the  Pope^s  letter  produced  a  most  enthusiastic 
response.  The  faces  of  the  veteran  Knights  gleamed  with  fervent 
joy  at  the  assurance  that  they  should  no  longer  rest  upon  their 
arms  in  inglorious  ease;  that  once  again  the  war-horse  should 
bound  beneath  them — once  again  their  ears  should  drink  in  the 
sound  of  martial  music,  of  braying  trumpet,  and  the  shrill  clarion's 
thrilling  charge — once  again  their  eyes  shoulji  behold  the  sacred 
banner  of  their  ancient  Order  unfolded  beneath  the  cloudless  skies 
of  Syria — once  again  their  white  mantles  should  trail  through  the 
dust  of  the  Holy  City — once  again  "they  should  crowd  the  road 
to  death  as  to  a  festival,"  and  win  glory  or  heaven.  All  was  fervor 
and  excitement; — armor  was  reburnished — ^long-tried  swords  of 
true  Damascus  steel  flashed  from  their  scabbards  in  the  sunlight — 
heavy  iron  maces,  and  battle-axes  that  Cceur  de  Lion  would  not 
scorn  to  ^deld,  lances,  daggers,  shields,  and  javelins  were  taken 
from  the  armory  and  prepared  for  use. 

After  all  the  preparations  were  affected.  Sir  James  de  Molay, 
taking  a  large  amount  of  treasure,  and  accompanied  by  a  retinue 
of  sixty  noble  Knights,  embarked  for  France,  to  concert  with 
Clement  measures  for  the  recovery  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre.  They 
arrived  in  Paris  during  the  month  of  August.  After  depositing 
the  treasure  in  the  Temple  House,  Sir  James  de  Molay  paid  a  visit 
of  ceremony  to  Philip  the  Fair.  The  King  received  him  with 
open  arms,  and  every  demonstration  of  favor. 

The  birth  day  of  Robert,  the  King's  fourth  son,  whom  the 
Grand  Master  had  held  at  the  baptismal  font,  was  near  at  hand, 
and  Philip  pressed  the  Grand  Master  to  remain  until  after  the  fes- 
tivities were  over.  Sir  James  de  Molay  complied,  little  dreaming 
that  he  stood  upon  the  verge  of  a  volcano,  whose  irruption  was  to 
overwhelm  him  and  the  Order  he  served.  The  Grand  Master,  to 
bespeak  the  muiiificence  of  the  Temple,  had  a  splendid  suit  of 
armor,  inlaid  with  gold,  prepared  to  present  to  the  young  Prince 
upon  his  birth-day. 

[Ik>be  continued.] 

THE    ASHLAR.  303 


Expulsion  from  the  rights  and  benefits  of  Masonry  is  the 
severest  penalty  which  can  be  inflicted  by  our  institution.  That 
sentence  places  a  man  without  the  pale  of  the  Order,  and  again 
makes  him  a  profane  with  a  lasting  stigma  resting  upon  his  moral 
character.  No  Mason  can  converse  with  him  upon  the  arcana  of 
our  society ;  he  is  as  completely  shut  out  from  6very  Lodge  aa 
though  he  had  never  taken  a  degree.  Such  being  the  nature  of 
the  penalty,  it  becomes  us  to  consider  well  how  and  when  it 
should  be  exercised. 

At  the  recent  communication  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Michigan, 

an  amendment  was  made  to  the  constitution  so  that  one  clause  now 

reads  as  follows: 

No  case  of  suspension  or  expulsion  shall  be  made  public  in  any 
way,  either  written,  printed  or  oral,  unless  otherwise  directed  by 
a  majority  of  two-thirds  of  the  members  present  at  the  time  of 
such  expulsion;  and  upon  a  concurrence  of  two-thirds  of  the 
members  present  at  any  such  expulsion,  it  shall  be  proper  for  any 
Lodge  to  publish  the  name  of  any  expelled  member,  with  the 
cause  of  such  expulsion. 

The  enacting  of  such  a  clause  seems  to  us  to  be  contrary  to 

right,  and  liable  to  jeopardize  the  best  interests  of  members  of 

the  Order. 

Expulsion  is  a  punishment  which  does  not  effect  merely  the 

the  relations  of  a  Brother  with  his  Lodge,  but  his  relations  with 

the  whole  Fraternity.    For  this  reason,  as  well  as  others,  the 

power  of  expulsion  has  been,  and  still  is,  vested  in  the  Grand 

Lodge.    This  is  done  by  the  English  constitutions.    In  many  juris^ 

dictions,  the  sentence  of  the  subordinate  has  to  be  confirmed  by 

a  direct  vote  of  the  superior,  while  in  others  the  judgment  is 

affirmed  by  the  higher  body  if  there  be  no  appeal  taken  to  it  by  the 

party  convicted.    The  latter  course  has  been  adopted  in  Michigan, 

All  cases  of  suspension  or  expulsion  are  reported  to  the  Grand 

Lodge  and  are  regarded  by  that  body  as  valid  if  "there  be  no 

appeal  by  the  accused ;  and  it  has  been  the  custom  to  publish  the 

names  of  the  unfortunate  men  thus  ejected  from  the  Order,  in  the 

report  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Grand  Lodge.    This  course 

appears  to  be  the  most  judicious  one.    What  i&  the  effect  of 

the  clause  in  the  constitution  which  we  are  now  considering? 

304  THE    ASHLAR. 

We  cannot  betieve  it  deprives  a  Brother  of  the  right  of  appeal, 
jet  it  renders  an  appeal  of  far  less  valne  than  it  otherwise  would 
be,  and  may  deprive  it,  in  a  great  measure,  of  its  efficacy  for  good. 
Members  of  Lodges  are  men  possessed  of  the  prejudices  and 
passions  of  men.  They  sometimes  get  into  disputes  and  diffi- 
culties, through  honest  differences  of  opinions  as  to  right  and 
wrong.  Suppose  in  a  case  of  some  excitement  a  Lodge  should 
try  and  convict  a  member  of  some  Masom'c  offence;  suppose  two- 
thirds  were  in  favor  of  conviction,  and  one-third  were  convinced 
that  he  was  innocent.  The  contest  is  hard  fought  and  acrimo- 
nious. The  accused  is  expelled,  and  a  notice  of  his  expulsion  and 
the  reasons  for  it  are  immediately  published  in  all  the  leading 
papers  in  the  State,  by  order  of  the  Lodge.  That  man's  charac- 
ter is  thus  branded  wherever  he  is  known  with  a  stam  as  lasting  as 
that  caused  by  the  infliction  of  almost  any  penalty  prescribed  by 
law.  After  he  has  been  thus  branded  before  the  world  for  nine 
months,  he,  at  a  meeting  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  appeals  to  that 
body,  which,  after  a  full  and  &ir  hearing  of  the  case,  sets  aside  the 
judgment  of  the  subordinate  body  as  erroneous,  and  it  may  be 
malicious.  How  is  the  Brother's  injury  to  be  effaced — ^how  is  the 
damage  done  to  his  character  in  the  estimation  of  the  world,  to 
be  removed — ^how  is  his  good  reputation  to  be  regained?  He 
cannot  be  reinstated  in  die  good  will  and  estimation  of  the  public 
in  one  case  out  of  a  hundred,  if  he  can  in  one  in  a  thousand.  The 
Grand  Lodge,  and  that  body  alone,  Bh6uld  have  the  right  to  pub- 
lish to  the  world  the  names  of  expelled  members,  and  the  causes 
of  their  expulsion. 

It  is  to  be  hoped  that  each  Lodge  will  take  the  foregoing 
remarks  into  serious  consideration,  and  will  not  publish  to  the 
world  ai^y  notice  of  a  Brother's  suspension  or  expulsion  until  the 
Grand  Lodge  shall  have  confirmed  the  sentence  as  correct  and  just. 
Otherwise,  an  irreparable  injury  may  be  inilicted. 


tS^  Be  kind  one  to  aiiother.  This  injunction  Masons  should 
heed  at  all  times;  ^'  not  only  while  in  the  Lodge,  but  when  abroad 
in  the  world."  We  should  not  speak  evil  of  each  other,  but 
reprove  the  tongue  of  the  slanderer,  wherever  we  heiu'  it  wag. 
It  is  a  small  member,  yet  a  dangerous  <m«,  and  may  not  on^ 
inflict  a  Bting,  but  do  a  lasting  injury  to  the  innocent  man. 

THE    ASHLAR.  80& 


"After  this  I  passed  two  years  of  severe  probation,  for  tke 
Masters  were  inefficient,  and  the  Brethren  began  to  be  very  slaok 
in  their  attendance;  in  fact,  at  the  close  of  the  year,  our  Lodge 
was  flora  de  combat.  The  latter  of  the  worthies  were  inordinately 
addicted  to  the  prevailing  convivialities  of  the  age,  and  introduced 
amongst  us  the  exploded  custom  of  drinking  and  smoking  in  open 
Lodge,  an  evil  practice  destructive  of  all  scientific  investigation. 
I  admit  that  he  was  not  a  solitary  exception  to  the  standing  order, 
that,  *no  Brother  do  presume  to  come  into  the  Lodge  intoxicated, 
or  on  any  account  whatever  to  call  for  wine  or  liquors  in  open 
Lodge,  but  to  address  himself  to  the  stewards  or  wardens,  who  if 
they  think  it  necessary,  will  give  their  orders  accordingly,'  for 
there  were  many  existing  Lodges  whose  sole  business  appeared  to 
be  sensual  indulgence,  but  they  were  carefully  avoided  by  every 
sincere  friend  of  the  Order.  Many  protests  were  entered  against 
the  practice  by  the  remaining  few  discreet  members  of  our  Lodge* 
without  effect:  the  nuisance  was  not  abated;  and  even  the  lecture 
— ^when  we  had  the  good  fortune  to  hear  one — ^was  delivered 
amidst  volumes  of  smoke,  which  rivalled  in  intensity  the  reeking 
impurities  of  a  btmung  prairie,  and  interrupted  by  frequent  calls 
to  the  landlord  for  beer  and  strong  waters,  and  the  jingling  of 
pots  and  glasses !  Forgetting  the  favette  Unguis  of  the  old  myste- 
ries, the  enjoyment  of  every  Brother  seemed  to  centre  in  himself 
alone ;  and  this  unhallowed  triad  of  lecturing,  smoking,  and  drink- 
ing at  one  and  the  same  time,  bestrode  the  Brethren  like  the  old 
man  of  the  sea  on  the  neck  of  Sinbad,  and  they  possessed  no 
means  of  liberation  but  by  dissolving  their  connection  with  the 
Lodge;  and  thus  the  Institution  was  deprived  of  some  of  its  most 
valuable  members. 

"This  R.  W.  M.,  whose  name,  for  various  reasons,  I  have  pur- 
posely omitted  to  mention,  as  if  determined  to  give  the  Lodge  its 
coup  de  grace^  introduced  a  contest  for  superiority  between  the 
old  and  several  young  members,  who  understood  very  imperfectly 
the  true  principles  of  the  Order,  and  entered  warmly  into  the  dis- 
pute for  the  sake  of  excitement  and  mischief  The  juniors  were 
at  first  always  defeated  in  the  niiSierous'motions  and  subjects  of 

506  THE    ASHLAR. 

discussion  which  they  nightly  poured  forth  upon  the  Lodge,  with 
as  little  judgment  as  Sancho  Panza  exliibited  in  the  application 
of  his  proverbs;   but  being  encouraged  by  the  Master,  they  sue- 
ceeded  in  procuring  an  accession  to  their  numbers  by  the  intro- 
duction of  candidates  for  initiation,  till,  at  length,  the  old  members 
were  in  a  minority.    The  undisguised  marks  of  triumph  which  the 
juniors  displayed,  so  disgusted  the  more  sedate  Brethren,  that  they 
dropped  off  gradually,  until  the  Lodge  was  left  to  the  sole  maa- 
agement  of  the  injudicious  Master  and  his  superficial  associates. 
I  need  not  tell  you  the  result.    After  the  paeans  of  victory  had 
subsided,  and  the  excitement  of  the  contest  was  at  an  end,  these 
boon  companions  found  Masonry  but  a  dull  affidr,  and  soon  foUowed 
the  example  of  those  worthy  Brethren  whom  they  had  driven 
from  the  Lodge,  by  discontinuing  their  attendance;    until,  at 
length,  we  received  a  summons,  dated  17th  October,  1776,  and 
signed  'Samuel  Spencer,  Grand  Secretary,'  requiring  us,  under  the 
penalty  of  erasure,  to  show  cause,  at  the  ensuing  Quarterly  Com- 
munication, why  the  Lodge  had  not  been  represented  in  Grand 
Lodge  for  the  last  two  years,  and  no  subscriptions  paid.    Fortu- 
nately, the  remaining  few  members  who  had  fidthfully  adhered  to 
the  Lodge  amidst  all  its  fluctuations, — ^if  not  by  actual  attendance, 
at  least  by  continuing  on  the  books, — ^interfered,  and  by  inviting 
an  active  and  scientific  member,  Bro.  James  Heseltine,  who  had 
served  the  ofiice  of  Warden  under  Bro.  Entick,  to  take  the  chair, 
restored  the  peace  and  unanimity  of  the  Lodge. 

^'Many  of  the  continental  fiindes  and  innovations,  extracted 
from  the  Jewish  Tahnuds,  and  introduced  into  their  surreptitious 
Masonry,  were  much  talked  of  in  our  Lodges  at  this  period;  and 
some  of  them  were  actually  incorporated  into  our  symbolical 
ritual,  which  was  one  reason  why  an  authorized  mode  of  working 
was  considered  by  all  genuine  Masons  to  be  essentially  necessary. 
The  rage  of  Bomething  new  in  England,  as  formerly  in  Athens, 
was  not  easily  suppressed,  and  a  knowledge  of  these  traditions 
was  deemed  indispensible  for  every  Brother  who  was  ambitious  of 
enjoying  the  reputation  of  being  an  adept  in  Masonry.  One  of 
these  traditions  you  will  like  to  hear,  as  it  continued  for  a  great 
length  of  time  a  cherished  figment  amongst  us.  It  refers  to  the 
history  of  the  Foundation  Stone  of  Solomon's  Temple,  which  was 
traced  in  the  legend  from  Enoch  through  Noah,  Abraham,  and 
Solomon,  to  the  apostate  Emperor  Julian  by  the  following  process. 

THE    ASHLAR.  307 

They  described  it  as  a  double  cube,  every  side,  except  the  base  on 
which  it  stood,  being  inscribed.  The  first  face  of  the  cube  was 
said  to  have  been  engraved  by  Noah  with  an  instrument  of  por- 
phyry when  the  Ark  was  building;  the  second,  by  Abraham,  with 
t?ie  horn  of  the  ram — credat  Judseus! — which  was  substituted  for 
his  son  on  Mount  Moriah!  the  third,  with  a  porphyry  tool  by 
Moses;  the  fourth,  by  Joshua;  and  the  fifth  by  Hiram  Abif^ 
before  it  was  deposited  in  its  final  bed  at  the  north-east  angle  of 
the  Temple.  Having  been  placed  by  Enoch  in  the  basement  of 
his  subterranean  edifice,  it  was  discovered  by  Noah,  and  used  as 
an  anchor  to  fix  the  Ark  on  Mount  Ararat.  Abraham  took  it 
thence  to  Mount  Moriah,  where  it  constituted  the  altar  on  which  he 
offered  Isaac.  It  formed  the  pillow  of  Jacob  when  he  saw  his  celes- 
tial vison  of  the  ladder,  and  accompanied  him  in  all  his  wanderings. 
He  bequeathed  it  to  Joseph  in  Egypt,  who  directed  it  to  be  placed 
over  his  grave.  Moses  took  it  with  him,  at  the  great  deliverance, 
into  the  wilderness  of  Arabia.  He  stood  upon  this  remarkable 
stone  when  the  Red  Sea  was  divided,  and  when  the  Amalekitea 
were  defeated;  knelt  on  it  when  the  Tables  of  the  Law  were  de- 
livered on  Mount  Sinai;  and  finally  commended  it  to  the  care 
of  Joshua,  who  built  his  altar  on  it  at  Mount  Ebal.  It  was  depos- 
ited in  the  Sanctuary  at  Shilo,  until  the  Temple  was  erected  at 
Jerusalem,  when  Solomon  directed  it  to  be  placed  in  the  founda- 
tion as  the  chief  comernstone.  Here  it  remained  undisturbed 
either  by  Zerubbabel  or  Herod,  as  it  was  destined  to  defeat  the 
idbane  attempt,  of  Julian  to  rebuild  the  Temple,  which  it  effected 
by  destroying  his  workmen  through  the  agency  of  fire. 

*' A  fiimilar  fiction  about  the  Rod  of  Moses  was  also  imported 
firom  the  Continent,  which  was  traced  firom  the  Paradisiacal  Tree 
of  Knowledge ;  another  about  the  iastitution  of  Templary,  which, 
as  it  was  said,  had  its  origin  in  Egypt  before  the  Exodus;  that 
Moses  and  Aaron,  having  been  initiated  into  its  mysteries,  brought 
it  with  them  into  Judaea;  that  thence  it  passed  through  the  two 
St.  Johns  to  the  Crusades,  &c. ;  and  a  fourth,  about  the  imaginary 
travels  of  Peleg,  and  the  erection  of  his  triangular  Temple.  We 
had  another,  which  recounted  the  pseudo-history  of  Hiram  AbifiT; 
and  many  umilar  ones,  which  it  would  be  a  waste  of  time  to  men- 
tion. It  may  be  necessary  to  add,  that  these  fables  were  not 
countenanced  by  any  but  some  young  aud  inexperienced  Brethren, 
who  were  ambitious  of  being  accounted  cleverer  and  brighter 

308  THE    ASHLAR. 

Masons  than  their  fellows.  And  70a  would  have  been  astonished 
to  see  the  absurd  airs  of  importance  which  the  possessors  of  these 
fiibuloos  conceits  assoraed  when  the  conversation  of  a  Lodge 
happened  to  turn  upon  the  abstruse  subject  of  oabalistical  acquire* 

Grand  Lodgb  of  Massachusktts. — ^The  annual  communication 
of  this  body  was  held  in  Boston,  the  30th  day  of  December  last. 
One  of  the  main  features  of  the  gathering,  was  the  installation  of 
offici>r!4.  I3ro.  Winslow  Lewis,  who  had  served  as  Gi-and  Master 
for  two  years,  retired  from  office,  and  was  succeeded  by  Bro.  John 
T.  Heard,  late  S.  G.  W.  Bro.  Lewis  has,  by  his  activity,  zeal,  and 
display  of  Masonic  intelligence,  left  a  bright  work  upon  the  annala 
of  Masonry  in  the  old  Bay  State.  On  retiring  from  office,  he 
delivered  a  very  appropriate  address.  His  station  is  now  occupied 
by  a  Brother  of  education  and  Masonic  ability,  who  will  undoubt- 
edly perform  the  duties  of  the  high  office  which  he  now  occupies, 
in  a  manner  conducive  to  the  best  interests  of  the  Craft,  and  credr 
itable  to  hunself.  He  advises  the  Grand  Lodge  to  take  into  consid- 
eration the  expediency  of  printing  its  records,  including  those  of 
St.  John's  and  Massachusetts  Grand  Lodges.  In  another  place, 
we  give  an  extract  from  his  address,  relative  to  the  '^  annual  feast '* 
of  the  Craft. 

•  •• 

Thb  Grand  Chapter  op  New  York  held  a  Convocation  at 
Albany,  on  the  3d  of  February  last,  M.  E.  Comp.  Chas.  L.  Church, 
G.  H.  P.,  presiding.  The  proceeddings  were  harmonious  and 
such  as  will  conduce  to  the  interest  of  the  Craft.  The  following 
were  elected  officers:  P.  P.  Murphy,  Grand  High  Priest;  J.  M. 
Austin,  M.  D.,  Dep.  G.  H.  Priest;  Sylvester  Gilbert,  Grand  King; 
A.  Willard,  M.  D.,  Grand  Scribe;  J.  O.  Cole,  Grand  Secretary; 
Wm.  Seymour,  Grand  Treasurer;  Rev.  Salem  Town,  LL.  D.,  Gd. 
Chaplain;  Rev.  O.  Starkie,  Assistant  Grand  Chaplain.;  G.  N. 
TVUliams,  Grand  Captain  of  Host;  Jesse  P.  Mitchell,  Grand 
R.  A.  C. 

THE    ASHLAR.  809 



I  am  lonely,  I  am  weary, 

Weary  of  the  hoxirs  that  bring 
No  relief  to  break  the  dreary 

Chahis  that  round  my  spirit  cling. 
There  was  once  a  fairy  spirit 

Smiling  on  the  path  I  trod, 
Wooing  onward,  wooing  near  it, 

Till  ambition  grew  a  god ! 

Ah,  thdee  momenta!  I  remember 

How  they  thrilled  me  to  the  core ! 
How,  like  west  winds  in  September, 

They  were  laden  with  a  store 
Of  perfume,  and  thought,  and  passion, 

Centered  in  life's  idol  star, — 
In  a  star  whose  fickle  orbit 

Wandered  off  in  regions  far! 

Tears  of  sadness,  years  of  sorrow. 

How  they  bum  into  my  heart! 
Gay  I  seem,  but  every  morrow 

Lends  new  pangs  to  every  smart  I 
Clouds  and  storms  hang  ever  o'er  me, 

In  the  thorny  way  I  go; 
And  the  fates  still  hold  before  me 

Their  intensest  cup  of  woe ! 

Vet  the  sunshine  and  the  feeling 

Of  the  young,  the  fiiir,  and  gay, 
O'er  my  spirit  will  come  stealing 

Sometimes,  like  the  lis:ht  of  day 
In  a  cavern,  whose  uncertain 

Vapors  cloak  in  dark  and  gloom — 
Lifting  up  the  murky  curtain 

Off  my  spirit's  withered  bloom ! 

'Tis  but  the  flashing  of  the  setting 

Sun,  ere  he  sinks  to  rest 
In  his  couch  of  splendor,  fretting 

All  the  hangings  in  the  west; 
Tet  a  hope,  like  sunbeams,  flashes 

Now  and  then  across  the  sea. 
And,  amid  the  storm  that  crashes. 

Whispers  sweetest  words  to  me  I 


It  was  Sir  William  Temple  who  so  well  said,  ^'  The  first 
ingredient  in  conversation  is  truth;  the  next,  good  sense;